Tài liệu Multiple Vulnerabilities qualitave data for the stydy of orpharns and vulnerable children in South Africa ppt

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Multiple vulnerabilitiesQualitative data for the study of orphans and vulnerable children in South AfricaAlicia Davids, Nkululeku Nkomo, Sakhumzi Mfecane, Donald Skinner & Kopano RateleEdited by Donald Skinner & Alicia DavidsFree download from www.hsrcpress.ac.zaCompiled by the Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Health Research Programme,Human Sciences Research CouncilPublished by HSRC PressPrivate Bag X9182, Cape Town, 8000, South Africawww.hsrcpress.ac.za© 2006 Human Sciences Research CouncilFirst published 2006All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.ISBN 0-7969-2139-3Production management by comPressDistributed in Africa by Blue Weaver PO Box 30370, Tokai, Cape Town, 7966, South AfricaTel: +27 (0) 21 701 4477Fax: +27 (0) 21 701 7302email: orders@blueweaver.co.zawww.oneworldbooks.comDistributed in Europe and the United Kingdom by Eurospan Distribution Services (EDS)3 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, WC2E 8LU, United KingdomTel: +44 (0) 20 7240 0856Fax: +44 (0) 20 7379 0609email: orders@edspubs.co.ukwww.eurospanonline.comDistributed in North America by Independent Publishers Group (IPG)Order Department, 814 North Franklin Street, Chicago, IL 60610, USACall toll-free: (800) 888 4741All other enquiries: +1 (312) 337 0747Fax: +1 (312) 337 5985email: frontdesk@ipgbook.comwww.ipgbook.comFree download from www.hsrcpress.ac.zaCONTENTSList of tables and figures vList of authors viAcknowledgements viiAcronyms and abbreviations viiiExecutive summary ixChapter 1 Introduction — Donald Skinner and Alicia Davids 1 Defining orphanhood and vulnerability 1 The situation of OVC in South Africa 2Chapter 2 Background and aims of the project — Donald Skinner and Alicia Davids 5 Aims of the research 5Chapter 3 Methodology — Donald Skinner and Alicia Davids 7 Semi-structured interviews 7 Research instrument 7 Sampling method 7 Sample Kopanong 8 Sample Kanana 8 Observations 9 Analysis 9Chapter 4 Qualitative Report Of Ovc Living Conditions And Services In The Kopanong Municipality, Free State Province — Sakhumzi Mfecane, Donald Skinner and Alicia Davids 11 Geographical context 12 Economic situation 14 Poverty and unemployment 14 Situation of youth 15 Situation of HIV/AIDS 17 Context of people living with HIV/AIDS 21 Context of OVC 24 Support systems for OVC 30 Challenges facing government departments 35 NGO, CBO and FBO support structures 37 Challenges facing NGOS/CBOS 39 Discussion 40Free download from www.hsrcpress.ac.zaChapter 5 Qualitative Report Regarding The Situation Of Orphans And Vulnerable Children (Ovc) In Kanana And Umuzimuhle Townships, North West Province — Kopano Ratele, Donald Skinner and Nkululeku Nkomo 43 Distinctive and common elements between the two townships 43 Umuzimuhle 43 Kanana 44 Major problems in the target areas: unemployment, poverty and shortages of food 45 HIV/AIDS: impact on the community 49 The situation of OVC 54 Situation of households caring for OVC 61 Support structures for ovc in the community 73 Conclusion 78Chapter 6 Overall Conclusions And Recommendations — Donald Skinner and Alicia Davids 81 Care of OVC 82 Support for families and households that care for OVC 83 Support for communities that care for OVC 84 HIV prevention and intervention 84 Recommendations for state services 85 Recommendations for NGOs that support OVC 86Appendices 89References 105Free download from www.hsrcpress.ac.zavTablesTable 1 Ethnic composition in 2001 compared with the average for the district in 1996 11Table 2 Education levels for persons 20 years and older, 2001 12FiguresFigure 1 Map of the Kopanong Municipality 13vLIST OF TABLES AND FIGURESFree download from www.hsrcpress.ac.za viAlicia Davids, Health Promotion and Behavioural Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research CouncilNkululeku Nkomo, Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Public Health, Human Sciences Research CouncilSakhumzi Mfecane, WISER, University of the WitwatersrandDonald Skinner, Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Public Health, Human Sciences Research CouncilKopano Ratele, Dept of Psychology, University of the Western CapeAUTHORSFree download from www.hsrcpress.ac.zaviiThis report reflects a collaborative endeavour involving many people. Although the list below is not an exhaustive one, we wish to thank the following people and organisations for their participation and unstinting support in this study:• The WW Kellogg Foundation for their financial support and making this study possible• The Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund, our partner for this project in South Africa.• Our colleagues from the HSRC who assisted in providing information, doing fieldwork, reading and editing and giving comments, including Alicia Davids, Nkululeku Nkomo, Adlai Davids, Leickness Simbayi and Anna Strebel.