Vegetables, fruits and herbs in health promotion

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Vegetables, fruits and herbs in health promotion Health Promotion Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. CRC Press Edited by Ronald R. Watson, Ph.D. Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs in © 2001 by CRC Press LLC CRC SERIES IN MODERN NUTRITION Edited by Ira Wolinsky and James F. Hickson, Jr. Published Titles Manganese in Health and Disease, Dorothy J. Klimis-Tavantzis Nutrition and AIDS: Effects and Treatments, Ronald R. Watson Nutrition Care for HIV-Positive Persons: A Manual for Individuals and Their Caregivers, Saroj M. Bahl and James F. Hickson, Jr. Calcium and Phosphorus in Health and Disease, John J.B. Anderson and Sanford C. Garner Edited by Ira Wolinsky Published Titles Handbook of Nutrition in the Aged, Ronald R. Watson Practical Handbook of Nutrition in Clinical Practice, Donald F. Kirby and Stanley J. Dudrick Handbook of Dairy Foods and Nutrition, Gregory D. Miller, Judith K. Jarvis, and Lois D. McBean Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients, Carolyn D. Berdanier Childhood Nutrition, Fima Lifschitz Nutrition and Health: Topics and Controversies, Felix Bronner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention, Ronald R. Watson and Siraj I. Mufti Nutritional Concerns of Women, Ira Wolinsky and Dorothy J. Klimis-Tavantzis Nutrients and Gene Expression: Clinical Aspects, Carolyn D. Berdanier Antioxidants and Disease Prevention, Harinda S. Garewal Advanced Nutrition: Micronutrients, Carolyn D. Berdanier Nutrition and Women’s Cancers, Barbara Pence and Dale M. Dunn Nutrients and Foods in AIDS, Ronald R. Watson Nutrition: Chemistry and Biology, Second Edition, Julian E. Spallholz, L. Mallory Boylan, and Judy A. Driskell Melatonin in the Promotion of Health, Ronald R. Watson Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye, Allen Taylor Laboratory Tests for the Assessment of Nutritional Status, Second Edition, H.E. Sauberlich Advanced Human Nutrition, Robert E.C. Wildman and Denis M. Medeiros Handbook of Dairy Foods and Nutrition, Second Edition, Gregory D. Miller, Judith K. Jarvis, and Lois D. McBean Nutrition in Space Flight and Weightlessness Models, Helen W. Lane and Dale A. Schoeller © 2001 by CRC Press LLC Eating Disorders in Women and Children: Prevention, Stress Management, and Treatment, Jacalyn J. Robert-McComb Childhood Obesity: Prevention and Treatment, Jana Parizkova and Andrew Hills Alcohol and Substance Abuse in the Aging, Ronald R. Watson Handbook of Nutrition and the Aged, Third Edition, Ronald R. Watson Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs in Health Promotion, Ronald R. Watson Nutrition and AIDS, 2nd Edition, Ronald R. Watson Forthcoming Titles Nutritional Anemias, Usha Ramakrishnan Advances in Isotope Methods for the Analysis of Trace Elements in Man, Malcolm Jackson and Nicola Lowe Handbook of Nutrition for Vegetarians, Joan Sabate and Rosemary A. Ratzin-Tuner Tryptophan: Biochemicals and Health Implications, Herschel Sidransky Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Robert E. C. Wildman The Mediterranean Diet, Antonia L. Matalas, Antonios Zampelas, Vasilis Stavrinos, and Ira Wolinsky Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Nutritional Supplements and Pharmaceuticals, Robert E. C. Wildman Inulin and Oligofructose: Functional Food Ingredients, Marcel B. Roberfroid Micronutrients and HIV Infection, Henrik Friis Nutrition Gene Interactions in Health and Disease, Niama M. Moussa and Carolyn D. Berdanier © 2001 by CRC Press LLC This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. All rights reserved. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the personal or internal use of specific clients, may be granted by CRC Press LLC, provided that $.50 per page photocopied is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is ISBN 0-8493-0038- X/01/$0.00+$.50. The fee is subject to change without notice. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 2001 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-0038-X Library of Congress Card Number 00-033730 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Vegetables, fruits, and herbs in health promotion / edited by Ronald R. Watson. p. cm. — (Modern nutrition) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-0038-X (alk. paper) 1. Vegetables in human nutrition. 2. Fruit. 3. Herbs — Therapeutic use. 4. Functional foods. 5. Phytochemicals — Health aspects. 