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© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Waste Treatment in the Food Processing Industry © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC A CRC title, part of the Taylor & Francis imprint, a member of the Taylor & Francis Group, the academic division of T&F Informa plc. edited by Lawrence K. Wang Yung-Tse Hung Howard H. Lo Constantine Yapijakis Boca Raton London New York Waste Treatment in the Food Processing Industry This material was previously published in the Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment, Second Edition © Taylor and Francis Group, 2004. Published in 2006 by CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10987654321 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-8493-7236-4 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-7236-0 (Hardcover) Library of Congress Card Number 2005049975 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Waste treatment in the food processing industry / edited by Lawrence K. Wang … [et al.]. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-7236-4 1. Food industry and trade Waste disposal. I. Wang, Lawrence K. TD899.F585W37 2005 664'.0028'6 dc22 2005049975 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at and the CRC Press Web site at Taylor & Francis Group is the Academic Division of T&F Informa plc. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA http://www.taylorandfrancis.com http://www.crcpress.com © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Preface Environmental managers, engineers, and scientists who have had experience with food industry waste management problems have noted the need for a book that is comprehensive in its scope, directly applicable to daily waste management problems of the industry, and widely acceptable by practicing environmental professionals and educators. Many standard industrial waste treatment texts adequately cover a few major technologies for conventional in-plant environmental control strategies in food industry, but no one book, or series of books, focuses on new developments in innovative and alternative technology, design criteria, effluent standards, managerial decision methodology, and regional and global environmental conservation. This book emphasizes in-depth presentation of environmental pollution sources, waste characteristics, control technologies, management strategies, facility innovations, process alternatives, costs, case histories, effluent standards, and future trends for the food industry, and in-depth presentation of methodologies, technologies, alternatives, regional effects, and global effects of important pollution control practice that may be applied to the industry. This book covers new subjects as much as possible. Important waste treatment topics covered in this book include: dairies, seafood processing plants, olive oil manufacturing factories, potato processing installations, soft drink production plants, bakeries and various other food processing facilities. Special efforts were made to invite experts to contribute chapters in their own areas of expertise. Since the areas of food industry waste treatment is broad, no one can claim to be an expert in all areas; collective contributions are better than a single author’s presentation for a book of this nature. This book is one of the derivative books of the Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment, and is to be used as a college textbook as well as a reference book for the food industry professional. It features the major food processing plants or installations that have significant effects on the environment. Professors, students, and researchers in environmental, civil, chemical, sanitary, mechanical, and public health engineering and science will find valuable educational materials here. The extensive bibliographies for each type of food waste treatment or practice should be invaluable to environmental managers or researchers who need to trace, follow, duplicate, or improve on a specific food waste treatment practice. The intention of this book is to provide technical and economical information on the development of the most feasible total environmental control program that can benefit both food industry and local municipalities. Frequently, the most economically feasible methodology is combined industrial-municipal waste treatment. We are indebted to Dr. Mu Hao Sung Wang at the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New York, who co-edited the first edition of the v © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment, and to Ms. Kathleen Hung Li at NEC Business Network Solutions, Irving, Texas, who is the Consulting Editor for this new book. Lawrence K. Wang Yung-Tse Hung Howard H. Lo Constantine Yapijakis vi Preface © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Contents