~~ ~ RHEOLOGY Principles, Measurements and Applications Christopher W. Macosko 8 WILEY-VCH NEW YORK CHICHESTER * WEINHEIM * BRISEANE SINGAPORE TORONTO This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright 0 1994 by Wiley-VCH, Inc. All rights reserved. Originally published as ISBN 1-56081-579-5. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@IWILEY.COM. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Macosko, Christopher W. Rheology : principles,
measurements, and applications / by Christopher W. Macosko : with contributions by Ronald G. Larson. . . [et al.]. p. cm (Advances in interfacial engineering series) Includes bibliographical references
and index. ISBN 0-471-18575-2 (alk. paper) 1. Rheology. I. Larson, RonaldG. 11. Title. III. Series. QC189.5.M33 1993 531’.1l-d~20 93-31652 CIP Printed in the United States of America. 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 Even the mountains flowed before the Lord. From the song of Deborah after her victory over the Philistines, Judges 55, translated by M. Reiner (Physics Today, January 1964, Q. 62). The Soudan Iron Formation exposed in Tower-Soudan State Park near Tower, Minnesota. This rock was originally deposited as horizontal layers of iron-rich sediments at the bottom of a sea. Deposition took place more than a billion years ago, in the Precam- brian era of geologic time. Subsequent metamorphism, deforma- tion,
and tilting of the rocks have produced the complex structures shown. (Photo by A.G. Fredrickson, University of Minnesota.) DEDICATION A.M.D.G. This book has been written in the spirit that energized far greater scientists. Some of them express that spirit in the following quo- tations. “This most beautiful system of the sun, planets
and comets could only proceed from the counsel
and dominion of an intelligent
and powerful Being.” Isaac Newton “Think what God has determined to do to all those who submit themselves to His righteousness
and are willing to receive His ggt. ” James C. Maxwell June 23, 1864 “Zn the distance tower still higher peaks, which will yield to those who ascend them still wider prospects,
and deepen the feeling whose truth is emphasized by every advance in science, that ‘Great are the works of the Lord’ ”. J.J. Thomson, Nature, 81, 257 (1909). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This text has grown out of a variety of teaching
and consulting efforts. I have used part of the material for the past several years in a course on polymer processing at the University of Minnesota and nearly all of it in my graduate course, Principles
and Appli- cations of Rheology. Much of my appreciation for the needs of the industrial rheologist has come from teaching a number of short courses on rheological measurements at Minnesota
and for the So- ciety of
Rheology and Society of Plastics Engineers. The Univer- sity of Minnesota summer short course has been taught for nearly 20 years with over 800 attendees. Many of the examples, the top- ics,
and the comparisons of rheological methods included here were motivated by questions from short course students. Video tapes of this course which follows this text closely are available. My consulting work, particularly with Rheometrics, Inc., has pro- vided me the opportunity to evaluate many rheometer designs, test techniques,
and data analysis methods,
and fortunately my con- tacts have not been shy about sharing some of their most difficult rheological problems. I hope that the book’s approach
and content have benefited from this combination of academic
and industrial applications of rheology. As indicated in the Contents, two of the chapters were writ- ten by my colleagues at the University of Minnesota, Tim Lodge and Matt Tirrell. With Skip Scriven, we have taught the Rheolog- ical Measurements short course at Minnesota together for several years. Their contributions of these chapters
and their encourage- ment
and suggestions on the rest of the book have been a great help. Ron Larson, a Minnesota alumnus
and distinguished member of the technical staff at ATT Bell Labs, contributed Chapter 4 on nonlinear viscoelasticity. We are fortunate to have this expert con- tribution, a distillation of key ideas from his recent book in this area. I collaborated with Jan Mewis of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium on Chapter 10 on suspensions. Jan’s expertise and experience in concentrated suspensions is greatly appreciated. Robert Secor, now of 3M, prepared Appendix A to Chapter 3, con- cerned with fitting linear viscoelastic spectra, during his graduate studies here. Mahesh Padmanabhan was very helpful in prepara- tion of much of the final version, particularly in writing
