Environmental Management in Practice Part 1 pot

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTIN PRACTICE  EditedbyElzbietaBroniewicz              Environmental Management in Practice Edited by Elzbieta Broniewicz Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2011 InTech All chapters are Open Access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Non Commercial Share Alike Attribution 3.0 license, which permits to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work in any medium, so long as the original work is properly cited. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the work. Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify the original source. Statements and opinions expressed in the chapters are these of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of information contained in the published articles. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any damage or injury to persons or property arising out of the use of any materials, instructions, methods or ideas contained in the book. Publishing Process Manager Davor Vidic Technical Editor Teodora Smiljanic Cover Designer Jan Hyrat Image Copyright 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com First published June, 2011 Printed in Croatia A free online edition of this book is available at www.intechopen.com Additional hard copies can be obtained from orders@intechweb.org Environmental Management in Practice, Edited by Elzbieta Broniewicz p. cm. ISBN 978-953-307-358-3 free online editions of InTech Books and Journals can be found at www.intechopen.com   Contents  Preface IX Part 1 Environmental Management at the National and Regional Level 1 Curbing Climate Change through a Chapter 1 National Development of Climate Change Policy 3 Sumiani Yusoff Environmental Protection Chapter 2 Expenditure in European Union 21 Elzbieta Broniewicz Community Ecology and Capacity: Chapter 3 Advancing Environmental Communication Strategies among Diverse Stakeholders 37 Rosemary M. Caron, Michael E. Rezaee and Danielle Dionne Regional Issues in Environmental Management 67 Chapter 4 Hiroyuki Taguchi Geo-environmental Terrain Assessments Based on Chapter 5 Remote Sensing Tools: A Review of Applications to Hazard Mapping and Control 85 Paulo Cesar Fernandes da Silva and John Canning Cripps The Implementation of IPPC Directive Chapter 6 in the Mediterranean Area 119 Tiberio Daddi, Maria Rosa De Giacomo, Marco Frey, Francesco Testa and Fabio Iraldo Contaminated Sites and Public Policies Chapter 7 in São Paulo State, Brazil 145 Ana Luiza Silva Spínola and Arlindo Philippi Jr. VI Contents Sustainable Management of Muddy Coastlines 159 Chapter 8 Steven Odi-Owei and Itolima Ologhadien Part 2 Environmental Management in Industry 175 Indicators of Sustainable Business Practices 177 Chapter 9 Hyunkee Bae and Richard S. Smardon Assessment of Industrial Pollution Load in Lagos, Chapter 10 Nigeria by Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS) versus Effluent Analysis 207 Adebola Oketola and Oladele Osibanjo Pollution Prevention in the Pulp and Paper Industries 223 Chapter 11 Bahar K. Ince, Zeynep Cetecioglu and Orhan Ince Retrofit Approach for the Reduction of Water and Energy Chapter 12 Consumption in Pulp and Paper Production Processes 247 Jesús Martínez Patiño and Martín Picón Núñez An Application Model for Chapter 13 Sustainability in the Construction Industry 267 Fernando Beiriz and Assed Haddad Assessing the SMEs’ Competitive Strategies Chapter 14 on the Impact of Environmental Factors: A Quantitative SWOT Analysis Application 285 Hui-Lin Hai Implementation of ISO 14000 in Chapter 15 Luggage Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study 297 S. B. Jaju Part 3 Technical Aspects of Environmental Management 311 The Statistical