Preface v Contributors ix 1. Treatment of Dairy Processing Wastewaters 1 Trevor J. Britz, Corne ´ van Schalkwyk, and Yung-Tse Hung 2. Seafood Processing Wastewater Treatment 29 Joo-Hwa Tay, Kuan-Yeow Show, and Yung-Tse Hung 3. Treatment of Meat Wastes 67 Charles J. Banks and Zhengjian Wang 4. Treatment of Palm Oil Wastewaters 101 Mohd Ali Hassan, Shahrakbah Yacob, Yoshihito Shirai, and Yung-Tse Hung 5. Olive Oil Waste Treatment 119 Adel Awad, Hana Salman, and Yung-Tse Hung 6. Potato Wastewater Treatment 193 Yung-Tse Hung, Howard H. Lo, Adel Awad, and Hana Salman 7. Soft Drink Waste Treatment 255 J. Paul Chen, Swee-Song Seng, and Yung-Tse Hung 8. Bakery Waste Treatment 271 J. Paul Chen, Lei Yang, Renbi Bai, and Yung-Tse Hung 9. Food Waste Treatment 291 Masao Ukita, Tsuyoshi Imai, and Yung-Tse Hung vii © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Contributors Adel Awad Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria Renbi Bai National University of Singapore, Singapore Charles J. Banks University of Southampton, Southampton, England Trevor J. Britz University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, South Africa J. Paul Chen National University of Singapore, Singapore Mohd Ali Hassan University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Yung-Tse Hung Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. Tsuyoshi Imai Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan Howard H. Lo Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. Hana Salman Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria Swee-Song Seng National University of Singapore, Singapore Yoshihito Shirai Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan Kuan-Yeow Show Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Joo-Hwa Tay Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Masao Ukita Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan Corne ´ van Schalkwyk University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, South Africa Zhengjian Wang University of Southampton, Southampton, England Shahrakbah Yacob University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Lei Yang National University of Singapore, Singapore ix © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 1 Treatment of Dairy Processing Wastewaters Trevor J. Britz and Corne ´ van Schalkwyk University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, South Africa Yung-Tse Hung Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 1.1 INTRODUCTION The dairy industry is generally considered to be the largest source of food processing wastewater in many countries. As awareness of the importance of improved standards of wastewater treatment grows, process requirements have become increasingly stringent. Although the dairy industry is not commonly associated with severe environmental problems, it must continually consider its environmental impact — particularly as dairy pollutants are mainly of organic origin. For dairy companies with good effluent management systems in place [1], treatment is not a major problem, but when accidents happen, the resulting publicity can be embarrassing and very costly. All steps in the dairy chain, including production, processing, packaging, transportation, storage, distribution, and marketing, impact the environment [2]. Owing to the highly diversified nature of this industry, various product processing, handling, and packaging operations create wastes of different quality and quantity, which, if not treated, could lead to increased disposal and severe pollution problems. In general, wastes from the dairy processing industry contain high concentrations of organic material such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, high concentrations of suspended solids, high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), high nitrogen concentrations, high suspended oil and/or grease contents, and large variations in pH, which necessitates “specialty” treatment so as to prevent or minimize environmental problems. The dairy waste streams are also characterized by wide fluctuations in flow rates, which are related to discontinuity in the production cycles of the different products. All these aspects work to increase the complexity of wastewater treatment. The problem for most dairy plants is that waste treatment is perceived to be a necessary evil [3]; it ties up valuable capital, which could be better utilized for core business activity. Dairy wastewater disposal usually results in one of three problems: (a) high treatment levies being charged by local authorities for industrial wastewater; (b) pollution might be caused when untreated wastewater is either discharged into the environment or used directly as irrigation water; and (c) dairy plants that have already installed an aerobic biological system are faced with the problem of sludge disposal. To enable the dairy industry to contribute to water conservation, an efficient and cost-effective wastewater treatment technology is critical. 