Tài liệu Working Around the Military’’ Revisited - Spouse Employment in the 2000 Census Data pptx

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This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law as indicated in a notice appearing later in this work. This electronic representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for non-commercial use only. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of our research documents.Limited Electronic Distribution RightsVisit RAND at www.rand.orgExplore RAND National Defense Research InstituteView document detailsFor More InformationThis PDF document was made available from www.rand.org as a public service of the RAND Corporation.6Jump down to documentTHE ARTSCHILD POLICYCIVIL JUSTICEEDUCATIONENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTHEALTH AND HEALTH CAREINTERNATIONAL AFFAIRSNATIONAL SECURITYPOPULATION AND AGINGPUBLIC SAFETYSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYSUBSTANCE ABUSETERRORISM AND HOMELAND SECURITYTRANSPORTATION ANDINFRASTRUCTUREWORKFORCE AND WORKPLACEThe RAND Corporation is a nonprofit research organization providing objective analysis and effective solutions that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors around the world.Purchase this documentBrowse Books & PublicationsMake a charitable contributionSupport RANDThis product is part of the RAND Corporation monograph series. RAND monographs present major research findings that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND mono-graphs undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity.Nelson Lim, Daniela Golinelli, Michelle ChoPrepared for the Office of the Secretary of DefenseApproved for public release; distribution unlimited“Working Around the Military” RevisitedSpouse Employment in the 2000 Census DataThe RAND Corporation is a nonprofit research organization providing objective analysis and effective solutions that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors around the world. RAND’s publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.R® is a registered trademark.© Copyright 2007 RAND CorporationAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from RAND.Published 2007 by the RAND Corporation1776 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-21381200 South Hayes Street, Arlington, VA 22202-50504570 Fifth Avenue, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2665RAND URL: http://www.rand.org/To order RAND documents or to obtain additional information, contact Distribution Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Email: order@rand.orgThe research described in this report was prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). The research was conducted in the RAND National Defense Research Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the OSD, the Joint Staff, the Unified Combatant Commands, the Department of the Navy, the Marine Corps, the defense agencies, and the defense Intelligence Community under Contract DASW01-01-C-0004.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available for this publication.ISBN: 978-0-8330-4118-0iiiPrefaceis study updates the analyses of the previous RAND Corpora-tion study Working Around the Military: Challenges to Military Spouse Employment and Education (Harrell et al., 2004), and revisits the gaps in employment and earnings between military and civilian spouses as well as the demographic and contextual differences that may be associ-ated with those gaps. Like the earlier study, this one responds to the recognition that military readiness and retention of service members depend to some extent on the quality of life for members’ families, and that an important element of quality of life for military spouses is employment. Yet information on spouse employment and earnings has been less than complete. Working Around the Military (and some nota-ble predecessors by other researchers) made considerable strides toward achieving a more thorough understanding. at RAND study, how-ever, was based on the 1990 census and was restricted, insofar as infer-ences from census data were concerned, to military wives. e current document repeats and extends the census-based analyses of military wives using data from the 2000 census and also reports the first census-based results for military husbands. is study should be of interest to military policymakers, advocates for military families, military service members and their spouses, and those in the analytic community who study military families and/or wage and employment gaps, in particu-lar gaps among women.e research was sponsored by the Office of the Under Secre-tary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness and was conducted within the Forces and Resources Policy Center of the RAND National iv “Working Around the Military” RevisitedDefense Research Institute, a federally funded research and develop-ment center sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff, the Unified Combatant Commands, the Department of the Navy, the Marine Corps, the defense agencies, and the defense Intel-ligence Community. Comments are welcome and may be addressed to Nelson_Lim@rand.org. For more information on RAND’s Forces and Resources Policy Center, contact the Director, James Hosek. He can be reached by e-mail at James_Hosek@rand.org; by phone at 310-393-0411, extension 7183; or by mail at the RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, California 90407-2138. More information about RAND is available at www.rand.org. ContentsvPreface iiiFigures ixTables xiSummary xiiiAcknowledgments xxiiiAbbreviations xxvCHAPTER ONEIntroduction 1Explanations of Employment Disparities Between Military and Civilian Spouses 2Life-Cycle Factors 2Mobility, Location, and Other Demands of the Military Life Style 3Labor Market Factors 4Taste for Work 6Summary 7Method and Approach 8Data from the 2000 Population Census 8Propensity Score (or Look-Alike) Analysis 11Limitations of the Look-Alike