6. Health promotion. I. Watson, Ronald R. (Ronald Ross) II. Modern nutrition (Boca Raton, Fla.) QP144.V44 V425 2000 613.2'8 — dc21 00-033730 © 2001 by CRC Press LLC Series Preface The CRC Series in Modern Nutrition is dedicated to providing the widest possible coverage of topics in nutrition. Nutrition is an interdisciplinary, interprofessional field par excellence. It is noted by its broad range and diversity. We trust the titles and authorship in this series will reflect that range and diversity. Published for a scholarly audience, the volumes in the CRC Series in Modern Nutrition are designed to explain, review, and explore present knowledge and recent trends, developments, and advances in nutrition. As such, they also appeal to the educated general reader. The format for the series varies with the needs of the author and the topic, including, but not limited to, edited volumes, monographs, handbooks, and texts. Contributors from any bona fide area of nutrition, including the controversial, are welcome. We welcome the contribution Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs in Health Promo- tions, edited by Ronald R. Watson. There has been a recent explosion of interest in the therapeutic value of vegetables and herbs in our diet. This book brings together experts writing on very timely subjects. As such, it furthers our appreciation of the benefits of vegetables and some herbs in our diets in health promotion. © 2001 by CRC Press LLC Preface Diet and nutrition are vital keys to controlling morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases affecting humankind. The multitude of biomolecules in dietary vegetables play a crucial role in health maintenance. They should be more effective than a few nutrients in supplements. For decades, it has been appreciated that oxidative path - ways can lead to tissue damage and contribute to pathology. Fortunately, nature has provided us with mechanisms found predominately in plants to defend against such injury. Antioxidant nutritional agents have consequently attracted major attention and rightfully deserve to be studied carefully for possible beneficial roles. One of the main reasons for the interest in antioxidant agents in dietary vegetables, and their products, is their virtually complete lack of harmful side effects. This stands in stark contrast to many drugs that are promoted and studied for possible disease- preventive activity. The subject of foods and nutritional agents in disease prevention is often asso- ciated with strong emotional responses. How could agents that have a near absence of any side effects be health promoting in patients with disease or cancer? Studies have been conducted by respected scientists in a number of important disease entities, ranging from cancer and heart disease to eye disease. These have included general health maintenance such as infection prevention in the elderly. The long-recognized role of vegetables in cancer prevention is expanded with the understanding of carcinogenesis. Constituents with anticancer activities, phy - tochemicals, are described in prevention. Bioavailability of important constituents plays a key role in their effectiveness. Their role as well as that of whole vegetables in gastrointestinal disease, heart disease, and old age are defined. Each vegetable contains thousands of different biomolecules, each with the potential to promote health or retard disease and cancer. By use of vegetable extracts as well as increased consumption of whole plants, people can dramatically expand their exposure to protective chemicals and thus readily reduce their risk of multiple diseases. Specific foods, tomatoes, raw vegetables, and Japanese vegetables and byproducts are novel biomedicines with expanded understanding and use. Damage due to UV irradiation is the major cause of skin cancer and skin damage in most American adults. Herbal and dietary vegetables are becoming better understood and are now used in preven - tion of skin damage and cancer, as well as for eye disease. While vegetables and their products are readily available, there are important legal questions relating to marketing of foods with health claims. Use of specific dietary materials has reduced disease for centuries and a prime example, the Mediterranean diet, is described along with a developing understanding of its mechanisms of action. Use of vegetables and their specific constituents is the most readily available approach to health promotion in the hands of the general public. The National Cancer Institute reports that only 18% of adults meet the recom- mended intake of vegetables. While Americans eat 4.1 portions of vegetables, © 2001 by CRC Press LLC approaching the desired 5 portions per day, much of this is peeled potatoes with little nutritional or biological benefits. Unfortunately, 40%, rather than 25%, of calories come from fat and sugar added to foods. Increased vegetable consumption and use of their extracts should dramatically reduce major dietary risk factors for cancer and heart disease. Thus, greater consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruits will lower use of meat, margarine, sugar, and fat. A better understanding of the role of vegetables and fruits in health promotion will encourage research for altered lifestyles, thus