1 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Presently, plant managers may choose from a wide variety of technologies to treat their wastes. More stringent environmental legislation as well as escalating costs for the purchase of fresh water and effluent treatment has increased the impetus to improve waste control. The level of treatment is normally dictated by environmental regulations applicable to the specific area. While most larger dairy factories have installed treatment plants or, if available, dispose of their wastewater into municipal sewers, cases of wastewater disposal into the sea or disposal by means of land irrigation do occur. In contrast, most smaller dairy factories dispose of their wastewater by irrigation onto lands or pastures. Surface and groundwater pollution is, therefore, a potential threat posed by these practices. Because the dairy industry is a major user and generator of water, it is a candidate for wastewater reuse. Even if the purified wastewater is initially not reused, the dairy industry will still benefit from in-house wastewater treatment management, because reducing waste at the source can only help in reducing costs or improving the performance of any downstream treatment facility. 1.2 DAIRY PROCESSES AND COMPOSITION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS Before the methods of treatment of dairy processing wastewater can be appreciated, it is important to be acquainted with the various production processes involved in dairy product summary of the most common processes [8] is presented below. 1.2.1 Pasteurized Milk The main steps include raw milk reception (the first step of any dairy manufacturing process), pasteurization, standardization, deaeration, homogenization and cooling, and filling of a variety of different containers. The product from this point should be stored and transported at 48C. 1.2.2 Milk and Whey Powders This is basically a two-step process whereby 87% of the water in pasteurized milk is removed by evaporation under vacuum and the remaining water is removed by spray drying. Whey powder can be produced in the same way. The condensate produced during evaporation may be collected and used for boiler feedwater. 1.2.3 Cheese Because there are a large variety of different cheeses available, only the main processes common to all types will be discussed. The first process is curd manufacturing, where pasteurized milk is mixed with rennet and a suitable starter culture. After coagulum formation and heat and mechanical treatment, whey separates from the curd and is drained. The finished curd is then salted, pressed, and cured, after which the cheese is coated and wrapped. During this process two types of wastewaters may arise: whey, which can either be disposed of or used in the production of whey powder, and wastewater, which can result from a cheese rinse step used during the manufacturing of certain cheeses. 2 Britz et al. manufacturing and the pollution potential of different dairy products (Table 1.1). A brief © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 1.2.4 Butter Cream is the main raw material for manufacturing butter. During the churning process it separates into butter and buttermilk. The drained buttermilk can be powdered, cooled, and packed for distribution, or discharged as wastewater. 1.2.5 Evaporated Milk The milk is first standardized in terms of fat and dry solids content after which it is pasteurized, concentrated in an evaporator, and homogenized, then packaged, sterilized, and cooled for storage. In the production of sweetened condensed milk, sugar is added in the evaporation stage and the product is cooled. 1.2.6 Ice Cream Raw materials such as water, cream, butter, milk, and whey powders are mixed, homogenized, pasteurized, and transferred to a vat for ageing, after which flavorings, colorings, and fruit are added prior to freezing. During primary freezing the mixture is partially frozen and air is incorporated to obtain the required texture. Containers are then filled and frozen. Table 1.1 Reported BOD and COD Values for Typical Dairy Products and Domestic Sewage Product BOD 5 (mg/L) COD (mg/L) Reference Whole milk 114,000 183,000 4 110,000 190,000 5 120,000 6 104,000 7 Skim milk 90,000 147,000 4 85,000 120,000 5 70,000 6 67,000 7 Buttermilk 61,000 134,000 4 75,000 110,000 5 68,000 7 Cream 400,000 750,000 4 400,000 860,000 5 400,000 6 399,000 7 Evaporated milk 271,000 378,000 4 208,000 7 Whey 42,000 65,000 4 45,000 80,000 5 40,000 6 34,000 7 Ice cream 292,000 7 Domestic sewage 300 500 4, 5 BOD, biochemical oxygen demand; COD, chemical oxygen demand. Source: Refs. 4 –7. Treatment of Dairy Processing Wastewaters 3 [...]... 