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Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 1 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng UNIT 1 WHAT IS SOCIAL WORK? A new international definition of social work was adopted at the General Meeting of the International Federation of Social Workers’ (IFSW) in Montreal in July 2000 (available on-line at http://www.ifsw.org): The social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Utilizing theories of human behaviour and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environments. Principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work. The definition emphasizes four concepts: social change, problem solving, person-in-the- environment and empowerment. To begin to understand this complex work it is necessary to explore these four key concepts.  Social Change Mandate A social change mandate means working in solidarity with those who are disadvantaged or excluded from society so as to eliminate the barriers, inequities and injustices that exist in society. Social workers should be at the forefront of promoting policy and legislation that redistributes wealth in favour of those who are less well-off- that is, promoting equal opportunity for women, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, transgender persons, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples and racial and other minorities, and defending past gains made in these areas.  Problem Solving Social workers respond to crises and emergencies as well as everyday personal and social problems. Within this process, social workers use problem-solving techniques to identify the problem and formulate possible plans of action. A problem is not usually clearly defined when someone comes to a social service agency. It is therefore crucial for the social worker to explore the person’s concerns, to identify the need(s) involved, to identify barriers to meeting need(s) and to carefully determine the goals and possible plans of action. A key characteristic of the problem- solving process is the inclusion of the client at each stage. The process should also teach clients problem-solving skills so that they can better deal with future problems on their own.  Person-in-the-Environment A key aspect of effective social work practice is to go beyond the “internal” (psychological) factors and examine the relationship between individuals and their environments. This person-in- the-environment approach is partly what distinguishes social work practice from other helping professions. These “environments” extend beyond the immediate family and include interactions with friends, neighbourhoods, schools, religious groups, laws and legislation, other agencies or organizations, places of employment and the economic system. Based on this understanding, Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 2 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng intervention may focus on the individual, interactions between people and any given system or structure, or on the system or structure itself.  “Empowerment” and Social Work In order for the interventions of social workers to be successful, the clients must believe that the efforts of the social worker will make a difference. This leads to the important concept of empowerment. Being empowered means feeling that you have power and control over the course of your life. Empowerment is the process of increasing personal, interpersonal or political power so that one can improve one’s particular situation. Power can be a personal state of mind, in the sense that one feels that one can make a difference and have control and influence over one’s own life. It can also be empowerment within an organization in the sense that one has tangible influence and legal rights. Empowerment, then, involves both a personal perception of being in control and tangible elements of power within the various social structures of society. Social workers seek to empower their clients as a way of helping them to focus on, among other things, access to resources and the structures of power. “Empowerment-based social work,” therefore, has three aspects:  making power explicit in the client-worker relationship (in order thereby to help equalize the relationship between the client and the worker);  giving clients experiences in which they themselves are in control (to allow them to see the potential for controlling their lives); and  always supporting the client’s own efforts to gain greater control over their lives as a way of promoting change. Putting an empowerment perspective into practice can involve techniques that make power relations between the workers and their clients explicit, thereby equalizing the client-worker relationship. Additionally, it may entail giving clients powerful experiences or experiences that put them in a position to exercise power. Offering voluntary work experiences that allow clients to use their skills to help others can often be an empowering experience. Another approach may be to support clients’ efforts to change policies or practices that impinge on their lives and the lives of others. Such experiences can help people see the potential for power in their lives. In other instances, an empowering perspective may involve simply focusing on the strengths of the person, rather than on the “pathology” or what is wrong with the person. In all relationships, it is generally acknowledged that constructive feedback and positive reinforcement is conducive to helping people make positive changes in their lives. It is often more helpful for social workers to guide their client’s focus towards the success they have achieved in the past rather than dwelling on how they have been unsuccessful and dysfunctional. An empowerment perspective is the key to good social work practice. And like other aspects of good practice, it involves not a specific set of skills, but a general orientation on the part of the worker. This orientation is based on helping clients identify their own needs and then helping them to deal with the exigencies of their own particular situation. Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 3 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng UNIT 2 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL WORK SOCIAL WORK AS A PROFESSION Social work is similar to helping professions (such as nursing, policing, and psychology) in that (1) it possesses a code of ethics; (2) it has the means to regulate and enforce set standards of behaviour among its members; and (3) it has developed a theoretical body of knowledge that guides practice (Cross, 1985). Like other professions, social work also requires its members to reach a certain level of educational preparedness – in terms of knowledge, competencies, and ethics – in order to practice. One of the characteristics that distinguishes social work from other helping professions is its longstanding association with the social welfare system, which has guided the development and delivery of many of its programs. This association dates back to the late 19 th century, when many religion-based charitable organizations were replaced by government-sponsored social agencies, which in turn hired social workers to perform a variety of tasks. Another distinguishing feature of social work is its multilevel approach to practice. At the micro level, social workers aim to help individuals, families, and small groups improve their problems-solving skills. At the mezzo level, social workers seek to improve conditions in and among social welfare organizations, while at the macro level they address broader issues such as social problems. Exhibit 7.1 outlines some distinctions been social work and two other helping professions. SOCIAL WORK VALUES AND ETHICS Social work practice is based on a philosophy of humanitarian and egalitarian ideals that shape social work goals and interventions. Underlying this philosophy is a set of values or beliefs about how the world should be, rather than how the world really is. Important social work values include acceptance of and respect for others and the right to self-determination. Social work values reflect the diverse and often opposing beliefs of a pluralistic society and are strongly influenced by culture, relationships, personal experience, individual perceptions, and other factors (Johnson, 1998; Compton and Galaway, 1994). The extent to which social work values are adhered to in practice is limited. For example, it is important that social workers keep client information confidential. This is because without the assurance that personal information will be kept private, clients will be reluctant to disclose much information about themselves to a worker. Circumstances nevertheless arise that warrant a social worker’s disclosure of client information without client authorization. For instance, social workers can breach confidentiality to prevent a crime; to prevent clients from doing harm to themselves or to others; when ordered by a court of law; when child abuse or neglect is suspected; or when supervisors, support staff, agency volunteers, or others have an identified “need to know” (CASW, 1994b). It is not always easy for social workers to know when to adhere to and when to deviate from established social work values. In 1938 the Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW) Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 4 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng developed a social work code of ethics to help social workers make this kind of decision. The primary purpose of a code of ethics “is to provide a practical guide for professional behavior and the maintenance of a reasonable standard of practice within a given cultural context” (CASW, 1983, 2). The CASW code was updated in 1983 and 1994. SOCIAL WORK KNOWLEDGE While values focus on what is preferred, desired, or good, knowledge is concerned with what is true or false. Social work knowledge derives both from inside the social work profession and from other disciplines. Knowledge that is produced indigenously by social workers is based on the shared experiences of workers, individual professional experiences, and applied research. Much of the knowledge that is “borrowed” is from other helping disciplines such as psychology, psychiatry, education, and public health; social work knowledge has also drawn extensively from academic fields of sociology, economics, history, and law. It is this “crosspollination” of various types of knowledge that makes social work a highly interdisciplinary field (Johnson, 1998). Social work’s person-in-environment focus requires social workers to gain knowledge about the client system, the client’s environment, and the client in interaction with his or her environment. At one level, social workers must learn about certain aspects of the client system - for example, work with individual clients requires an understanding of the person’s psychological, social, physical, spiritual, and other dimensions. It is also important that social workers learn about the client’s environment and how culture, the general economy, the political climate, and other external systems may affect his or her ability to function. Finally, social workers need to be aware of the factors that can influence the interactions between the client and his or her environment (McMahon, 1994). SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE The Planned Change Process Social work involves the transformation of knowledge into practice. The aim of social work practice is to help people become more empowered so that they are able to function more effectively. To achieve this aim, social workers apply a generic, formal, systematic, and scientific set of procedures. This problem-solving process is commonly referred to as the planned change process. The planned change process consists of five phases: 1) intake; 2) assessment; 3) planning and contracting; 4) intervention; and 5) evaluation and termination. The intake phase in concerned