• Representatives from Kopanong, who provided assistance when needed. Particular thanks is given to Jackie Lingalo, Mr Lethuteng and Thomas Tladi, District Manager Department of Social Development; Mr Serf Van Schalkwyk, District Manager Department of Agriculture; Mrs Rebecca Sempe, District Co-ordinator of the health department; Mr Lerato Khetshane, District Manager Municipality; Mr Motshepehi; Jacob Mphakwanyana, Teacher and HIV Educator; Vuyokazi Buwa, Social Worker and Community Liason (OVC and HIV focused) Department of Social Development; Ms Magazine Peterson, Councillor Springfontein; Mr Thabo Hlasa, ANC Chaiperson Trompsburg; Mr Mancane Rigala, fieldwork guide Springfontein (now working for municipality); Ms Mariana Sibunyane, Councillor Jagersfontein; Mrs Anna Morapelo, Councillor Bethulie; Mr Michael Moitse Councillor Fouresmith; Mr Sello Ntaysane, Mayor of Kopanong and Ms Nonceba Tafane, Philani Victim Support Centre.• In Matjhabeng: Mr Mpho Ralipeli from the Matjhabeng AIDS Consortium; Ms Palesa Mphatsoe (Social Development); Mr Clifford Clark from Mathjaben Christian Leaders Forum; Mr Ernest Molefi (Morning Star); Mr M Khantsi from the Department of Health; Ms Lebohang Mokoena Department of Home Affairs; Ms Nuku Radebe from Meloding Day Care Centre advisory board; Ms Monica Mokalake (Day Care Centre advisory board). The three women from Thabong and Bronville who gave us a tour of Thabong and other areas surrounding the township, Elizabeth Noe, Gladys Khasu and Rosina Thajana, and last, but not least, Rev Paul Okpon.• In Kanana: Ms Nella Modjanaga and Mr Gideon Engelbrecht from the Department of Health. They, particularly Mr Engelbrecht, facilitated interviews with people from NGOs and nursing sisters at Grace Mokgomu Clinic. Matladi Lesupi and Nomonde Lehloo, from KOSH Care and Support Group and Hospice respectively, both of whom facilitated interviews with carers and OVC. Sibongile Dlamini and Ncebo Molefe, who took us for a tour of Kanana and Umuzimuhle. Officials from the Departments of Health, Education and Social Development, as well as from the City Council of Klerksdorp (i.e the office of the speaker) who granted interviews. Representatives from NGOs who granted interviews. Finally, we would like to thank all the people who participated and provided information, including those OVC and their carers without whose generosity this study would not have been possible. Their participation is testimony that if we all put our energies together we can obtain the information necessary to tackle the epidemic that confronts us all and provide the much-needed care for orphaned and vulnerable children.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSviiFree download from www.hsrcpress.ac.zaviiiACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSAIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndromeARV antiretroviral drugsCBO Community based organisationDoA Department of AgricultureDoE Department of EducationDoH Department of HealthDSD Department of Social DevelopmentFBO Faith based organisationGDP gross domestic productGMC Grace Mokgomu ClinicHIV human immunodeficiency virusIDP integrated development planKOSH District of Klerksdorp, Orkney, Stilfontein and HartebeesfonteinNGO non-governmental organisationOVC orphans and vulnerable childrenPLWHA people living with HIV/AIDSPMTCT prevention of mother-to-child transmissionSTI sexually transmitted infectionRDP reconstruction and development programmeUNICEF United Nations International Children’s FundFree download from www.hsrcpress.ac.zaixEXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 2002 the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) received funds from the Kellogg Foundation to undertake research and interventions for orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) in three countries in southern Africa, these being South Africa, Botswana and Zimbabwe. The project aims to contribute towards improvement of the conditions of OVC in these countries. In South Africa, the HSRC partnered as the researchers with the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund (NMCF) as the facilitators of the interventions. The NMCF directs the funding and provides support to local non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and community-based organisations (CBOs) in identified sites to implement interventions. Work is being done in two provinces identified as having a great need for such interventions.Qualitative studies were conducted in Kopanong, a local municipality in the Xhariep district, Free State, and Kanana, a local municipality in the southern Klerksdorp district, North West Province. This research was conducted to develop an understanding of the core dynamics affecting OVC in these communities. This information would facilitate developing and implementing interventions to provide assistance to OVC, their carers and their communities and act as part of the baseline information for evaluating these interventions. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in Kopanong and 36 in Kanana. Information was collected from government departments, NGOs/CBOs, OVC and their carers, community leaders and community members. These explored in detail the situation of OVC, status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and that of carers of OVC. Finally, this phase intended to document services offered to OVC by government and NGOs, identify strengths and weaknesses of these services and to identify possible ways of improving them. A brief summary based on the results of the interviews follows.Kopanong district, in the southern Free State province, covers a large area geographically, but is very sparsely populated. It comprises some small towns, but consists mostly of farms. The community is extremely poor, with high levels of unemployment. While some of the towns are built close to the major highway leading to Bloemfontein, many of the roads between the towns are untarred. The poor roads and long distances between towns make community development and the provision of services more complicated. Kanana, in the North West province, is a large, densely populated township close to Orkney that constitutes part of a series of towns servicing the gold mines. The towns comprise many migrant workers from across the country, their families and many others who have come to seek work or income. There are a large number of informal houses in the district, which contain their own health threats. The industry in the area is threatened as the gold price comes under increasing pressure. HIV/AIDS is a significant concern in the communities. The respondents all felt that the poverty in the area was the most serious contributor, with the high levels of substance abuse and the silence around and fear of HIV/AIDS also being serious. In Kopanong particularly, there were very few HIV/AIDS interventions because even the large national campaigns such as LoveLife did not have a presence there. A particular problem noted was alcohol abuse among both youth and adults, which was regarded as resulting from inactivity and pessimism about the future, as career prospects within the area are limited. Alcohol abuse was felt to have multiple negative consequences, for example, engaging in unsafe sex and wasting already limited financial resources.A number of factors were felt to be contributing to children feeling vulnerable. Both communities were reported already to have large numbers of children who had been orphaned by HIV/AIDS, as well as by other causes. The number of fathers who were Free download from www.hsrcpress.ac.zaxxabsent made this worse. Concern was already being raised that there are insufficient caretakers to look after the children who are in need of assistance. At the time of the research, it appeared that virtually all of the children were living with a caretaker, with few child headed households. A number of the other contextual variables were given as contributing to the vulnerability of children living in these areas. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS was already seen as high in the communities, with respondents feeling that the figures were rising steeply. A further, and ultimately greater, concern related to the financial capacity of existing households to provide care. Poverty was felt to be the major factor that would lead to children not being cared for in the future. Other factors included the impact of the desperate levels of poverty, which respondents felt was forcing boys into crime and girls into survival sex as a means of coping. Other concerns centred around substance abuse, both by carers and the children themselves, and very high levels of child abuse. The latter included physical and sexual abuse for the purposes of financial gain. This is a particular concern as the damage done to children has long-term implications. It appeared from the interviews that most caretakers who took in additional children were doing this to provide care and were genuinely concerned about these children. Varying levels of ubuntu (sense of community caring for one another) were found in both communities. However concerns were raised about carers taking in children for the purposes to take advantage of their grants. A number were accused of taking the grants for themselves and providing minimal care and assistance to the children that they had taken on. Substance abuse was felt to result in the adults not being available to provide care and direction, and it absorbed most or all of the financial resources of the household. Concern about carers also centred around the potential for their neglect of the children generally while child abuse too was seen as a serious problem, including sexual, physical and financial abuse. This has serious long-term implications and is difficult to prevent or address.Unemployment results in inactivity and subsequent involvement in destructive lifestyles, which further contribute to the vulnerability amongst community members. This has major implications for the OVC who live in these communities. Carers who have limited or no financial support and who are unemployed, care for the majority of OVC. Households then lack resources to provide for children and are in turn resistant to taking on more children. Often they lack access to basic necessities for a child, for example, school uniforms, regular and healthy food, and have insufficient time to offer adequate individual care. Concerns were also raised regarding social conditions that lead to some parents neglecting their children and who rather entertain themselves in local shebeens than look after their children, which further exacerbates OVC vulnerability.The interviews showed municipalities characterised by poverty, high rates of unemployment, limited resources, poor roads and infrastructure, and for many, problems of access to services. Direct access to individual services varied. Most children had access to health services, with virtually all living within accessible distance of a clinic. Difficulties in talking about HIV made services for treatment and prevention in this area difficult to reach. For example services are difficult to deliver as service providers are expected to travel long distances on poor roads. The municipality of Kopanong is dispersed, which exacerbates the slowness of service delivery. Multiple vulnerabilitiesFree download from www.hsrcpress.ac.za[...]