– ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE – PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE DISTINCT FORMS T HREE begin ring docx

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PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE THREE DISTINCT FORMS begin began begun ring rang rung sing sang sung spring sprang sprung swim swam swum do did done go went gone am was been is was been see saw seen drink drank drunk shrink shrank shrunk sink sank sunk stink stank stunk swear swore sworn tear tore torn wear wore worn blow blew blown draw drew drawn fly flew flown grow grew grown know knew known throw threw thrown drive drove driven ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 63 PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE THREE DISTINCT FORMS strive strove striven choose chose chosen rise rose risen break broke broken speak spoke spoken fall fell fallen shake shook shaken take took taken forget forgot forgotten get got gotten give gave given forgive forgave forgiven forsake forsook forsaken hide hid hidden ride rode ridden write wrote written freeze froze frozen steal stole stolen SAME PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLE FORMS come came come overcome overcame overcome run ran run ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 64 In English, as in many other languages, the essential verb to be is highly irregular: SUBJECT PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE I am was have been you are were have been he, she, it is was has been we are were have been they are were have been H ELPING VERBS Helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs) are essential to clear communication. They help indicate exactly when an action took place or will take place. They also suggest very specific meanings, such as the subject’s ability or intention to do something. The following table lists the helping verbs, their forms, and their meanings. PRESENT AND FUTURE PAST MEANING EXAMPLES will would intention He will send the letter in the morning. can could ability I can make it by 3:00. Rose could not believe her luck. may, might might permission May I borrow your car? Might we go to the party together? should should + have + recommendation We should leave a good tip. past participle They should have offered us a ride home. must, have (to) had (to) necessity I must go to the dentist. I had to have two teeth pulled. shall should obligation They said they should call first. ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 65 PRESENT AND FUTURE PAST MEANING EXAMPLES should should + have + expectation They should be here any minute. past participle They should have been here by now. might might + have + possibility They might be a little late. past participle They might have gotten stuck in traffic. Practice 8 1. He should have knowed better than to do that. a. NO CHANGE b. should had known c. should have known d. would have known 2. The blinds w ere drawed to keep out the sun. f. NO CHANGE g. were drawn h. drew j. had drawn 3. The key was hidd en behind the picture. a. NO CHANGE b. was hid c. did hide d. had hidden 4. The water cr eeped up to the bottom of the window. f. NO CHANGE g. creep h. crept j. had creeped ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 66 5. The ship sunk in a matter of minutes. a. NO CHANGE b. sink c. had sank d. sank Answers 1. c. 2. g. 3. a. 4. h. 5. d. S UBJUNCTIVE MOOD The subjunctive mood is one of the verb forms we often forget to use in conversation, and therefore we often neglect to use it correctly in our writing. Like helping verbs, the subjunctive is used to express a specific mean- ing, indicating something that is wished for or that is contrary to fact. It is formed by using were instead of was, as in the following examples: If she w ere a little older, she could watch the children. (She is not a little older.) If I w ere rich, I would travel the world. (I am not rich.) T ROUBLESOME VERBS Three verb pairs are particularly troublesome, even for native speakers of English: lie / lay sit / set rise / raise The key to knowing which verb to use is remembering which verb takes an object. In each pair, one verb is transitive—an object “receives” the action—while the other is intransitive—the subject itself “receives” or performs the action. For example, lie is an action that the subject of the sentence “performs” on itself: I will lie down. The transitive verb lay, on the other hand, is an action that the subject of the sentence performs upon an object: He la y the baby down in the crib. In the following examples, the subjects are in bold and the objects are underlined. ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 67 lie: to rest or recline (intransitive—subject only) lay: to put or place (transitive—needs an object) I will lie down for a while. Will you please lay the p aper s down on the table. sit: to rest (intransitive—subject only) set: to put or place (transitive—needs an object) Why don’t we sit down and talk this over? He will set the r ecord straight. rise: to go up (intransitive—subject only) raise: to move something up (transitive—needs an object) The sun will rise at 5:48 A.M. tomorrow. He raised the r ent to $750 per month. The basic forms of these verbs can also be a bit tricky. The following table shows how each verb is con- jugated. PRESENT PRESENT PARTICIPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE (WITH AM, IS, ARE) (WITH HAVE, HAS, HAD) lie, lies lying lay lain lay, lays laying laid laid sit, sits sitting sat sat set, sets setting set set rise, rises rising rose risen raise, raises raising raised raised Practice 9 Choose the correct verb from the italicized pairs in the sentences below. 1. He wished he was/were closer to his destination so he could rest. 2. If I was/were taller, I might be better at basketball. 3. She was/were hoping to get a better offer. ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 68 4. He decided to lay/lie down because he felt ill. 5. The papers have been laying/lying in the driveway for days now. 6. The interest rates have risen/raised considerably in the last week. 7. She sat/set the keys on the table. 