# Lecture 2: Measuring economic activity GDP

## Lecture 2 - RF Fundamentals

... http://www.fab-corp.com February 20 05 Copyright 20 05 All Rights Reserved 22 External Antenna Contd 2. 4 Gz dB Log Periodic Antenna 2. 4 Gz dB Magnetic Mount Omni Antenna February 20 05 Copyright 20 05 All ... ARSINIDE February 20 05 LIGHT VELOCITY (km/s) 1.0 1.00003 1.33 1.46 1.5 2. 0 3.4 3.6 Copyright 20 05 All Rights Reserved 300,000 300,000 22 5,000 20 5,000 20 0,000 150,000 88,000 83,000 14 RF Behavior Contd ... Rights Reserved 23 2. 4 Gz 10 dBi Omni-Directional Antenna February 20 05 Copyright 20 05 All Rights Reserved 24 15.5 dBi Flat Panel Panel (6 – 90 degree beamwidth) February 20 05 Copyright 20 05 All Rights...
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## Lecture 2 ArithCode

... (0.10110111101100000101 )2 20 bits 0.71753375 < 0.71753407… < 0.71753500 b) Codelength m: m=-log2(r) = -log2(0.0000 125 ) = 19.6 =20 bits c) Bitrate: R =20 bits/10 chars = 2. 0 bits/char • Huffman coder: (1+3 +2+ 1+1+4+4 +2+ 1+1)/10 =2. 2 ... 2/ 10=0 .2 1/10=0.1 1/10=0.1 [C(si), C(si+1)) [0.5, 1.0) [0.4, 0.5) [0 .2, 0.4) [0.1, 0 .2) [0.0, 0.1) Example 1: Encoding S W I M 0.5 0.1 0 .2 0.1 0.1 [0.5, 1.0) [0.4, 0.5) [0 .2, 0.4) [0.1, 0 .2) ... m=-log2r = -log2(0.0000 125 ) = 19.6 =20 bits Example 1: Compression (2) • Entropy = 1.96 bits/char • Arithmetic coder: a) Codeword V: L ≤ V < H V = (0.71753407…)10 = (0.10110111101100000101)2...
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## Lecture 2 Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs

... GHz Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs Wireless Spectrum (3) Wireless LAN (IEEE 8 02. 11b/g) • 2. 4 GHz 30 MHz 300 MHz Wireless LAN (IEEE 8 02. 11a) • GHz GHz Bluetooth • 2. 45 GHz Wireless Environment ... Spectrum Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs Agenda (2) Wireless networks ■ Mobile wireless WANs ■ Fixed wireless WANs ■ WLANs: the 8 02. 11 family ■ WLANs/WPANs: Bluetooth ● IEEE 8 02. 11 ■ Characteristics ... services Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs 41 Distribution Systems and Access Points BSS STA STA AP DS ESS BSS STA AP STA Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs 42 Integration with Wired LANs...
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## Modulation and coding course- lecture 2

... quantization levels and Lecture 10 Quantization example amplitude x(t) 111 3.1867 Quant levels 110 2. 27 62 101 1.3657 100 0.45 52 boundaries 011 -0.45 52 010 -1.3657 001 -2. 27 62 xq(nTs): quantized ... Quantization noise variance: ∞ 2 σ = E{[ x − q( x)] } = ∫ e ( x) p( x)dx = σ Lin + σ Sat q σ −∞ L / −1 Lin =2 l =0 ql2 p ( xl )ql Uniform q 12 Lecture σ Lin q2 = 12 13 Uniform and non-uniform quant Uniform ... Interference and noise immunity Implementation cost and complexity Lecture 19 Spectra of PCM waveforms Lecture 20 M-ary pulse modulation M-ary pulse modulations category: M-ary pulse-amplitude modulation...
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## Tài liệu lecture 2: Communication Concepts ppt

... transmission It is the mode of communication used on a PC’s serial port as well as on local area networks lecture 2.doc Page (3) CSN200 Introduction to Telecommunications, Fall 1999 Lecture_ 02 Point-to-point ... predominant method of transferring information in data communications Data bits are sent serially or sequentially bit-by-bit over a single wire or communications circuit Sending bits one after another ... CSN200 Introduction to Telecommunications, Fall 1999 Lecture_ 02 Parallel vs Serial Transmission: Parallel: In parallel transmission all...
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## Tài liệu Lecture 2: HỆ ĐẾM-CƠ SỐ ppt

... Chuyển từ số hệ số B sang thập phân HỆ CƠ SỐ     Binary: hệ nhị phân (dùng kí số 0,1) Decimal: Hệ thập phân(dùng kí số 0,1…,9) Octave: Hệ bát phân (Dùng kí số 0,1, 7) Hexadecimal: Hệ thập lục ... SỐ NHỊ PHÂN, MỨC LOGIC  Hệ thống số thường dùng hệ thập phân dùng 10 kí số: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9  Hệ nhị phân sử dụng kí số  Trong hệ thống số, logic gọi HIGH (mức cao) ... + 2.10 −2 Chuyển số có phần nguyên phần phân hệ số B sang hệ thập phân: ( PN PN −1 P0 P−1 P−2 P− M ) B = PN B N + PN −1B N −1 + + P0 B + P−1B −1 + + P− M B − M Chuyển đổi số Thập phân  nhị...
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## Tài liệu Kinh tế ứng dụng_ Lecture 2: Simple Regression Model ppt