and editing parts of Chapters 6 and 7 as well as in preparing the index. This manuscript has evolved over a number of years,
and so many people have read
and contributed that it would be impossible to acknowledge them all. My present
and past students have been particularly helpful in proofreading
and making up examples. In addition, my colleagues Gordon Beavers
and Roger Fosdick read early versions of Chapters 1 and 2 carefully
and made helpful sug- gestions. A major part of the research
and writing of the second sec- tion on rheometry was accomplished while I was a guest of Martin xvii Laun in the Polymer Physics Laboratory, Central Research of BASF in Ludwigshafen, West Germany. The opportunity to dis- cuss
and present this work with Laun
and his co-workers greatly benefited the writing. Extensive use of their data throughout this book is a small acknowledgment of their large contribution to the field of rheology. A grant from the Center for Interfacial Engineering has been very helpful in preparing the manuscript. Julie Murphy supervised this challenging activity
and was ably assisted by Bev Hochradel, Yoav Dori, Brynne Macosko,
and Sang Le. The VCH editorial
and production staff, particularly Camille Pecoul, did a fine job. I apol- ogize in advance for any errors which we all missed
and welcome corrections from careful readers. Chris Macosko August 1993 xViii / ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PREFACE Today a number of industrial
and academic researchers would like to use
rheology to help solve particular problems. They really don’t want to become full-time rheologists, but they need rheolog- ical measurements to help them characterize a new material, ana- lyze a non-Newtonian flow problem, or design a plastic part. l hope this book will meet that need. A number of sophisticated in- struments are available now for making rheological measurements. My goal is to help readers select the proper type of test for their applications, to interpret the results,
and even to determine whether or not rheological measurements can help to solve a par- ticular problem. One of the difficult barriers between much of the
rheology literature
and those who would at least like to make its acquain- tance, if not embrace it, is the tensor. That monster of the double subscript has turned back many a curious seeker of rheological wisdom. To avoid tensors, several applied
rheology books have been written in only one dimension. This can make the barrier seem even higher by avoiding even a glimpse of it. Furthermore, the one-dimensional approach precludes presentation of a number of useful, simplifying concepts. 1 have tried to expose the tensor monster as really quite a friendly
and useful little man-made invention for transforming vec- tors. It greatly simplifies notation
and makes the three-dimensional approach to
rheology practical. I have tried to make the incorpo- ration of tensors as simple
and physical as possible. Second-order tensors, Cartesian coordinates,
and a minimum of tensor manipu- lations are adequate to explain the basic principles of
rheology and to give a number of useful constitutive equations. With what is presented in the first four chapters, students will be able to read and use the current rheological literature. For curvilinear coordi- nates
and detailed development of constitutive equations, several good texts are available
and are cited where appropriate. Who should read this book,
and how should it be used? For the seasoned rheologist or mechanicist, the table of contents should serve as a helpful guide. These investigators may wish to skim over the first section but perhaps will find its discussion of constitutive relations and material functions with the inclusion of both solids
and liquids helpful
and concise. I have found these four chapters on constitutive relations a very useful introduction to rheology for first-
and second-year engineering graduate students. 1 have also used portions in a senior course in polymer processing. The rubbery solid examples are particularly helpful for later de- velopment of such processes as thermoforming