... mines in the district The economy of the area has been reducing in size over the last few years Central to this is the recession in the mining industry The gold price has dropped considerably from when these mines were originally developed and the gold reserves in the mines are running out The collapse of the mining industry raises further problems, for example, most of the migrant labourers left the. .. sectors in the community offer limited employment and have to operate off a very limited base of income in the community Unlike other towns in South Africa, informal trade, whether in the form of food, clothes, etc., does not exist within towns except during the periods of grant payments and other similar points of income, when products can be sold to the recipients Poverty and unemployment Poverty and. .. www.hsrcpress.ac.za In line with the report on the definition of OVC (Skinner et al., 2004), drawn from the communities where the project is being done, found that the loss of either parent put strain on the child, as the loss of the mother often means loss of the direct carer, while the loss of the father puts the household in a difficult financial situation HIV/AIDS stands out as a cause of orphanhood, in that if... informant interviewees based on their involvement in OVC and HIV-related work and their experiences of either caring for OVC or being an orphaned / vulnerable child themselves Other categories of participants (community members and community leaders) were selected on the basis of their knowledge of community issues and involvement in community development initiatives 7 Multiple vulnerabilities In South. .. to the poor quality of the roads These conditions discouraged service providers, for example doctors, from working in the district But the biggest challenge in this district is the big size of the community, the vast area, the vastness of the area For instance, for me to move from here in Koffiefontein to Smithfield the other sub office it’s a two hours drive, and if you drive for two hours within the. .. that the economy of the district is at risk due to the decline of the agricultural sector in the past few years A long drought and the rise 13 Multiple vulnerabilities in costs of farming as well as competition from international markets contribute to the decline of the agricultural sector The economic situation was reported to have been made worse by the fall in profitability and closure of many of the. .. orphaned children are more frequently cared for by grandparents The pressure of the increasing number of OVC has seen families splitting and reforming in different ways in response to more stressful circumstances (Bray, 2003) The long-term impact of this and the capacity to sustain care still need careful monitoring and evaluation Of great concern is the high number of inadequate carers, including those... from the numbers of people who are hanging around in the townships during working hours Most of them were reported to spend their time in shebeens that sell cheap alcohol Unemployment has mainly resulted from the deterioration of the mining industry that provided the bulk of employment for the majority of men Many people lack skills required for employment because of lower levels of education within the. .. garage to rest Other 19 Multiple vulnerabilities towns such as Gariep Dam Trompsburg and Edenberg are also situated close to the national road, but it was in Springfontein that most of commercial sex took place And the reason for that (high rates of HIV infections in Springfontein) is that in Springfontein you have, it’s on the N1, the Springfontein, you have trucks coming in and out the area (DSD representative,... especially incidents of stigma and discrimination, as well as violation of human rights of those living with HIV/AIDS • Challenges in caring for OVC • Policy and legislation for the protection of OVC • Initial evaluation questions about the implementing intervention organisation in the sites • Major sources of information on HIV and AIDS • Challenges in protecting themselves from HIV Sampling method Participants . partner for this project in South Africa. • Our colleagues from the HSRC who assisted in providing information, doing fieldwork, reading and editing and giving. assistance to OVC, their carers and their communities and act as part of the baseline information for evaluating these interventions. Thirty in- depth interviews
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