quinkert - essays in contemporary chemistry - from molecular structure towards biology (wiley, 2001)

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Essays in Contemporary Chemistry From Molecular Structure towards Biology V H A C Essays in Contemporary Chemistry: From Molecular Structure towards Biology. Edited by Gerhard Quinkert and M. Volkan Kisakürek © Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta, Postfach, CH-8042 Zürich, Switzerlland, 2001 Essays in Contemporary Chemistry From Molecular Structure towards Biology Gerhard Quinkert, M. Volkan Kisakürek (Eds.) Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta · Zürich V H A C Weinheim · New York · Chichester Brisbane · Singapore · Toronto Prof. Gerhard Quinkert Institut für Organische Chemie Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Marie Curie-Str. 11 D-60439 Frankfurt am Main Dr. M. Volkan Kisakürek Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta Hofwiesenstrasse 26 Postfach CH-8042 Zürich This book was carefully produced. Nevertheless, editor and publishers do not warrant the information contained therein to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details, or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate. Published jointly by VHCA, Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta, Zürich (Switzerland) WILEY-VCH, Weinheim (Federal Republic of Germany) Editorial Directors: Dr. M. Volkan Kisakürek, Tomaso Vasella Production Manager: Birgit Grosse, Norbert Wolz Cover Design: Bettina Bank Library of Congress Card No. applied for. A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Cataloguing-in-Publication-Data A catalogue record for this publication is available from Die Deutsche Bibliothek ISBN 3-906390-28-4 © Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta, Postfach, CH–8042 Zürich, Switzerland, 2001 Printed on acid-free paper. All rights reserved (including those of translation into other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form – by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means – nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law. Printing: Konrad Triltsch, Print und Digitale Medien, D-97199 Ochsenfurt-Hohestadt Printed in Germany Albert Eschenmoser For [...]... structure of the ri- FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE TOWARDS BIOLOGY 21 bosome with fascinating insights into the mechanism of the protein making machinery There seems to be no end There may be no end but there was a beginning It happened around midcentury when, within the scope of a few years, three momentous discoveries were made The first was the construction of the a -helix and b -sheet structures as models... models for stable secondary structures in proteins; the second was the Watson-Crick model structure for DNA; and the third was Perutz’s discovery that heavy atoms, such as mercury, could be introduced into protein crystals without destroying the crystalline structure, thus making it possible to obtain information about the missing phases At this point I indulge in some personal reminiscences, which some... again all the structures were derived from twodimensional projections but now including four where three-dimensional data were used to calculate sections through the electron density The list includes the three-dimensional analysis of naphthalene [2] and an interesting study of three different colored polymorphs of N-picryl-p-iodoaniline ([11], in French) Among the non-structural papers are again several... part of our discipline, and it is still growing in power and in importance, attracting ever more funding and researchers each year, and producing ever greater wonders Crystallographic meetings nowadays are overwhelmingly biomolecular crystallographic meetings, and the trend is likely to continue From its idealistic but shaky beginnings, biomolecular crystallography has developed into a more or less... concluding remarks in 1993 [1] The printed text has been used as the basis for the English version, produced by Dr Andrew Beard Essays in Contemporary Chemistry: From Molecular Structure towards Biology Edited by Gerhard Quinkert and M Volkan Kisakürek © Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta, Postfach, CH-8042 Zürich, Switzerlland, 2001 2 PROLOGUE in journals that are not called Journal of Natural Products Chemistry, ... the outlines of a mole- FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE TOWARDS BIOLOGY 9 cule began to be visible in the Fourier map! The molecules seen in this way had a satisfying impression of definiteness about them They were revealed to correspond to objects of definite size and shape, in contrast to the intellectual constructions invented to explain the results of chemical reactivity It was hard work but satisfying,... providing metrical information about interatomic distances and angles The vast majority of crystal structures determined today satisfy stringent quality standards Nevertheless, it should be stressed that the nominal precision of the resulting atomic positions and derived geometric parameters, estimated by least-squares refinement methods, is quite unrealistic The stan- FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE TOWARDS BIOLOGY. .. postulated types of internal molecular motion (e.g., torsion- FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE TOWARDS BIOLOGY 17 al motions of atomic groupings about specified axes), besides the overall rigid-body motion, from analysis of ADPs [24] Caution may be called for in interpreting results of such calculations because of possible correlations among the parameters describing the motions Nevertheless, in work with aspirations... chemistry is the determination of the molecular structures of substances occurring in living nature and of their interconversions Isolation, structural determination, and investigation of the reactivity of these substances in vitro make up its bedrock, while its goal is to understand the transformations of substances taking place in vivo, using the structure model terminology of organic chemistry The irony... but in- 10 ESSAYS IN CONTEMPORARY CHEMISTRY: cluding two structures where three-dimensional data were used to calculate sections through the electron density The presence of purine and pyrimidine structures in this short list shows that the crystallographers were already well aware of the tautomery problem in such molecules Besides many papers on various technical improvements in the methods of X-ray . Essays in Contemporary Chemistry From Molecular Structure towards Biology V H A C Essays in Contemporary Chemistry: From Molecular Structure towards Biology. Edited by Gerhard Quinkert. Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta, Postfach, CH-8042 Zürich, Switzerlland, 2001 Essays in Contemporary Chemistry From Molecular Structure towards Biology Gerhard Quinkert, M. Volkan Kisakürek (Eds.) Verlag. derived from b - D -2 ′,3′-dideoxyglucose and composed of (6′ Æ 4′)-hexopyranosyl re- peating units, while the latter was derived from b - D -ribose and consisted of (4′ Æ 2′)-pentopyranosyl repeating
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