decreasing disease and cancer while lengthening longevity. © 2001 by CRC Press LLC Editor Ronald R. Watson, Ph.D., has edited 50 books, including 22 on the effects of various dietary nutrients in adults, the elderly, and AIDS patients. He initiated and directed the Specialized Alcohol Research Center at the University of Arizona College of Medicine for 6 years. The main theme of this National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Center grant was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression with increased oxidation and nutrient loss on disease and disease resistance in animals. Dr. Watson is a member of several national and international societies concerned with nutrition, immunology, and cancer research. He has directed a program study - ing ways to slow aging using nutritional supplements, funded by the Wallace Genet- ics Foundation for 22 years. Currently, he is the principal investigator on an NIH grant studying the role of alcohol to exacerbate heart disease in a model of AIDS, including tissue antioxidants. He has recently completed studies on immune resto - ration and DNA protection in the elderly using extracts of fruits and vegetables. His research group recently completed studies on the use of carotenoids and biofla - vonoids to protect skin from ultraviolent irradiation in sunlight. Dr. Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, UT with a degree in chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in biochemistry at Michigan State University. His postdoctoral education was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. He was Assistant Professor of Immunology and did research at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson from 1973 to 1974. He was an Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the Indiana University Medical School from 1974 to 1978 and an Associate Professor at Purdue University in the Department of Food and Nutrition from 1978 to 1982. In 1982, he joined the faculty at the University of Arizona in the Department of Family and Community Medicine. He is also a research professor in the University of Arizona's newly formed College of Public Health. He has published 450 research papers and review chapters. Contributors James W. Anderson Dept. of Medical Services VA Medical Center Lexington, KY Michael Roland Clemens Medizinische Abteilung I Krankenänstalt Mutterhaus der Borromaerinnen Trier, Germany Winston J. Craig Professor of Nutrition Andrews University Berrien Springs, MI Cindy D. Davis USDA Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Institute Grand Forks, ND Hubert T. Greenway Scripps Clinic La Jolla, CA Iman A. Hakim Research Asst. Professor University of Arizona Tucson, AZ Tammy J. Hanna Dept. of Medical Services VA Medical Center Lexington, KY Tuneo Hasegawa Professor Grad. School of Health and Welfare Yamaguchi Prefectural University Yamaguchi, Japan Ingrid Hoffmann Institute/Ernaehrungswissenschaft Giessen, Germany Bronwyn G. Hughes Dept. of Microbiology Brigham Young University Provo, UT Paul M. Hyman Hyman, Phelps, & McNamara Washington, D.C. Walt Jones Pure-Gar Chatsworth, CA Marge Leahy Ocean Spray Cranberries Lakeville, MA Jeongmin Lee College of Public Health University of Arizona Tucson, AZ Claus Leitzmann Professor of Nutrition Institute/Ernaehrungswissenschaft Giessen, Germany Kimberly A. Moore Dept. of Medical Services VA Medical Center Lexington, KY Satoru Moriguchi Professor Grad. School of Health and Welfare Yamaguchi Prefectural University Yamaguchi, Japan © 2001 by CRC Press LLC © 2001 by CRC Press LLC Byron K. Murray Dept. of Microbiology Brigham Young University Provo, UT Kim L. O’Neill Dept. of Microbiology Brigham Young University Provo, UT Piergiorgio Pietta ITBA-CAN Segrate, Italy Marisa Porrini Dept. of Food Science and Technology Division of Human Nutrition University of Milan Milan, Italy Steven G. Pratt Scripps Memorial Hospital La Jolla, CA B.S. Ramakrishna Dept. of Medicine Salmaniya Medical Center Manama, Bahrain Patrizia Riso Dept. of Food Science and Technology Division of Human Nutrition University of Milan Milan, Italy Belinda M. Smith Dept. of Medical Services VA Medical Center Lexington, KY Stephen W. Standage Dept. of Microbiology Brigham Young University Provo, UT Martin Starr Ocean Spray Cranberries Lakeville, MA Tomo ko Taka Professor Grad. School of Health and Welfare Yamaguchi Prefectural University Yamaguchi, Japan Etor E. K. Takyi Nutrition Unit Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research University of Ghana Legon, Ghana Ali Reza Waladkhani Medizinische Abteilung I Krankenänstalt Mutterhaus der Borromaerinnen Trier, Germany Ronald R. Watson College of Public Health University of Arizona Tucson, AZ John A. Wise Natural Alternatives, International San Marcos, CA Yuko Yamamoto Professor Grad. School of Health and Welfare Yamaguchi Prefectural University Yamaguchi, Japan [...]