Distributions of Industrial Chapter 16 Wastes: an Analysis of the Japanese Establishment Linked Input-output Data 313 Hitoshi Hayami and Masao Nakamura The Effects of Paper Recycling Chapter 17 and its Environmental Impact 329 Iveta Čabalová, František Kačík, Anton Geffert and Danica Kačíková Overview Management Chemical Residues Chapter 18 of Laboratories in Academic Institutions in Brazil 351 Patrícia Carla Giloni-Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido de Lima and Adriana Massaê Kataoka Contents VII Lengthening Biolubricants´ Lifetime Chapter 19 by Using Porous Materials 371 Estibaliz Aranzabe, Arrate Marcaide, Marta Hernaiz and Nerea Uranga A Fuzzy Water Quality Index for Chapter 20 Watershed Quality Analysis and Management 387 André Lermontov, Lidia Yokoyama, Mihail Lermontov and Maria Augusta Soares Machado Environmental Management of Wastewater Chapter 21 Treatment Plants – the Added Value of the Ecotoxicological Approach 411 Elsa Mendonça, Ana Picado, Maria Ana Cunha and Justina Catarino Technology Roadmap for Wastewater Chapter 22 Reuse in Petroleum Refineries in Brazil 425 Felipe Pombo, Alessandra Magrini and Alexandre Szklo  Preface  Inrecentyearsthetopic ofenvironmentalmanagement hasbecomeverycommon.In sustainabledevelopment conditions, central and local governments much more often noticetheneedofactinginwaysthatdiminishnegativeimpactonenvironment. Environmental management may take place on many different levels – starting from global level,e.g. climate chan ges,through national and regional level (environmental policy) and ending on micro level. This publication shows many examples of envi‐ ronmentalmanagement. In the chapters dealing with national and regional level of environmental manage‐ ment, authors have presented many different aspects: communication system, envi‐ ronmental costs, regional development indicators. Cas e studies from various world regionshavealsobeenincluded. The second section of the book deals with environmental management in various in‐ dustries.It presents sustainable business practices in construction industry, pulp and paper industry. Case studies in organizations have been a welcome addition to this section. Thelastsectionfocu sesontechnicalaspectsofenvironmentalmanagement,mainlyon water,wasteandwastewatermanagement. The diversity of presented aspects within environmental management and approach‐ ingthesubjectfromtheperspectiveofvariouscountriescontributesgreatlytothede‐ velopmentofenvironmentalmanagementfieldofresearch. Iwouldliketothankallofth eauthorsforpresentinghighqualitychapters,Mr.Vidic forefficient projectmanagement and allInTechstaff formakingthis publicationpos‐ sible. PhDElzbietaBroniewicz, TechnicalUniversityofBialystok Poland  [...]... fuel energy consumption (% of total) Malaysia Thailand Indonesia Mexico Argentina Turkey Sweden UK US Japan 7.2 4.3 1. 5 4 .1 4.4 3.6 5.6 9.4 19 10 .1 2733 15 53 849 17 50 18 50 13 70 5 512 3464 7766 4 019 72,589 10 3,9 91 190,647 18 4,262 73,065 10 0,005 50,422 211 ,308 2,339,942 513 , 519 462.76 502.40 523.25 19 3.48 343.50 18 8.98 12 8.05 86.76 17 7.56 11 7.68 95.5 81. 2 68.8 89.3 89.5 90.5 32.9 89.6 85.6 83.2 *Energy use... Malaysia 18 7,865 15 6.86 1. 198 Thailand 272,5 21 206.99 1. 317 Indonesia 333,483 364.35 0. 915 Mexico 436 ,15 0 952.34 0.458 Argentina 17 3,536 212 . 71 0. 