and blow molding. There are a number of worked examples which students report are helpful, especially if they attempt to do them before reading the solutions. There are additional exercises at the end of each chap- ter. Solutions to many of these are found at the end of the text. xv In Part I of the book we only use the simplest deformations, primarily simple shear
and uniaxial elongation, to develop the im- portant constitutive equations. In Part I1 the text describes rheo- meters, which can measure the material functions described in Chapters 1 through 4. How can the assumed kinematics actually be achieved in the laboratory'? This rheometry material can serve the experienced rheologist as a useful reference to the techniques presently available. Each of the major test geometries is described with the working equations, assumptions, corrections,
and limita- tions summarized in convenient tables. Both shear
and extensional rheometers are described. Design principles for measuring stress and strain in the various rheometers should prove helpful to the new user as well as to those trying to build or modify instruments. The important
and growing application of optical methods in rheol- ogy is also described. The reader who is primarily interested in using
rheology to help solve a specific
and immediate problem can go directly to a chapter of interest in Part I11 of the book on applications of rheol- ogy. These chapters are fairly self-contained. The reader can go back to the constitutive equation chapters as necessary for more background or to the appropriate rheometer section to learn more about a particular test method. These chapters are not complete discussions of the application of
rheology to suspensions
and poly- meric liquids; indeed an entire book could be,
and some cases has been, written on each one. However, useful principles
and many relevant examples are given in each area. xvi I PREFACE CONTENTS Part I. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS 1 1 / Elastic Solid 5 Christopher W. Macosko 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 I .6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 Introduction 5 The Stress Tensor 8 1.2.1 Notation 11 1.2.2 Symmetry 16 1.2.3 Pressure 18 Principal Stresses
and Invariants 20 Finite Deformation Tensors 24 1.4.1 Finger Tensor 29 1.4.2 Strain Tensor 32 1.4.3 Inverse Deformation Tensors 32 1.4.4 Principal Strains 34 Neo-Hookean Solid 37 1.5.1 Uniaxial Extension 38 1.5.2 Simple Shear 40 General Elastic Solid 40 1.6.1 Strain-Energy Function 42 1.6.2 Anisotropy 44 1.6.3 Rubber-like Liquids 45 Equations of Motion 45 1.7.1 Mass Balance 45 1.7.2 Momentum Balance 47 Boundary Conditions 52 Summary 58 Exercises 59 References 62 2 / Viscous Liquid 65 Christopher W. Macosko 2.1 Introduction 65 2.2 Velocity Gradient 68 2.3 Newtonian Fluid 77 2.4 General Viscous Fluid 83 2.2.1 Rate of Deformation Tensor 72 2.3.1 Uniaxial Extension 79 2.4.1 Power Law 84 2.4.2 Cross Model 86 vii 2.4.3 Other Viscous Models 86 2.4.4 The Importance of ZZm 89 2.4.5 Extensional Thickening Models 91 2.5.1 Other Viscoplastic Models 95 2.6.1 Equations of Motion 99 2.6.2 Boundary Conditions 99 2.6.3 Energy Equation 100 2.6.4 Temperature
and Pressure Dependence of Viscosity 100 2.5 Plastic Behavior 92 2.6 Balance Equations 98 2.7 Summary 104 2.8 Exercises 105 References 106 3 / Linear Vkwlasticity 109 3.1 Introduction 109 3.2 General Linear Viscoelastic Model 111 3.2. I Relaxation Spectrum 115 3.2.2 Linear Viscoelasticity in Three Dimensions I I5 3.2.3 Differential Form 115 3.3 Small Strain Material Functions 117 3.3.1 Stress Relaxation 118 3.3.2 Creep 119 3.3.3 Sinusoidal Oscillations 121 Christopher W. Macosko 3.4 Exercises 126 Appendix3A 127 Robert B. Secor Curve Fitting of Relaxation Modulus Approximating Form 127 Error Measure 128 Search Procedures 129 References 133 127 4 / Nonlinear Vkwlasticity 135 Ronald G. Larson 4.1 Introduction 135 4.2 Nonlinear Phenomena 138 4.2.1 Normal Stress Difference in Shear 138 4.2.2 Shear Thinning 139 4.2.3 Interrelations Between Shear 4.2.4 Extensional Thickening 142 Functions 140 Viii / CONTENTS [...]... concepts of stress, force per unit area,
and strain Stress
and strain are key concepts for
rheology and are the main subjects of this chapter If crosslinked rubber had been available in 1678, Hooke might well have also tried rubber bands in his experiments If so he would have drawn different conclusions Figure 1.1.2 shows results for a rubber sample tested in tension