... Written by Nguyen Hoang Bao May 20, 2004 Applied Econometrics 10 Simple Linear Regression Model Workshop 2: Simple Regression Models 1) Retrieve data file AIDSAV.WK1, which contains the data ... -60.0 -80.0 Foreign Aid as per cent of GDP Figure 7 .2: Written by Nguyen Hoang Bao May 20, 2004 Applied Econometrics Simple Linear Regression Model Residual Plot (S/Y-S/Yfit) versus A/Y 40 Residual ... underlying variable should appear in the regression model as the independent variable 3) Standard errors of the regression and coefficients The standard error of the regression (s) is given as follows:...
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## Tài liệu CONCEPTUALIZING AND MEASURING ECONOMIC RESILIENCE pdf

... Vulnerability and Resilience: Concepts and Measurements.” In Lino Briguglio and Eliawony J Kisanga eds, Economic Vulnerability and Resilience of Small States, Islands and Small States Institute and Commonwealth ... Cordina, G Economic Vulnerability, Resilience and Capital Formation.” In Lino Briguglio and Eliawony J Kisanga eds, Economic Vulnerability and Resilience of Small States, Islands and Small States ... 31 log of per capita GD Figure Per Capita GDP and Economic Resilience 12 10 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Resilience Index Figure Economic Resilience and Economic Vulnerability 1.0 0.9 Self Made Worst...
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## MEASURING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS pdf

... they are related, fiscal impacts are not the same as economic impacts HOW SHOULD ECONOMIC IMPACTS BE MEASURED? Alternative Measures The various measures of economic impacts have very different ... estimates of local spending impacts assuming continuation of current inter-industry trade patterns and local flows of money into and out of the area Their magnitudes vary depending on the technology of ... also affect the economic competitiveness of an area NOTE Portions of this primer are drawn from the guide: "Assessing the Economic Impacts of Transportation Projects" by Glen and Burton Weisbrod,...
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## Measuring Economic Policy Uncertainty doc

... Composition of Economic Policy Uncertainty in the News Index, by Time Period Time period Overall Economic Uncertainty Economic Policy Uncertainty Fiscal Policy - Fiscal Policy: Taxes - Fiscal Policy: ... to policy uncertainty shocks We update our Economic Policy Uncertainty Index on a monthly basis as more data becomes available, and post the data at www.policyuncertainty.com 2.5 Measuring Policy ... μ is the long-run trend, σEt-1 is economic uncertainty, dwEt are economic shocks, σPt-1 is policy uncertainty and dwPt are the policy shocks Then, when policy uncertainty (σPt-1) is higher we...
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## lecture 2 spectroscopy

... Solution C x 105 M Io I Thioketone -C =S 330 A 2. 23 100 27 Nitrite -NO2 23 0 B 1.90 100 32 Conjugated Diene -C=C-C=C- 23 3 Conjugated Triene -C=C-C=C-C=C- 26 8 Conjugated Tetraene -C=C-C=C-C=C-C=C- Benzene ... and should be avoided R2 = 0.995 20 .0 40.0 60.0 concentration (uM) Chromophoric Structure Practice Examples Group Structure nm Carbonyl >C=O 28 0 Azo -N = N- 26 2 Nitro -N=O 27 0 Solution C x 105 ... the following table [X](M) Absorbance Transmittance(%) E(L/mole-cm) 30 20 00 0.5 25 00 0 .2 2.5 x 10-3 4.0 x 10-5 50 5000 150 2. 0 x 10-4 L(cm) 1.00 1.00 1.00 [X](M) = Concentration in Mole/L The molar...
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## CMOS VLSI Design - Lecture 2: Circuits & Layout docx

... CLK 1: Circuits & Layout Q CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed CLK 34 D Flip-flop Operation D QM Q CLK = D QM Q CLK = CLK D Q 1: Circuits & Layout CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed 35 Race Condition  Back-to-back ... 1: Circuits & Layout CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed 24 Multiplexers  2:1 multiplexer chooses between two inputs S S D1 D0 Y X 0 X 1 X 1 X 1: Circuits & Layout D0 Y D1 CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed 25 Gate-Level ... Ed 12 CMOS Gate Design  Activity: – Sketch a 4-input CMOS NOR gate A B C D Y 1: Circuits & Layout CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed 13 Complementary CMOS  Complementary CMOS logic gates – nMOS pull-down...
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## Fit-City 2: Promoting Physical Activity through Design pptx

... achieve Fit-City 2: Promoting Physical Activity through Design We can encourage physical activity through pull strategies We can make staircases more beautiful and we can pull people to doing more physical ... principal paths of travel Source: Nicoll 2006 17 Fit-City 2: Promoting Physical Activity through Design NEW YORK TIMES BUILDING: PROGRAMMING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH IN MIDTOWN FX Fowle Architects ... physical activity can positively impact design • ILLUSTRATION Diane Von Furstenberg Headquarters Interior stair Source: ©Elizabeth Felicella 2007 21 Fit-City 2: Promoting Physical Activity through...
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## Digital Communication I: Modulation and Coding Course-Lecture 2 potx

... features of digital communication systems Some basic concepts and definitions such as as signal classification, spectral density, random process, linear systems and signal bandwidth Lecture 2 Today, ... Quantization noise variance: ∞ 2 σ = E{[ x − q( x)] } = ∫ e ( x) p( x)dx = σ Lin + σ Sat q σ Lin −∞ L / −1 =2 l =0 ql2 p ( xl )ql Uniform q 12 Lecture σ Lin q2 = 12 13 Uniform and non-uniform quant  ... rate, M-ary PAM (M >2) requires less bandwidth than binary PCM For a given average pulse power, binary PCM is easier to detect than M-ary PAM (M >2) Lecture 21 PAM example Lecture 22 ...
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