The Business of Women Female Enterprise and Urban Development in Northern England 1760–1830 ppt

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[...]... Quataert, The Shaping of Women s Work in Manufacturing: Guilds, Households, and the State in Central Europe, 1648–1870’, American Historical Review 90/5 (1985), 1122–48; Rabuzzi, Women as Merchants in Eighteenth-Century Northern Germany’ 10 Introduction depiction of the ubiquity of women in business, and examines their appearance in advertising, at the centre of business networks and their physical... Britain, and England in particular, is often celebrated for the precocity of its urban and industrial development in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries But this does not mean that the picture of female economic activity presented here was unique Middling women could be found operating freely in the French guild system,²³ trading independently in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Geneva,²⁴ and acting... Leeds, and Sheffield in the Later Georgian Age surprisingly little about service, retailing, and small-scale manufacturing industries in the industrial towns of the north of England Moreover, we remain largely ignorant of the ways in which society in these places operated more generally: about, for example, the rise of the middling sorts, cultural consumption, sociability, and the emergence of a widening... fortunes and levels of independence that businesswomen enjoyed Yet as a group, their involvement in the economic life of ³ Leeds Mercury, 4 February 1809 Introduction 3 towns, and, in particular, the manner in which they exploited and facilitated commercial development, force us to reassess our understanding of both gender relations and urban culture in late Georgian England In contrast to the traditional... localities and subject—at least in theory—to the sobering in uences of hard work and religion As this chapter will demonstrate, the behaviour and outlook of the inhabitants of industrial towns challenges simplistic understandings of metropolitan cultural dominance and questions the utility of national models of consumerism and ‘politeness’ that ignore the importance of regional variation and provincialism In. .. a combination of commercial motives and cultural aspirations, the residents of northern manufacturing towns were busy transforming the urban landscape.⁵⁰ Grady’s survey of Leeds and Sheffield during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries shows a steep rise in public building after 1760: in Leeds this was marked by the erection of the Concert Hall, the General In rmary, the Leeds Library, and the town’s... north America during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.²⁷ It seems likely, however, that middling women s involvement in business was most prevalent in towns that were undergoing the early stages of modern industrial development and consumer growth In such relatively fluid and changing environments, businesswomen found themselves able to participate in great numbers and with a sort of independence... eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries While women of the lower middling sorts were most likely to be involved in certain sectors of the economy traditionally associated with women s work—namely clothing, food and drink, and shopkeeping and dealing—they could be found running most types of lower middling business throughout the period Chapter 3 builds upon this ²⁷ Though see Claudia Goldin, The Economic... especially in millinery and dress and hat making—were common In 1809, for example, E Haley informed parents and guardians in Leeds that she could teach the manufacturing of Thread Lace’ to ‘Young Ladies’, which they could supplement with learning the Straw hat business .³ This study argues that businesswomen were central to urban society and to the operation and development of commerce in the late... predominated in Georgian towns owing, at least in part, to the particular attractions that an urban lifestyle offered them, including the lure of better employment.¹¹ Yet a powerful body of scholarship on gender relations in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and the middle classes in particular, suggests that women of the middling sort were increasingly unlikely to labour outside the home as the . alt="" THE BUSINESS OF WOMEN This page intentionally left blank The Business of Women Female Enterprise and Urban Development in Northern England 1760–1830 HANNAH. problems of defining women s work, see the introduc-tion to the revised edition of Leonore Davidoff and Catherine Hall’s, Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the
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