cognitive psychology in and out of the lab. 4th ed. - k. galotti (wadsworth, 2008)

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[...]... longer than the other he removed 3 from the end, thus obtaining the same length: “Are they the same?—Yes.—Exactly?—Yes.— (The 6 elements of the model were then put further apart, and the 8 in his copy were put closer together.) And now?—There are more there (the 6).” (Piaget, 1965, p 75) In this example, Char seems to be confusing the length of the row with the numerosity of the row In other words,... structures to perceive, remember, and think about the world In fact, the mental structures available at any given point of development limited and constrained the cognitive abilities of a child, making them cognitively different from those of an older child in a different stage, or of an adult The Study of Individual Differences Yet another strand of the history of psychology is important to mention... anecdote about why such problems were important to solve: One type of plane often crashed while landing It turned out that the lever that the pilot had to use for braking was near the lever that retracted the landing gear During landing, the pilot could not take his eyes off the runway: He had to work by touch alone Sometimes pilots retracted their landing gear instead of putting on their brakes; they touched... number of historical trends, both within and outside academia, came together in the years during and following World War II to produce what many psychologists think of as a “revolution” in the field of cognitive psychology This cognitive revolution, a new series of psychological investigations, was mainly a rejection of the behaviorist assumption that mental events and states were beyond the realm of scientific... spent at the Claremont Graduate School and Pomona College Colleagues there provided a stimulating and productive environment in which to write For the second edition, Larry Wichlinski, a colleague in psychology at Carleton, educated me about neurological topics and brought to my attention a number of fascinating and intriguing findings (And he never once complained about all the time I took up asking technical... map or other means of depicting information in the head” about the maze—to locate the food at the maze’s end Tolman’s work centered on demonstrating that animals had both expectations and internal representations that guided their behavior Gestalt Psychology The school of Gestalt psychology began in 1911 in Frankfurt, Germany, at a meeting of three psychologists: Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang... short, in the hope instructors will supplement the text with other readings My firm belief is that the best courses are those in which instructors are enthusiastic about the material; the relative brevity of the text is intended to encourage instructors to supplement and customize it with added coverage on topics they find especially interesting All important material is integrated into the text, rather... exemplified how the limits of people’s cognitive capacities could be measured and tested At about the same time, developments in the field of linguistics, the study of language, made clear that people routinely process enormously complex information Work by linguist Noam Chomsky revolutionized the field of linguistics, and both linguists and psychologists began to see the central importance of studying how people... and includes an updated section (formerly a part of Chapter 1) on brain imaging techniques Chapter 3 introduces the perception of visual art, and discusses the missing letter effect in the context of research on word superiority Chapter 4 includes a new section on inattentional blindness (integrated with the corresponding section on change blindness in Chapter 3) Chapter 4 introduces fMRI studies of. .. However, the groundwork for the book evolved over 15 years, stretching back to my own undergraduate and graduate education I was fortunate to have benefited from the rigorous and dynamic teaching of Blythe Clinchy at Wellesley College and of Jonathan Baron, John Sabini, and Henry and Lila Gleitman at the University of Pennsylvania My education and thinking about cognitive and developmental issues continued . Paas, and others, have sharpened my pedagogical philosophy and helped me maintain a sense of humor and balance about the craziness that periodically invades Carleton. One of the real joys of working. despite all the work involved in coordinating reviews. For the fourth edition, I thank Vicki Knight and Michele Sordi, who served as the editors for the project at different stages, and Karol Jurado,. the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 12345671110090807 Library of Congress Control Number: 2006938495 ISBN 0-4 9 5-0 996 3-5 Cognitive Psychology: In and Out of the Laboratory, Fourth Edition Kathleen
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