BIỆN PHÁP CẢI THIỆN ĐỘ PHÌ NHIÊU ĐẤT VÀ NĂNG SUẤT LÚA TRÊN ĐẤT PHÙ SA CỔ THÂM CANH LÚA TẠI HUYỆN MỘC HÓA – TỈNH LONG AN docx

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T Phn p, Thy s Sinh hc: 26 (2013): 43-49 43 BII THI   I HUYN M TNH LONG AN Tr1 1n11 1 B p c ng dngi hc C Thông tin chung:  08/11/2012 20/06/2013 Title: Improvement of soil fertility and rice yield on old alluvial soil at Moc Hoa district, Long An province Từ khóa:   Keywords: Old alluvial soil, compost amendment, rice-cash crop alternation, soil nutrients ABSTRACT In the Mekong delta, old alluvial soil types are poor in soil nutrients. Famers have applied only inorganic fertilizers for double rice cultivation and have not paid much attention on using organic manure. With high dose of inorganic N and P applied, intensive rice cultivation has led to soil degradation and low rice yield. Objectives of this study were to find the way to improve soil fertility and rice yield of mono-rice system on old alluvial soil in Moc Hoa district, Long An province. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design with 1) Double rice crops           Rice alternated with sesame;4) Rice alternated with peanut; 5) Rice alternated with soybean. Experiment was conducted for 8 years. Results showed that the system of rice crop alternated with cash crop led to increase significantly soil available nitrogen, labile carbon content and nitrogen mineralization in comparison with traditional rice cropping practice. Organic amendment result the increases of labile carbon and available nitrogen in soil compared to the rice treatment without compost addition. As consequence, the rice yield has been improved by either compost amendment or alternative cropping of rice and upland crops.    hsinh           T Phn p, Thy s Sinh hc: 26 (2013): 43-49 44 1 M U Nhiu v    u qu ng nhu c  th gii (Olk  ., 2002). Hin ti,   th    c chim hai n ba v i ding 14 triu ha  n c  n l     o ca  u (Cassman  , 1995; Mahieu ctv. suy git n nay trong nhin t t ra s nghi ng v  n vng ca h th (Cassman  , 1997; Olk  , 1996). Mt s  hin       d    thuc bo v thc v Vi vi       c nu ng bi        n vng ca sn xu     n ph u bi   ci thin  ph nhiu t, ci thi  su        chn la bi   p v u kin            sn phm. u kin ngc ca h th  c, s   ym   a thc v  hn ch kh   m t     a cht hm (N) hu dng b kim gi i dng to p cht hy           t ruma, 1976; Dobermann       t hu    b     u t sinh hc t   p cht h  y  t ng     ng kh c do  u v ng cht h th gim dn gim kh m hu dng (Stevanson et alng thi s    vi sinh v    gim mt s vi sinh vt. T  sung gim, hiu qu kinh t mang l c thc hin nhm ci thi          n xu         theo ng sn xun vng. 2 N CU m          (Plinthosols    ng 4,7 thuc lot chua vng cht hu       i cation (CEC) th   m tng s i rt thp. Dung trng tng m       ng b   ng Fe2O3 t  Al3+    t cao (Bng 1). Nhng                ng bi  i thi         t ng. Bng 1: Mt s ch c cm Ch   pHH2O 4,7 CEC (meq/100g) 3,75 Cht h 2,18 Ntng s (%) 0,154 K+ (meq/100g) 0,08 Ca2+ (meq/100g) 0,48 Mg2+ (meq/100g) 0,60 Na+ (meq/100g) 0,06 Dung trng (g/m3) 1,32  xp (%) 43 Fe2O3 (%) 2,84 Al3+ (meq/100g) 2,53 Thnghim ng ruc thc hin di hn t      ti x Bnh Tn, huyn Mc Ha, tnh Long An, theo th thc khi hon ton ngu nhin gm nm nghim thc vbn ln lp li vi dim2 cho m  m, gm cc m hnh nhsau: Nghim th  Nghim th      tn/ha   T Phn p, Thy s Sinh hc: 26 (2013): 43-49 45 Nghim th       Nghim th      u ph Nghim th      u    c him, m t c ly theo nghim th  i v     i nhiu v  t   -   u, mang v  n m m hu dng, cht h   t, carbon d  . Kh    m         t c thu thi v   Cht hnh b Walkley-Black. Cacbon d     bm ammonium (N-NH4+m nitrate (N-NO3-ng m mt  nh bng  S li    c x  ng ng  m thc  m 3 KT QU O LUN 3.1 m (N) hu dt Kt qu  cho thm hu dt  m thc l ng t 21,2 -th   i nghim th   t).  