Review of the Need for a Large- scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures pptx

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Visit the National Academies Press online, the authoritative source for all books from the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council: • Download hundreds of free books in PDF • Read thousands of books online, free • Sign up to be notified when new books are published • Purchase printed books • Purchase PDFs • Explore with our innovative research tools Thank you for downloading this free PDF. If you have comments, questions or just want more information about the books published by the National Academies Press, you may contact our customer service department toll-free at 888-624-8373, visit us online, or send an email to comments@nap.edu. This free book plus thousands more books are available at http://www.nap.edu. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. 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ISBN: 0-309-06483-X, 48 pages, 8.5 x 11, (1999)This free PDF was downloaded from:http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.htmlReview of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures Committee to Review the Need for a Large-scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures, National Research Council Review of the Need for a Large-scale Test Facility for Researchon the Effects of Extreme Windson StructuresCommittee to Review the Need for a Large-scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects ofExtreme Winds on StructuresBoard on Infrastructure and the Constructed EnvironmentCommission on Engineering and Technical SystemsNational Research CouncilNATIONAL ACADEMY PRESSWASHINGTON, D.C. 1999iAbout this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true tothe original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use theprint version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Review of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.htmlNOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose mem-bers are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee con-sisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific andengineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority ofthe charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientificand technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallelorganization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the NationalAcademy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer-ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers.Dr. William Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members ofappropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibilitygiven to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initia-tive, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is President of the Institute of Medicine.The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of sci-ence and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordancewith general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy ofSciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineeringcommunities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William Wulfare chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.This study was supported by Grant No. DE-FG07-98ID13722 from the U.S. Department of Energy to the National Academy of Sci-ences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors(s) and do not necessar-ily reflect the view of the organization or agency that provided support for this project.International Standard Book Number 0-309-06483-XAvailable in limited supply from: Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., HA 274,Washington, D.C. 20418, (202) 334-3376Additional copies of this report are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC20418 Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). This report is also available on line at http://www.nap.eduPrinted in the United States of America.Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.iiAbout this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true tothe original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use theprint version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Review of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.htmlCommittee to Review the Need for a Large-scale Test Facility for Research on the Effectsof Extreme Winds on StructuresJACK E. CERMAK, chair,Colorado State University, Fort CollinsALAN G. DAVENPORT, University of Western Ontario, LondonMICHAEL P. GAUS, State University of New York at BuffaloSTEPHEN R. HOOVER, Kemper/NATLSCO, Long Grove, IllinoisNICHOLAS P. JONES, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MarylandAHSAN KAREEM, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IndianaRICHARD J. KRISTIE, Wiss, Janey, Elstner Associates, Inc., Northbrook, IllinoisWILLIAM F. MARCUSON, III, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MississippiJOSEPH E. MINOR, University of Missouri-RollaJOSEPH PENZIEN, International Civil Engineering Consultants, Inc., Berkeley, CaliforniaMARK D. POWELL, National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration, Miami, FloridaTIMOTHY A. REINHOLD, Clemson University, Clemson, South CarolinaELEONORA SABADELL, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VirginiaEMIL SIMIU, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MarylandStaffRICHARD G. LITTLE, Study DirectorMICHELLE L. PORTERFIELD, ConsultantJENIFER BOLSER, Project AssistantAMANDA PICHA, Project AssistantiiiAbout this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true tothe original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use theprint version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Review of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.htmlBoard on Infrastructure and the Constructed EnvironmentJAMES O. JIRSA, chair, University of Texas, AustinBRENDA MYERS BOHLKE, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., Herndon, VirginiaJACK E. BUFFINGTON, University of Arkansas, FayettevilleRICHARD DATTNER, Richard Dattner Architect, P.C., New York, New YorkCLAIRE FELBINGER, American University, Washington, D.C.AMY GLASMEIER, Pennsylvania State University, University ParkCHRISTOPHER M. GORDON, Massachusetts Port Authority, BostonNEIL GRIGG, Colorado State University, Fort CollinsDELON HAMPTON, Delon Hampton & Associates, Washington, D.C.GEORGE D. LEAL, Dames & Moore, Inc., Los Angeles, CaliforniaVIVIAN LOFTNESS, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaMARTHA A. ROZELLE, The Rozelle Group, Ltd., Phoenix, ArizonaSARAH SLAUGHTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CambridgeRAE ZIMMERMAN, New York University, New YorkStaffRICHARD G. LITTLE, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed EnvironmentLYNDA L. STANLEY, Director, Federal Facilities CouncilJOHN A. WALEWSKI, Program OfficerLORI DUPREE, Administrative AssociateAMANDA PICHA, Administrative AssistantivAbout this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true tothe original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use theprint version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Review of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.htmlAcknowledgementsThis report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives andknowledge of the subject matter, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC Report Review Committee.The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the NRC inmaking this report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence,and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protectthe integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in thereview of this report:Ms. Nancy Rutledge Connery, Woolwich, MaineDr. Joseph H. Golden, National Oceanic and Atmospheric AssociationDr. George W. Housner, California Institute of TechnologyDr. Dennis Mileti, University of ColoradoDr. Dorothy A. Reed, University of WashingtonMr. Herbert Rothman, Weidlinger AssociatesDr. Robert H. Scanlan, Johns Hopkins UniversityAlthough these individuals provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized thatresponsibility for the final content of the report rests with the authoring committee and the NRC.