with screening applicants who apply to social welfare programs. Client needs must be considered in view of the agency’s eligibility criteria and resources: that is, can the agency meet the client’s needs or must a referral be made to a more appropriate resource? In the assessment phase, information about the client’s concerns or needs is accumulated and then organized to form an overall picture of the client’s situation. In the planning and contracting phase, the worker and client decide together what needs to be changed (perhaps a behaviour, emotion, thought pattern, or environmental condition) and then establish a contract that outlines the goals and objectives of the needed change and the types of strategies that will be used to Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 5 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng effect the change. The intervention phase involves putting the plan into action, monitoring its effectiveness, and modifying strategies as needed to achieve the goal. Toward the end of the contract, the intervention is evaluated to determine its effectiveness, and the client-worker relationship is eventually terminated. The planned change process does not always evolve in a linear fashion; as new client needs or goals arise, certain phase may be repeated or deferred. SOCIAL WORK SKILLS Generalist social workers are trained to apply a wide range of practice skills in their work with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Three generic skill areas are essential for generalist social work practice: 1) Interpersonal skills include communication and active listening skills, the ability to build a working relationship with clients, and interviewing and counselling skills. 2) Process skills enable the worker to identify and assess client needs, plan and implement appropriate interventions, make referrals, and develop more effective methods for serving clients. 3) Evaluation and accountability skills demonstrate competency in evaluating interventions and holding oneself accountable for one’s practice and behaviour (Johnson, Schwartz, and Tate, 1997). Social work skills can also be thought of in terms of the various roles the worker adopts. Generalist social workers typically assume a wide range of roles. The role of broker involves helping individuals and groups connect with needed programs and services in the community. An advocate speaks or acts on behalf of a client who is having difficulty exercising his or her rights or accessing needed services. A mediator helps people in conflict reach mutually satisfying agreements, while a consultant assists organizations in improving service effectiveness and efficiency. A social worker who assumes the role of mediator identifies areas of need in the community and establishes new social programs and services for target groups. The skills and roles mentioned above are generic in that they can be applied to interventions with any size of client system, including individuals, families, and small groups. The illustration of the generalist social work perspective in Exhibit 7.2 reflects the person-in-environment perspective and shows the range of approaches and knowledge used in the helping process. MULTISKILLING In recent years, a new approach to social work practice has emerged in the form of multiskilling. The Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW, 1998, 1) defines multiskilling as “an approach to care and/or a concept in which staff are cross trained but not professionally educated in two or more tasks or functions associated with at least two disciplines.” Although social workers are still required to obtain accredited education in social work, they are able through multiskilling to receive additional training in tasks that are associated with other occupations. For example, a social worker may be trained to conduct physical mobility assessments, an activity traditionally associated with physical therapy or other health-related functions. Multiskilling offers advantages that have made it an increasingly popular approach. Some organizations see multiskilling as a way to break up rigid divisions of labour and make professionals more flexible in the tasks they perform. There are potential economic benefits as well: staff numbers can be reduced since more people are prepared to perform a wider range of duties. Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 6 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng Multiskilling is not without its critics, however. According to the CASW (1998, 3): Social workers believe that specialized practitioners are needed to assist in the meeting the varied needs of people. Neutralizing or diminishing the roles of professions and specialists reduces options for clients and increases the potential for harm. At its worst, multiskilling may give staff unrealistic expectations about their ability to perform tasks that are complex and thus better left to specialists. PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY The Canadian Association of Social Workers was established in 1926 as a national federation of provincial and territorial social work associations. At present, about 15,500 social workers are registered with a provincial or territorial association (CASW, 2000). According to its mission statement, the CASW (1994a, 2) “seeks to develop, promote, support and maintain national professional standards of practice of the highest quality.” To meet this end, the CASW sets certain standards and guidelines for social work practice in Canada and participates in the development of social work regulation and legislation. The promotion of standards and control is intended not only to protect clients and the general public from incompetent of fraudulent practice, but also to legitimate the profession and its practice. Social workers are expected to practise in accordance with the philosophy, purpose, and standards set by their profession and to be accountable to their clients, their profession, and society. Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 7 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng Exhibit 7.1 A COMPARISON OF THREE HELPING PROFESSIONS SOCIAL WORK PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHIATRY Focus of attention Dual focus on individual and environment and interaction between the two Individual behaviour, which includes internal thoughts, feelings, and emotional responses Mental illness; wide range of disturbed behaviour and emotional reactions Assessment / diagnostic tools Social history; client interviews; observation Diagnostic tests ( I.Q., personality, etc.); interviews; observation Medical exams; use of International Classification of Disease; interviews; observation; tests Intervention methods Casework; family and/or group therapy; education/information; referral to community resources Behaviour modification; psychotherapy; environmental modification Prescribe psychotropic medication; psychotherapy; biological treatments Aim of intervention To help individuals, families, and communities understand and solve personal and social problems To solve or prevent behavioural, cognitive and affective problems To reduce symptoms, change behaviour, or promote personality growth Specializations Counselling, group work, social administration, research and evaluation, community organization, teaching Clinical, experimental, neurological developmental, social, counselling, educational, industrial personality Child, geriatric, forensic, liaison, behaviour, family, sexual, psychoanalysis, research Education B.S.W., M.S.W., D.S.W., Ph.D. B.A. or B.Sc., M.A., Ph.D. Medical doctor and at least 5 years’ psychiatric training Professional association (national) Canadian Association of Social Workers Canadian Psychological Association Canadian Psychiatric Association Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 8 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng UNIT 3 SOCIAL WORK WITH INDIVIDUALS The helping process with individuals is sometimes called social casework, although this term is used infrequently nowadays. A majority of social workers spend their time working with individuals in private or public agencies or in private practice. Even though other types of social work are increasing, the practice of social work with individuals still predominates. Individual social work is aimed at helping people resolve their problems or situations on a one-to-one basis, that is, helping unemployed people obtain work or training, providing protective services for abused children, providing counselling for mental health, providing parole or probation services, supplying services to the homeless and poor, co-ordinating services for people with AIDS and co-ordinating discharge services for a person being released from hospital. All of us on occasion find ourselves with problems that we cannot resolve alone. At times the help of a friend or family member may be enough, but at other times the skilled help of a social worker is necessary. Social work with individuals can take different forms depending on the philosophy and perspective of the social worker. While some workers may address personal problems, others may emphasize the social relations underlying the problem. Still others may address both dimensions simultaneously. In general, social work practice with individuals involves the following steps. These steps are common to most social work interventions with individuals and families. Although assessment precedes intervention, and intervention precedes termination, the process can be cyclical. For example, during intervention the client and worker may discover new information that in turn raises the need for more planning. In fact each process is taking place throughout the intervention, but at each step one or more is emphasized. As mentioned previously, the steps are mere guideposts for a process that involves a combining and re-combining of actions into new ways of looking at things- that is a praxis or a process of “action-reflection-action.”  Intake Intake is usually the first step taken by a worker when a client seeks help. Intake is a process whereby a request for service is made by or for a person, and it is then determined whether and what kind of service is to be provided. The social worker attempts to gather initial information from the client in order to determine what assistance is needed, and whether the agency and worker is the appropriate provider. If it is mutually determined by both the worker and client that the agency can be of service, then some sort of agreement or contract is made .When it is determined that the person’s needs cannot be met by the agency, then a referral to a service elsewhere is made or a decision is made that no social work service is required. During the intake phase, the client makes a personal request for help or someone from the community directs the client to a particular social work agency. The social work relationship can be either voluntary or involuntary. The intake step is voluntary when a client willing seeks help from a social work agency. For example, a parent who recognizes the difficulties of caring for a child may approach a child welfare agency for assistance. By contrast, an involuntary client is ordered to see a social worker or is required to do so by law. For example, a social worker is required by law to assist a child in danger when, for example, the child’s situation has been reported as unsafe by a Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 9 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng physician, hospital worker, police officer or school teacher. In such cases, families are often uncooperative, especially if allegations of child abuse are reported. In the intake step, the social worker acknowledges the client’s need for help, collects information from the client, assesses the client’s problem or situation and, based on the agency’s resources, determines if the social worker agency can help the client .In essence, when they first meet ,both the worker and client want answers to specific questions. The applicant or potential client wants to know: Can I get the help I need here? Can this person help me? How can I get the help I need at this agency or with this person? The worker will ask: Can I help this person or would it be more appropriate for someone else to help? How can I help this person?  