and in compression We see that for small... 3.4.5Zero Shear Viscosity
and Compliance from G’, G” Recall that 530 / APPENDIX Also from Exercise 3.4.3 0 0 Expand sin ws
and cos ws in a Taylor series around ws = 0 G” = sm 0 + G(s)[l - 2 * * * ]ds Then in the limit as w + 0 G(s)ds
and lim G’ = w2 o+o W+O 0 0 Thus Chapter 4 4.6.1 Relaxation After a Step Strain for the Lodge Equation The shear stress is given by eq 4.3.19,
and y ( r , t’) is given... geometry&is called the Maxwell orthogonal rheometer or eccentric rotating disks, ERD (Macosko
and Davis, 1974; Bird, et al., 1987, also see Chapter 5 ) Usually, the coordinates 22 = y
and 23 = E are used (4 Fij = % = [5 0 -S c 0 e] where c = cos Qt
and s = sin Rt cs - s c c2 + s 2 c2 + s2+ y 2 0 0 Y Note that there are shear
and normal components of the strain Also 518 I APPENDIX note that this is the same deformation... incompressiblematerial 120 = tr 2D = 0 Thus €1 + €2 + €3 = 0 which gives €1 = -2€7 APPENDIX I 5 2 3 Thus
and the invariants are (b) Steady Equal Biaxial Extension This is the reverse of uniaxial extension a b = a:
and a2 = l/ab Thus
and for steady equal biaxial The first invariant is Ig = 1 a: +&I or
and the second becomes (2.8.7) or Dij can be evaluated from the derivatives of Bij [8 -211 2Dij = 524... common approach to equibiaxial extension is to let ( r b = cry2
and = 241, basing ~e~lgth change on the sides rather than the thickness of the samples (c) Steady Planar Extension In this case, as we saw in Example 1.8.1, a2= 1 Then from conservation of volume a = 1/a3 ,and 1 thus a; Bij=[: 0 0 l /o:] 1 a 0
and for steady planar extension
and 2.8.2 Stresses in Steady Extension (a) Power Law Fluid Apply... Shear Stress 190 5.3.2 Shear Strain
and Rate I91 5.3.3 Normal Stresses in Couette Flow I95 5.3.4 Rod Climbing I98 5.3.5 End Effects 200 5.3.6 Secondary Flows 202 5.3.7 Shear Heating in Couette Flow 203 Cone
and Plate Rheometer 205 5.4.1 Shear Stress 206 5.4.2 Shear Strain Rate 207 5.4.3 Normal Stresses 208 5.4.4 Inertia
and Secondary Flow 209 5.4.5 Edge Effects with Cone
and Plate 213 5.4.6 Shear Heating... References 471 11 /
Rheology of Polymeric Liquids 475 Matthew Tirrell 11.1 Introduction 475 11.2 Polymer Chain Conformation 476 11.3 Zero Shear Viscosity 479 11.3.1 Dilute Solution 479 11.3.2 Nondilute Polymeric Liquids 480 11.3.3 Coil Overlap 482 11.4
Rheology of Dilute Polymer Solutions 487 1 1.4.1 Elastic Dumbbell 487 11.4.2 Rouse
and Other Multihead Models 495 11.5 Concentrated Solutions
and Melts 497... Timothy P.Lodge 9.1 Introduction 379 9.2 Review of Optical Phenomena 381 9.2.1 Absorption
and Emission Spectroscopies 382 9.2.2 Scattering Techniques 382 9.2.3 Birefringence
and Dichroism 384 9.3 Polarized Light 386 9.3.1 Transmission Through a Series of Optical Elements 390 9.4 Flow Birefringence:
Principles and Practice 393 9.4.1 The Stress-Optical Relation 393 9.4.2 Range of Applicability of the... 415 9.5.7 Birefringence in Transient Flows 416 9.5.8 Rheo-Optics of Suspensions 416 9.5.9 Rotational Dynamics of Rigid Rods 417 9.6 Summary 419 References 41 9 9.5 Part I I
APPLICATIONS 423 I 10 / Suspension
Rheology 425 Jan Mewis
and Christopher W Macosko 10.1 Introduction 425 10.2 Dilute Suspensions of Spheres 428 10.2.1 Hard Spheres 428 10.2.2 Particle Migration 430 10.2.3 Emulsions 434 10.2.4 Deformable... G(s) cos ws ds 0 Thus, from eqs 3.3.28
and 3.3.29 qr = I G ( s )cos ws ds or G” = w I G(s)cos u s ds 0 0 q” = I G ( s )sin ws ds or G’ = w 0 7 G(s) sin ws ds 0 We can obtain these quantitites in terms of the discrete exponential relaxation times by substitutingin for G(s)with eq 3.2.8 or 3.2.10
and solving the definite integrals of the exponentials (check any standard integral table) For example, with . Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Macosko, Christopher W. Rheology : principles, measurements, and applications / by Christopher W. Macosko : with contributions by Ronald. of academic and industrial applications of rheology. As indicated in the Contents, two of the chapters were writ- ten by my colleagues at the University of Minnesota, Tim Lodge and Matt Tirrell in writing and editing parts of Chapters 6 and 7 as well as in preparing the index. This manuscript has evolved over a number of years, and so many people have read and contributed