Analysis 13Policy Implications 14Organization of is Report 14vi “Working Around the Military” RevisitedCHAPTER TWOProfile of Military Wives 17Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Military and Civilian Wives Have Gotten More Diverse 17Military Wives Are More Educated an eir Civilian Counterparts 19Military Wives Are Younger an Civilian Wives 20Military Wives Are More Likely to Have Young Children at Home 22Military Families Move Farther and More Frequently an Civilians 23Military Wives Are Still More Likely to Live in Metropolitan Areas 25Summary 26CHAPTER THREEMilitary and Civilian Wives’ Employment Conditions 29Military Wives Are Less Likely to Be Employed 29Military Spouses Are More Likely an Civilians to Be Unemployed 32Military Wives Earn Less an Civilian Wives 34Relative Earnings of Military Wives Living in Metropolitan Areas 37Summary 42CHAPTER FOURProfile of Military Husbands 45Military Husbands Are Less Likely to Be White 45Military Husbands Are More Educated an Civilian Counterparts 45Military Husbands Are More Likely to Have Young Children at Home 47Military Husbands Move Farther and More Frequently an Civilian Husbands 48Employment Status of Military Husbands Differs from EmploymentStatus of Civilian Husbands 49Military Husbands Are More Likely to Be Unemployed an Civilian Husbands 50Military Husbands Earn Less an Civilian Husbands 51Relative Earnings of Military Husbands Living in Metropolitan Areas 53Summary 54Contents viiCHAPTER FIVEConclusion 57APPENDIXResults of Statistical Analysis 59Bibliography 69[...]... wages xx Working Around the Military” Revisited Conclusion The updated analysis using data from the 2000 census confirms findings previously reported in Harrell et al (2004) The demographic and employment trends of military and civilian spouses from a decade ago still hold true in general Military spouses continue to be at a relative disadvantage in the labor market compared with civilian spouses The recommendation... activities 8 Working Around the Military” Revisited Method and Approach Data from the 2000 Population Census This study used data from the 2000 U.S Census Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS).6 From available samples, we chose the sample that represents 5 percent of the U.S population in 2000. 7 To study military spouses, we kept all couples from the 5... particularly helpful 1 In this study, military spouses are civilians who are married to members of the U.S Armed Forces 1 2 Working Around the Military” Revisited for policymakers who are interested in evaluating the effectiveness of various policy options, as well as for the research community interested in further inquiry The analytical approach of this report closely mirrors the approach taken by... ago The impact of life-cycle factors can be analyzed by using the data from the census and the DoD Military Spouse Surveys.4 Mobility, Location, and Other Demands of the Military Life Style Military families move frequently and often long distances Preparing and managing these moves take time and effectively prevent military spouses from engaging in labor market activities For most military spouses, these... complete information about workers’ productivity and jobs’ quality, the sorting and matching process is essentially subjective For instance, employers use their prejudices in their sorting of workers from the most to the least desirable Individuals who are at the bottom of the labor queue are “last hired and first fired.” And the wages of these individuals are lower than of those who are higher up in the. .. “self- Introduction 7 selected” to be part of the U.S military, which has been an all-voluntary force since 1973 Survey data, including the census, do not contain information about the life-style tastes and preferences needed to verify such an explanation We can, however, glean clues of the plausibility (or implausibility) of taste-based explanations by comparing employment conditions among military spouses... military spouses and the spouses’ “taste” for work For instance, the look-alike analyses on the military wives’ unemployment rates (see Figure S.2) suggest that policies and programs aimed at reducing the unemployment rates of military wives may succeed in narrowing the observed gap However, they would not eliminate the portion of the gap that is attributable to unobserved characteristics, to the extent... other data sources such as the Current Population Surveys (CPS) and the Department of Defense’s own Military Spouse Surveys The sample size of military spouses in the census data is considerably larger than that in other data sources, allowing detailed analyses across military services Moreover, the quality of demographic and migration information available in the census data is comparable to (if not... civilian spouses’ employment conditions using the latest population census (2000) It includes a review of employment conditions for military husbands, who were previously excluded due to limited availability of data The study also embarks on an in- depth examination of the nature of the various factors that contribute to employment disparities This update on employment disparities can help distinguish... impact of individual and contextual characteristics on employment The look-alike analysis, as the name suggests, isolates the effect of observable background characteristics on employment conditions of military spouses by comparing them with civilian spouses whose back- 3 Again, this analysis is intended to demonstrate the relative earnings of military husbands compared to civilian husbands within the same . Contract DASW0 1-0 1-C-0004.Library of Congress Cataloging -in- Publication Data is available for this publication.ISBN: 97 8-0 -8 33 0-4 11 8-0 iiiPrefaceis. military spouses is employment. Yet information on spouse employment and earnings has been less than complete. Working Around the Military (and some nota-ble
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