Assessment and planning The assessment and planning step includes two processes. In the assessment process, the social worker and the client analyze what help is needed based on the client’s ideas, thoughts and feelings about the particular problem. Once the assessment is complete ,the social worker formulates a plan designed to help the client with the particular problem. The plan is not set in stone but provides an initial course of action. Many social work textbooks describe a process that involves problem definition, data collection and objective setting. This type of model flows more from a management or bureaucratic approach to social work that stresses technical rationality. In this model, the worker knows best and can rationally plan the optimal course of action. In this section, we are emphasizing a social work process that stresses reflection-action-reflection in which the social worker continually thinks things through while acting on the problem at hand. He or she adapts the intervention based on dialogue and reflection on experiences of and feelings about past actions. Assessment is both a process and a product of understanding on which action is based (Siporin 1975,219). It involves gathering relevant information and developing an understanding. How a social worker selects information and how he or she analyzes it is accomplished with reference to the assumptions that underlie a particular social work model, and by one’s own experience of the world. In order to form a plan in the assessment phase, the social worker also relies on other people who know the client personally. For example, in cases in which a client is provided with social services as a result of an involuntary intervention, the social worker may initially rely on information provided by a teacher, doctor or police officer (or, for example, an elder in a First Nations community). During assessment and planning, the worker and client identify problems and a set of actions needed to reach the desired goals. The skill set for direct intervention would include the following items:  Validating feelings. The social worker validates the client’s feelings by conveying an understanding of them. This builds a rapport and helps the client to identify and sort out a variety of feelings. The social worker must also consider non-verbal emotional responses in developing this understanding.  Interview questioning. Open-ended and closed-ended questions are used in an interview to elaborate information. Open-ended questions give the client the opportunity to discuss aspects of the problem that they see as important in more depth. The questions often begin with “how” or “what.” Closed-ended questions give the social worker the opportunity to clarify details of the client’s narrative. They are often used late in a session to check for accuracy. Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 10 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng  Paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is a basic social work communication skill. With paraphrasing the social worker re-states what the client has said in her or his own words. Social workers use paraphrasing to confirm that the meaning the worker has attached to a client message is indeed the meaning intended by the client. It also provides feedback to the client that the worker has grasped what he or she is saying. Beginning social workers need to be aware that overuse of paraphrasing can give the client the impression of being mimicked.  Clarification. This skill is used to determine if the worker and client are on the same “wavelength.” It is often used to probe an issue that is not understood by the social worker. It involves asking for specific details about an event. Clarification often becomes a reciprocal process between the social worker and client as each tries to understand the true meaning of what the other is saying.  Summarizing. This is skill is used in attempts to capture or pull together the most important aspects of the problem or situation. It provides focus for the next interview and can assist in planning. Both the feelings and content of the client’s message should be used. It is also useful when the social worker believes that it is time to move on to another topic.  Information giving. Without overwhelming people with too much information at one time, the social worker often shares information about resources in the community (e.g., women’s shelters) or information that shows that the client is not alone in experiencing the problem. Be sure the client realizes that they can refuse the information, and provide pamphlets or brochures where possible.  Interpretation. This skill enables the social worker to delve into the presented problem and “read between the lines.” The worker’s insights may help the client develop a deeper understanding of what is really going on, and not just what appears to be happening. It may provide an alternative way of looking at the problem or a new frame of reference. Always check both verbal and non-verbal responses of the client to your interpretation.  