m th          t hiu u kitri  ng N hu dng ng thi, nghim th         m hu d t qu  c gihm hu dng t s hp cht het al., 1999). m hu dt ginghim thm 3.2 Kh m (N) 3.2.1 Hng N-NH4+ Kh    -NH4+  u kin  c thu  y  thu  ng N-NH4+ c  m th -m thc    t qu  c gi   tim h-NH4+ u din ra m nghim th   -   nghim th  n  ng N-NH4+ n  hai nghim thc m th     m thc   -   ng N-NH4+ ng gim. Sau tung N-NH4+ git        m th -u i nghim th t qu  ng cht hm         u ki    ng l  chuytrate. T Phn p, Thy s Sinh hc: 26 (2013): 43-49 46 N-NH4+  3.2.2 ng N-NO3-  ng N-NO3- c   th tr   n   ho ng ca vi sinh v  u kin ng ln N-NH4+ -NO3-ng N-NO3-          m th -   u phng so v nghim th        u kiy s  n ca c ng vi sinh vt  -NO3-  3.3 ng cht ht Kt qu ng cht h   t bi ng t 2,14-2,8% ng cht hp  u  m   nghim th     ng cht h         mt th i m th t qu     nghim th    mi v thu hoc r i trong ng cht ht    m th    ng oxy        t hu  m th      h    ng cht h    c gih        p chng nm Trichoderma  t. Chng n  din ra ti nghim th 01020304050600 tuần 2 tuần 4 tuần 8 tuầnThời gian ủN-NH4+ (mg/kg đất)Lúa - LúaLúa+10 tấn HC - LúaLúa - MèLúa - Đậu PhộngLúa - Đậu Nành05101520250 tuần 2 tuần 4 tuần 8 tuầnThời gian ủN-NO3- (mg/kg đất)Lúa - LúaLúa+10 tấn HC - LúaLúa - MèLúa - Đậu PhộngLúa - Đậu NànhT Phn p, Thy s Sinh hc: 26 (2013): 43-49 47  3.4 Cacbon d y Kt qu    ng cacbon d  y mc m th ng cht hm thc    m th               ng cacbon d   ca nghim thi ththm thi. Kt qu  c gi    c g   trng , thiu oxy, hong ca vi sinh vt m kh tha thc vt. Mt ngc c, cht hn din  ng hp ch ng cacbon d hu trong h thhso vi nghim thth c gim  n cacbon d h         ng h vi sinh vu kin t vi sinh vt hong cacbon d y.  T Phn p, Thy s Sinh hc: 26 (2013): 43-49 48 3.5  Kt qu  m cho th  t   m th       i nghim th y cht ht thun l         vt hong cacbon d         m hu d  sut ca h th so vt qu p vu ca Dobermann  (2000), tr t cao i tr t  nghim thbi      i nghim thc ng cht h u qu s d    m hu d hong ca vi sinh vt.  4 KT LUN Kh    m hu dng, s ng cacbon d ht  m th m th          i nghim thh   U THAM KHO 1. 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Multinuclear magnetic resonance analysis of two humic acid fractions from lowland rice soils, J. Environ. Qual. 31 : 421-430. 6. Nyle, C. Brady, Ray, and R. Weil, 1999. Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics. Prentice Hall. T Phn p, Thy s Sinh hc: 26 (2013): 43-49 49 7. Olk D. C. and K. G. Cassman, 2002. The role of organic matter quality in nitrogen cycling and yield trends in intensively cropped paddy soils. p. 13551 to13558. In Proc. 17th World Congress of Soil Science. 1421 Aug. 2002, Bangkok, Thailand, International Union of Soil Sciences. 8. Olk D. C., K. G. Cassman, E. W. Randall, P. Kinchesh, L. J. Sanger and J. M. Anderson, 1996. Changes in chemical properties of organic matter with intensified rice cropping in tropical lowland soil, European Journal of Soil Science, 47, 293-303. 9. Olk D. C., K. G. Cassman, N. Mahieu and E.W. Randall, 2002. Conserved chemical properties of young humic acid fractions in tropical lowland soil under intensive irrigated rice cropping, European Journal of Soil Science, 49, 337349. 10. Ponnamperuma F. N., 1976. Specific soil chemical characteristics for rice production in Asia, IRRI Res. Paper Ser. 2:18. 11. Stevenson, F.J., 1986. Cycles of soil. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1984-1996. 12.   ng cht cng bu Long. Hi Khoa ht Vit Nam. Tt 15, trang 26-32. . tuần Thời gian ủ N-NH4+ (mg/kg đất) Lúa - Lúa Lúa+10 tấn HC - Lúa Lúa - Mè Lúa - Đậu Phộng Lúa - Đậu Nành 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 tuần 2 tuần 4 tuần 8 tuần Thời gian ủ N-NO3- (mg/kg đất) Lúa - Lúa Lúa+10. 1421 Aug. 2002, Bangkok, Thailand, International Union of Soil Sciences. 8. Olk D. C., K. G. Cassman, E. W. Randall, P. Kinchesh, L. J. Sanger and J. M. Anderson, 1996. Changes in chemical. 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