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vAbout this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true tothe original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use theprint version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Review of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.htmlACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viAbout this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true tothe original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use theprint version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Review of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.htmlContents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 3 Scope of the Study 3 Organization of the Study 4 Organization of the Report 4 2 Technical Aspects of A Large-Scale Wind Test Facility 6 Introduction 6 Previous Assessments 6 Wind-Hazard Research 7 Value of Large-scale Testing 8 Role of a Large-scale Test Facility in Wind Engineering Research 12 Priority of a Large-scale Wind Test Facility 15 3 Economic Considerations 17 4 Findings and Recommendations 19 Findings 19 Recommendations 21 References 22 Appendixes A Biographies of Committee Members 27 B Questionnaire, Respondents, and Synthesis of Responses 33 Acronyms 40CONTENTS viiAbout this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true tothe original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use theprint version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Review of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.htmlCONTENTS viiiAbout this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true tothe original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use theprint version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Review of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.htmlExecutive SummaryThe Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), through the U.S. Department ofEnergy (DOE), has proposed that a large-scale wind test facility (LSWTF) be constructed to study, in full-scale,the behavior of low-rise structures under simulated extreme wind conditions. To determine the need for, andpotential benefits of, such a facility, the Idaho Operations Office of the DOE requested that the National ResearchCouncil (NRC) perform an independent assessment of the role and potential value of an LSWTF in the overallcontext of wind engineering research. The NRC established the Committee to Review the Need for a Large-scaleTest Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures, under the auspices of the Board onInfrastructure and the Constructed Environment, to perform this assessment. This report conveys the results of thecommittee's deliberations as well as its findings and recommendations.Data developed at large-scale would enhance our understanding of how structures, particularly light-framestructures, are affected by extreme winds (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, and other events).Existing field data are based on observations and measurements of winds associated with the passage of frontalsystems and a limited number of strong wind events. However, significant gaps exist in the meteorological datafor severe wind events. Most data on structural loading has been derived from testing small-scale models inturbulent boundary-layer wind flow simulations; performance data have been collected from post-storm damageassessments and simplified tests of full-sized components. Mobile instrumentation systems have also beendeployed in advance of storms to obtain data on the nature of extreme winds. New projects are being initiated bythe National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the DOE, the National Institute of Standards andTechnology, and several universities to gather wind data, measure structural loading, and observe structuralperformance during extreme wind events.With a large-scale wind test facility, full-sized structures, such as site-built or manufactured housing andsmall commercial or industrial buildings, could be tested under a range of wind conditions in a controlled,repeatable environment. At this time, the United States has no facility specifically constructed for this purpose.The use of aeronautical testing facilities, such as the facilities operated by the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA) at the Ames Research Center, has been discussed. However, additional study will beneeded to determine if facilities of this type can be effectively used for large-scale structural research.During the course of this study, the authoring committee was confronted by two difficult questions: (1) doesthe lack of a facility equate to a need for the facility? and (2) is need alone sufficient justification for theconstruction of a facility? These questions might not have engaged the committee at all if considerable resourceswere already available for wind engineering research and a coordinated national wind-hazard reduction programwere in place. The committee found, however, that funding for research in wind engineering is only a few milliondollars annually, and, despite some excellent programs and activities by government agencies and researchinstitutions, research has not been strategically planned, coordinated, managed, or funded. Therefore, thecommittee raised a third question: would the benefits derived fromEXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true tothe original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use theprint version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Review of the Need for a Large-Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html[...]... publication as the authoritative version for attribution Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF A LARGE -SCALE WIND TEST FACILITY 16 engineering research, from the standpoint of overall funding and the capacity for technology deployment, the construction of an LSWTF at this... as the authoritative version for attribution Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF A LARGE -SCALE WIND TEST FACILITY 12 uncertainties could lead to economical designs more consistent with the actual level of risk The real benefit of improved large -scale testing would be the. .. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 information produced in an LSWTF justify the costs of producing that information? The committee's evaluation of the need and justification for. .. retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html INTRODUCTION 4 auspices of the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment The. .. retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF A LARGE -SCALE WIND TEST FACILITY • • • • • • • 11 Testing of windborne... authoritative version for attribution Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 17 3 Economic Considerations Most major public expenditures of the magnitude required to design, construct, and operate an LSWTF are subjected to a rigorous economic analysis as an integral part of the. .. and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF A LARGE -SCALE. .. and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF A LARGE -SCALE. .. retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 21 Finding 7 Construction of an LSWTF is premature Before an... the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6458.html INTRODUCTION 5 the committee's deliberations regarding the value of large -scale test data, wind-hazard research, uses and needs for large -scale testing, and the benefits and role of an LSWTF in wind engineering research Chapter 3 is a discussion of economic considerations that the committee believes are relevant to an evaluation . National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures. National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Review of the Need for a Large -Scale Test Facility for Research on the Effects of Extreme Winds on Structures
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