Consensus building. Consensus building attempts to work out agreement on what should be done to address the problem. It may be easily attained or there may be discrepancies between what a client says they want and their behaviour, or between separate messages given by a client. Confrontation may be used to challenge a client to examine such discrepancies. It should be non-adversarial and respectful and used only when a safe and trusting relationship has developed. Planning is based on sets of decisions made by the worker and the client that are shaped by the worker’s analysis of the information collected in the assessment phase. The planned actions may be at a wide variety of levels: individual, environmental, multi-person, systemic or structural. For example, they might involve therapeutic, educational and social action-oriented approaches. What frequently varies between practice models is the focus of attention. A behaviour therapy approach would tend to focus on changing individual behaviours, whereas a social action or structural approach may focus on changing systems or structures in society in order to shift power relations. In any event, the social worker assesses the client’s problem with the client and negotiates a plan with the client that includes:  the type of actions or interventions;  the length of the interventions; [...]... the social work supervisor:  the choice of the intervention;  the length of the intervention;  the frequency of their meetings;  the outcomes;  the need for any follow-up; and Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 12 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng  when to terminate the intervention - in most cases, the decision to terminate the relationship is mutually agreed upon by the client and the social worker... also obey legislation and association policy The CASW Code of Ethics stipulates, at length, the requirements for collecting, recording, storing and accessibility of client records Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 13 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng UNIT 4 SOCIAL WORK WITH GROUPS Social work with groups has its historical roots informal, recreational groups such as those organized by the YWCA, the YMCA,... Generally groups are classified according to the purpose that brings the group together For example, Mesber (Turner 1999, 213) describes two types of groups based on the purpose of the Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 14 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng group: treatment groups and task groups She also quotes Toseland and Rivas (1995,14) as they differentiate between the two types: The term treatment group... through the sharing of feelings, members frequently drop out at this stage 3 Negotiation stage Group norms and task roles are designated and accepted and group cohesion and increases Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 15 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng 4 Functional stage Integration enables group to implement plans and accomplish tasks Few groups reach the end of this stage 5 Disintegration stage Groups... anticipate obstacles to the group work experience and bring them to the group’s attention; - educate the group, providing information and support thought to be useful to the group; Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 16 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng - contribute thoughts, feelings, ideas and concerns regarding the group work experience (drawing upon insights derived from similar group work experience);... group process with the group and the social work supervisor The worker may terminate the relationship with the group or mutually agree with the group members to end the group process Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 17 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng UNIT 5 SOCIAL WORK WITH COMMUNITIES Social work with a community (or community work, as it is usually called) is often either not addressed in social work... locality development may include overseas development programs, neighbourhood workers and consultants to community development teams Historically, settlement houses were of this type Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 18 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng  Social planning When individuals plan and gather data about problems in order to choose the most rational course of action, they are engaged in social... therefore it requires a unique set of skills Students sometimes see community work as an optional field of knowledge, one in which they are unlikely to be involved In fact, community Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 19 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng work can be immensely satisfying as a main area of work, and a working knowledge of it is essential for anyone who wishes to become a well-rounded and effective... must be adhered to at this stage: (1) the organizer must begin where the people are and respect their value system; (2) his or her contacts must be broad (and include not only the Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 20 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng elite or powerful); and (3) he or she should attempt to find out who in that particular context has the power and credibility to mobilize and organize others... monitoring and evaluation steps, and re-planning steps Generally the plan should be a participatory process and may include: - what action or change will occur; - who will carry it out; Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 21 Khoa Công tác hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng - when it will take place, and for how long; - what resources (i.e., money, staff) are needed to carry out the change; - communication (who should know . Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 1 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng UNIT 1 WHAT IS SOCIAL WORK? A new international. places of employment and the economic system. Based on this understanding, Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 2 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng intervention may focus on the individual, interactions. to deal with the exigencies of their own particular situation. Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành 3 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng UNIT 2 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL WORK SOCIAL
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