8. I have lain/laid here long enough; it’s time to get up. Answers 1. He wished he were closer to his destination so he could rest. 2. If I were taller, I might be better at basketball. 3. She was hoping to get a better offer. 4. He decided to lie down because he felt ill. 5. The papers have been lying in the driveway for days now. 6. The interest rates have risen considerably in the last week. 7. She set the keys on the table. 8. I have lain here long enough; it’s time to get up. Now that you have reviewed verb conjugation and tense formation, it is time to talk about two key issues with verb usage: consistent tense and subject-verb agreement. Consistent Verb Tense One of the quickest ways to confuse readers, especially if you are telling a story or describing an event, is to shift verb tenses. To help readers be clear about when actions occur, make sure verbs are consistent in tense. If you begin telling the story in the present tense, for example, stay in the present tense; do not mix tenses as you write. Otherwise, you will leave your readers wondering whether actions are taking place in the present or took place in the past. Incorrect: He g ot on the bus and realizes he has forgotten his briefcase. Correct: He g ot on the bus and realized he had forgotten his briefcase. Incorrect: When we w ork together, we got better results. Correct: When we w ork together, we get better results. ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 69 Subject-Verb Agreement In English grammar, agreement means that sentence elements are balanced. Verbs, for example, should agree with their subjects: if the subject is singular, the verb should be singular; if the subject is plural, the verb should be plural. Incorrect: Erik do really good work. (singular subject, plural verb) Correct: Erik does really good work. (singular subject, singular verb) Incorrect: They gets really upset when telemarketers calls at dinnertime. (plural subjects, singular verbs) Correct: They get really upset when telemarketers call at dinnertime. (plural subjects, plural verbs) Of course, to make sure subjects and verbs agree, you need to be clear about who or what is the subject of the sentence. For example, what is the subject in the following sentence, and which is the correct verb? Only one of the projects [was/were] completed on time. In this sentence, the subject is one, not projects. Though it seems as though projects are performing the action of being completed, projects cannot be the subject because it is part of a prepositional phrase (of the projects), and subjects are never found in prepositional phrases. Thus, the verb must be singular (was, not were) to agree with one. In addition, it is only one of the projects—not all—that was completed on time, so again, the verb must be singular. Here are some other important guidelines for subject-verb agreement: ■ If a compound, singular subject is connected by and, the verb must be plural. Both D r. Holt and Dr. Weinberg agree that this is an important discovery. ■ If a compound, singular subject is connected by or or nor, the verb must be singular. Neither D r. Holt nor Dr. Weinberg feels that this is an important discovery. ■ If one plural and one singular subject are connected by or or nor, the verb agrees with the closest subject. Neither Dr. Holt nor the r esearchers feel that this is an important discovery. Neither the researchers nor D r. Holt feels that this is an important discovery. ■ In an inverted sentence, the subject comes after the verb, so the first step is to clearly identify the sub- ject. (Sentences that begin with there is and there are, for example, as well as questions, are inverted sen- tences.) Once you correctly identify the subject, then you can make sure your verb agrees. The correct subjects and verbs are underlined below. ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 70 Incorrect: There’s numerous examples of this phenomenon. Correct: There ar e numerous examples of this phenomenon. Incorrect: Here is the files you requested. Correct: Here ar e the fi les you requested. Incorrect: What is the long-term effects of this decision? Correct: What ar e the long-term e ffects of this decision? Gerunds and Infinitives Gerunds and infinitives have given many students of English a grammar headache, but they are not so dif- ficult to master. Gerunds, as we noted earlier, look like verbs because they end in -ing, but they actually func- tion as nouns in sentences: Tracy loves camping . Here, the “action” Tracy performs is loves. The thing (noun) she enjoys is camping. In the following sen- tence, however, camping is the action Tracy performs, so it is functioning as a verb, not as a gerund: Tracy is camping in the Pine Barrens next week. Words ending in -ing can also function as adjectives: Some of our camping gear needs to be replaced before our trip. Here’s another example of how the same word can have three different functions: Ve r b : He is s creaming loudly. Gerund (noun): That s creaming is driving me crazy! Adjective: The s creaming boy finally stopped. What this means is that you cannot count on word endings to determine a word’s part of speech. Lots of things that look like verbs may not be—it’s how they function in the sentence that counts. Infinitives are the base (unconjugated) form of the verb preceded by to: to go, to discover, to challenge. They are often part of a verb chain, but they are not the main verb (main action) of a sentence: Alfred likes t o run early in the morning. In this example, likes is the main verb; what Alfred likes (the action he likes to take) is to run early in the morning. ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 71 WHEN TO USE INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS In many situations, you may be uncertain whether to use an infinitive or a gerund. Which statement is cor- rect: I like to swim or I like swimming? In this case, both are correct; like, hate, and other verbs that express preference can be followed by either an infinitive or gerund. But other verbs can only be followed by one or the other. Here are a few helpful guidelines: ■ Always use a gerund after a preposition. He built the robot by r ecycling old appliances. Renaldo was excited after s eeing his test results. ■ Always use a gerund after the following verbs: admit dislike practice appreciate enjoy put off avoid escape quit can’t help finish recall consider imagine resist delay keep risk deny miss suggest discuss postpone tolerate I can’t help f eeling that I should have done more. Don’t risk losing your money by investing in that company. Ralph quit smo king over a year ago. The witness recalled hear ing the defendant discuss the crime. ■ In general, use an infinitive after these verbs: agree decide need refuse ask expect offer venture beg fail plan want bother hope pretend wish claim manage promise I promise t o return your car by noon. Abby decided t o leave before the speech had ended. The offer failed t o meet my expectations. ■ When a noun or pronoun immediately follows these verbs, use an infinitive: advise allow ask cause command convince encourage expect force need order persuade remind require tell urge want warn ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE– 72 [...]... Newspaper articles, for example, generally use this structure They begin with the most important information (the who, what, when, where, and why about the event) so readers don t have to read the whole article to get those facts Details and background information come later in the article 91 ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE – When writers move from least to most important, they save their most important idea... Use that when referring to things: This is the computer that is having problems 78 ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE – I Use which when introducing clauses that are not essential to the information in the sentence, unless they refer to people In that case, use who Mark is in Toronto, which is his favorite city Rosa, who writes for the school paper, wants to interview me for a story Practice 11 Circle the... paragraph’s unity or coherence At their core, most non-fiction texts except narratives have the basic underlying structure of main idea → support That is, they begin with a main idea (sometimes called the thesis or theme of the text) that controls the whole passage; it is this idea that the text will develop The rest of the text then provides support for that idea in the form of examples, definitions, reasons,... Roosevelt In that letter, Einstein told Roosevelt that it was possible to create an atomic weapon, and he asked Roosevelt to fund research and experiments in atomic weapons Roosevelt agreed, and the government created the Manhattan Project, a massive effort to develop nuclear weapons Next, the date that will live in infamy: August 6, 1945 The U.S 93 ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE – dropped an atomic bomb... to the reader, then your more important points will be stronger And, as the saying goes, writers often “save the best for last” because that’s where “the best” often has the most impact In other words, the writer’s purpose helps to determine the structure he or she uses Transitions are very important for this organizational pattern, too Here is a list of the most common transitions writers use with the... We both agrees that he should attend this program h We both agree that he should attended this program j We both agreeing that he should attend this program 5 Only one of the students have finished the book a NO CHANGE b Only one of the students did finished the book c Only one of the students have finish the book d Only one of the students has finished the book 73 ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE – 6 The members... MPORTANCE With this organizational pattern, ideas are arranged by rank instead of time The most important information comes first or last, depending upon the writer’s purpose Organizing ideas from most important to least important puts the most essential information first Writers often do this when they are offering advice or when they want to be sure readers get the most important information right away... readers that voice recognition software really works, then d is the best choice; it’s the paragraph that best supports the writer’s purpose If, on the other hand, the passage aims to help readers pick the best voice recognition software for them, then c would be the best choice 84 ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE – Each writer has a specific purpose behind a given text, but in general, most writers write for... divide the text into three paragraphs The Cold War was one of the most interesting and troubling times in American history Several important historical events led to the Cold War First, in 1939, Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D Roosevelt In that letter, Einstein told Roosevelt that it was possible to create an atomic weapon, and he asked Roosevelt to fund research and experiments... the ACT English Test cover three areas: general writing strategies, organization, and style General Writing Strategies General writing strategies are those basic techniques writers use to develop a readable and engaging text The strategies covered on the ACT include your ability to: I I I I I write in a way that is appropriate for audience and purpose provide appropriate and sufficient support craft . forgotten his briefcase. Incorrect: When we w ork together, we got better results. Correct: When we w ork together, we get better results. – ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE 69 Subject-Verb Agreement In. now. might might + have + possibility They might be a little late. past participle They might have gotten stuck in traffic. Practice 8 1. He should have knowed better than to do that. a. NO CHANGE b closer to his destination so he could rest. 2. If I was/were taller, I might be better at basketball. 3. She was/were hoping to get a better offer. – ACT ENGLISH TEST PRACTICE 68 4. He decided to
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