816 Turkey 269,452 529 .19 0.509 Sweden 50,875 393.76 0 .12 9 UK 568,520 2,435.70 0.233 US 5,752,289 13 ,17 8.35 0.437 Japan 1, 293,409 4,363.63 0.296 Table 1 Comparison of the carbon dioxide emissions intensity of GDP in 20062 A high carbon emission intensity... natural gas 62 per cent and oil 2 .1 per cent) according to the statistic shown by IEA in 2 010 Country Electricity consumption* (TWh) Malaysia Thailand Indonesia Mexico Argentina Turkey Sweden UK US Japan 97.39 13 7.68 12 7 .17 214 .34 10 4.99 16 3.35 13 9.40 373.36 411 3.07 10 82.72 Electricity Consumption /Population (kWh/capita) 3668 215 7 564 2028 2658 2 210 15 238 614 2 13 616 8475 Electricity (production by... relevant contexts: 1 Factoring in the long term 2 Integrating environment, society and economy in policy 3 Precautionary Principle 4 Global dimensions 5 Innovative policy approaches 6 Community participation Institutionalizing sustainability by embedding these principles in their institutions is no easy feat for any government A suggestion in institution reformation is the forming of “Green” ministries clusters... Change – Objectives, Principles and Strategic Thrusts 11 10 11 Op cit Tan, et al (2009) Source: Pereira, 2008 12 Environmental Management in Practice 8 Challenges in the development of climate change policy in Malaysia 8 .1 Institutional reformation and policy restructuring The formation of an institutional framework on climate change issue is the foundation to achieve any result in carbon emission A clear... Transportation Manufacturing and construction Landfills Forest and grassland conversion Fugitive emissions from fuel Mineral products Emission from soil Commercial GHGs CO2 CO2 CO2 CH4 CO2 CH4 CO2 CO2 CO2 Emission, CO2e (mil MT) 58,486 35,587 26 ,10 4 24,5 41 24 ,11 1 21, 987 9,776 4,638 2 ,12 2 207,352 Percentage 28.2 17 .2 12 .6 11 .8 11 .6 10 .60 4.7 2.2 1. 0 99.9 Table 4 Key sources of GHGs emissions in Malaysia6 The... Mohd Nordin Hasan, 2006 Towards sustainable development? The evolution of environmental policy in Malaysia Natural Resources Forum A.A Hezri, 2 010 Sustainable Shift: Institutional Challenges for the Environment in Malaysia EPSM SLiM Roundtable 2 010 , ‘Creating an Institutional Framework for Implementing Sustainable Development’ 20 Environmental Management in Practice National Hydraulic Research Institute... IEA (International Energy Agency), 2008 4 Source: CDIAC, 2006; IEA, 2007; IMF, 2006 6 Environmental Management in Practice GWh in 19 74 and 57,435 GWh in 19 98 In 19 96, 16 per cent of electrical production was hydro generated, and over 83 per cent was of thermal origin (National Energy Balance, PTM, 2006) In 2007, the country hit a staggering 10 1325... Capacity RE Power Mix (vs Peak Demand) Cumulative CO2 avoided 2 010 73 MW 0.5% 0.3 mt 2 015 985 MW 6% 11 .1 mt 2020 2080 MW 11 % 42.2 mt 2030 4000 MW 17 % 14 5 .1 mt *RE capacity achievements are dependent on the size of RE fund *Assumptions: Feed -in Tariff (FiT) in place & 15 .6 per cent compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of RE power capacity from 2 011 to 2030 Table 6 National Renewable Energy Target8 The current... edition, International Agency Mohan Munasinghe, 2008 Addressing the sustainable development and climate change challenges together: Applying the sustainomics framework Procedia social and behavioral science 41 (2 010 ); 6634-6640 Tan Ching Tiong, Joy Jacqueline Pereira and Koh Fui Pin, 2009 Stakeholder Consultation in the Development of Climate Change Policy: Malaysia’s Approach Environmental Policy: a Multinational . Thailand 13 7.68 215 7 91. 4 5.7 - 2.9 Indonesia 12 7 .17 564 87 .1 7.9 - 5.0 Mexico 214 .34 2028 81. 4 10 .6 4.0 4.0 Argentina 10 4.99 2658 65.8 26.7 6.3 1. 2 Turkey 16 3.35 2 210 80.9 18 .7 - 0.4 Sweden 13 9.40. Thailand 4.3 15 53 10 3,9 91 502.40 81. 2 Indonesia 1. 5 849 19 0,647 523.25 68.8 Mexico 4 .1 1750 18 4,262 19 3.48 89.3 Argentina 4.4 18 50 73,065 343.50 89.5 Turkey 3.6 13 70 10 0,005 18 8.98 90.5 Sweden. 13 70 10 0,005 18 8.98 90.5 Sweden 5.6 5 512 50,422 12 8.05 32.9 UK 9.4 3464 211 ,308 86.76 89.6 US 19 7766 2,339,942 17 7.56 85.6 Japan 10 .1 4 019 513 , 519 11 7.68 83.2 *Energy use refers to the TPES
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