... Steven G Pratt Chapter 7 Nutrients and Vegetables in Skin Protection Jeongmin Lee and Ronald R Watson Chapter 8 Vitamins and Micronutrients in Aging and Photoaging Skin Hubert T Greenway and Steven G Pratt © 2001 by CRC Press LLC Chapter 9 Soy Foods and Health Promotion James W Anderson, Belinda M Smith, Kimberly A Moore, and Tammy J Hanna Chapter 10 Fruits and Vegetables and the Prevention of Oxidative... Section IV Fruits and Promotion of Health Chapter 15 Gastrointestinal Nutritional Problems in the Aged: Role of Vegetable and Fruit Use B.S Ramakrishna Chapter 16 Health Benefits of Cranberries and Related Fruits Martin Starr and Marge Leahy © 2001 by CRC Press LLC Section V Overview and Approaches to the Use of Vegetables to Maintain Optimum Health Chapter 17 Diet and Carcinogenesis Cindy D Davis Chapter... Epicatechin Catechin Epigallocatechin Epicatechin gallate Epigallocatechin Flavanone Naringin Taxifolin Flavonol Kaempferol Quercetin Myricetin Flavone Chrysin Apigenin Anthocyanidins Malvidin Cyanidin Apigenidin Phenyl propanoids Ferulic acid Caffeic acid β-Coumaric acid Chlorogenic acid 1.5 Food Source Green and black teas Red wine Peel of citrus fruits Citrus fruits Endive, leek, broccoli, radish,... 20,000 ppm curcumin reduced the incidence of intestinal tumors.74 Further, curcumin induced apoptotic cell death in promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells at concentrations as low as 3.5 µg/ml;75 recent studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of dietary curcumin when administered continuously during the initiation and postinitiation phases.76,77 Administration of curcumin may retard growth and/ or development... 3-indoleacetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane, are inhibitors of induced cancer.50 Animals fed diets high in cruciferous © 2001 by CRC Press LLC vegetables and then exposed to various carcinogens expressed lower tumor yields and increased survival rates.51,52 Indole-3-carbinol administration is known to induce cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase activities, resulting in increased metabolic... concentration-dependent manner.106 In addition, d-limonene inhibits carcinogen activation to produce an inhibitory effect in carcinogenesis Animal studies indicated that d-limonene administered in the diet at the 1 to 5% levels inhibited both DMBA- and MNU-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis in female rats.107 1.11 CONCLUSION Review of the epidemiological data, including both cohort and case-control studies of... carcinogens.17,18 In spectrophotometric studies mutagen-inhibitor interaction (molecular complex formation) was identified In vivo, chlorophyllin reduced hepatic aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and hepatocarcinogenesis when the inhibitor © 2001 by CRC Press LLC and carcinogen were co-administered in the diet.19 Also, the formation of a chlorophyllin:aflatoxin B(1) complex reduced systemic aflatoxin B(1) bioavailability.20... Curcumin is a phenolic compound widely used as a spice and coloring agent in food Curcumin possesses potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor promoting activities Previous studies have shown that topical application of curcumin inhibits TPA (12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) epidermal DNA synthesis, tumor promotion in mouse skin, and edema of mouse ears.73 In mice, dietary administration... found in fruits and vegetables The family includes monomeric flavanols, flavanones, anthocyanidins, flavones, and flavonols In addition to their free-radical scavenging activity26 flavonoids have multiple biological activities,27 including vasodilatory,28 anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immune-stimulating, anti-allergic, antiviral, and estrogenic effects, as well as being inhibitors... shown to inhibit a variety of tumors induced by chemical carcinogenesis In rat liver, supernatant ajoene and diallyl sulfide affected aflatoxin B1 metabolism and DNA binding by inhibiting phase I enzymes, and may therefore be considered as potential cancer chemopreventive agents.89 In mice the oral application of diallyl sulfide suppressed the activity of ornithine decarboxylase.90 In the murine model, . Parizkova and Andrew Hills Alcohol and Substance Abuse in the Aging, Ronald R. Watson Handbook of Nutrition and the Aged, Third Edition, Ronald R. Watson Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs in Health Promotion, . Pratt Chapter 7 Nutrients and Vegetables in Skin Protection Jeongmin Lee and Ronald R. Watson Chapter 8 Vitamins and Micronutrients in Aging and Photoaging Skin Hubert T. Greenway and Steven G. Pratt ©. 00-033730 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper Library of Congress Cataloging -in- Publication Data Vegetables, fruits, and herbs in health promotion
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