40 (2 –4), 11 9 – 12 3 Robinson, T How to be affluent with effluent The Milk Ind 19 94, 96 (4), 20 – 21 Gough, R.H.; McGrew, P Preliminary treatment of dairy plant waste water J Environ Sci Health 19 93, A28 (1) , 11 – 19 Droste, R.L (Ed.) Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment; John Wiley & Sons Inc: New York, USA, 19 97 Hemming, M.L The treatment of dairy wastes In Food Industry Wastes: Disposal... 29– 18 1 0.2– 48.0 45 85 10 0 6 –35 0.2 –7.9 – – – 14 – 14 0 13 – 17 2 10 2 14 0 200 1 34 0.7– 28.5 – – – 263 – 12 65 – 550 410 380 8.6– 15 5.5 – 14 0 12 5 16 0 1. 4 – 58.5 – 30 70 95 6.5– 46.3 – 35 12 14 16 13 15 15 17 Milk Milk/cream bottling plant – 20 –50 50 – 60 – 17 0 – 200 35 – 40 35– 40 5– 8 19 , 20 Butter/milk powder Butter/milk powder plant ´ Butter/Comte cheese plant 35 50 – – 70 66 – – 560 – 13 – 8 – 1. .. water treatment Milk Ind Int 19 98, 10 0 (10 ), 36 – 39 Strydom, J.P.; Mostert, J.F.; Britz, T.J Effluent production and disposal in the South African dairy industry a postal survey Water SA 19 93, 19 (3), 253 – 258 Robinson, T The real value of dairy waste Dairy Ind Int 19 97, 62 (3), 21 – 23 Kessler, HG (Ed.) Food Engineering and Dairy Technology; Verlag: Freisburg, Germany, 19 81 Odlum, C.A Reducing the. .. technology in dairy wastewater treatment Dairy Ind Int 19 86, 51 (5), 21 25 ˜ Carballo-Caabeira, J Depuracion de augas residuales de centrales lecheras Rev Espanola de Lech 19 90, 13 (12 ), 13 – 16 Ikonen, M.; Latola, P.; Pankakoski, M.; Pelkonen, J Anaerobic treatment of waste water in a Finnish dairy Nord Mejeriind 19 85 ,12 (8), 81 – 82 Anon South Caernarvon Creameries converts whey into energy Dairy Ind Int 19 84,... bioproduction of short-chain organic acids from mixed dairy -processing wastewater Trans ASAE 19 98, 41 (3), 795 – 802 Donkin, J Bulking in aerobic biological systems treating dairy processing wastewaters Int J Dairy Tech 19 97, 50, 67– 72 Samkutty, P.J.; Gough, R.H Filtration treatment of dairy processing wastewater J Environ Sci Health 2002, A37 (2), 19 5– 19 9 Ince, O Performance of a two-phase anaerobic... Plant Wastewaters pH FOG (g/L) TS (mg/L) TSS (mg/L) Alkalinity (mg/L as CaCO3) 785 – 7 619 18 9 – 6 219 5340 2830 63,300 5380 – 6.2 – 11 .3 5.2 5.22 4.99 3.38 6.5 4.5 – 6.0 – – – – 2.6 0.32 0.4 18 37– 14 ,205 – 4 210 – 53,200 – – 326– 3560 18 8– 2330 – – 12 ,500 – – 225 15 50 – 335 – – – – – – 12 00– 4000 713 – 14 10 4656 2000– 6000 7 .1 – 8 .1 6.92 8 – 11 – – 3 –5 900– 14 70 2750 – 360– 920 – 350– 10 00 – 546 15 0–300... arising in a dairy plant are dependent on the type of product being processed, the production program, operating methods, design of the processing plant, the degree of water management being applied, and, subsequently, the amount of water being conserved Dairy wastewater may be divided into three major categories: 1 2 3 Processing waters, which include water used in the cooling and heating processes These... degree of preacidification is presumably attained in the mixing tank Furthermore, the pH in the mixing tank was controlled by means of lime dosing when necessary The effluent emerging from the mixing tank was treated in an aerobic system, serving as a final polishing step, to provide an overall COD removal of 99% One full-scale UASB treatment plant [ 51] in Finland at the Mikkeli Cooperative Dairy, produces... methods having lower energy requirements and lower sludge production rates Since no single process for treatment of dairy wastewater is by itself capable of complying with the minimum effluent discharge requirements, it is necessary to choose a combined process especially designed to treat a specific dairy wastewater REFERENCES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Russell, P Effluent and waste. .. involves aerating a fraction of recycled wastewater at a pressure of about 400 –600 kPa in a pressure chamber, then introducing it into a flotation tank containing untreated dairy processing wastewater The dissolved air is converted to minute air bubbles under the normal atmospheric pressure in the tank [6,32] Heavy solids form sediment while the air bubbles attach to the fat particles and the remaining . explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging -in- Publication Data Waste treatment in the food processing industry / edited by Lawrence K. Wang … [et al.]. p. cm. Includes bibliographical. States of America on acid-free paper 10 9876543 21 International Standard Book Number -1 0 : 0-8 49 3-7 23 6-4 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number -1 3 : 97 8-0 -8 49 3-7 23 6-0 (Hardcover) Library. Reference Cheese 14 Cheese/whey plants 29 18 1 6–35 14 14 0 1 34 263 12 65 8.6 15 5.5 1. 4–58.5 6.5–46.3 16 Cheese/whey plant 0.2–48.0 0.2–7.9 13 – 17 2 0.7–28.5 – – – – 13 Cheese factory 45 – 10 2 – 550 14 0 30 35 15 Cheese/casein
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