Principles of water treatment

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 1) docx

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 1) docx
... benefit One of the challenges of cancer treatment is to use the various treatment modalities alone and together in a fashion that maximizes the chances for patient benefit Cancer treatments are ... Normal organs and cancers share the property of having (1) a population of cells in cycle and actively renewing and (2) a population of cells not in cycle In cancers, cells that are not dividing are ... treatment has the potential to cause harm, and treatment may be given that produces toxicity with no benefit The therapeutic index of many interventions is quite narrow, and most treatments...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 2) ppsx

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 2) ppsx
... rate Principles of Cancer Surgery Surgery is used in cancer prevention, diagnosis, staging, treatment (for both localized and metastatic disease), palliation, and rehabilitation Prophylaxis Cancer ... lightmicroscopic inspection of a tumor for pattern of growth, degree of cellular atypia, invasiveness, and morphologic features that aid in the differential diagnosis, sufficient tissue is of value in searching ... incisional biopsy is the procedure of second choice A wedge of tissue is removed, and an effort is made to include the majority of the cross-sectional diameter of the tumor in the biopsy to minimize...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 3) pps

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 3) pps
... information for treatment planning and may determine the extent and nature of primary cancer treatment Treatment Surgery is the most effective means of treating cancer Today about 40% of cancer patients ... a surgeon or center for primary cancer treatment, consideration must be given to the volume of cancer surgeries undertaken by the site Studies in a variety of cancers have shown that increased ... growth If resection of the primary lesion takes place in the presence of metastases, acceleration of metastatic growth may occur, perhaps based on the removal of a source of angiogenesis inhibitors...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 4) pdf

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 4) pdf
... impact on the patient's perception of successful therapy Plastic and reconstructive surgery can correct the effects of disfiguring primary treatment Principles of Radiation Therapy Physical Properties ... uses radiation to treat cancer Radiation is a physical form of treatment that damages any tissue in its path; its selectivity for cancer cells may be due to defects in a cancer cell's ability to ... placement of appropriate infusion portals Surgery may correct other treatment- related toxicities such as adhesions or strictures Rehabilitation Surgical procedures are also valuable in restoring a cancer...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 5) ppt

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 5) ppt
... some fashion to a site of tumor Teletherapy is the most commonly used form of radiation therapy Radiation from any source decreases in intensity as a function of the square of the distance from ... effective treatment volume is small X-rays and gamma rays are the forms of radiation most commonly used to treat cancer They are both electromagnetic, nonparticulate waves that cause the ejection of ... the basis of the amount of radiation absorbed in the patient; it is not based on the amount of radiation generated by the machine The rad (radiation absorbed dose) is defined as 100 erg of energy...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 6) ppsx

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 6) ppsx
... number of diseases, including breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, and gynecologic cancers Radiation therapy can also palliate disease symptoms in a variety of ... relief of bone pain from metastatic disease, control of brain metastases, reversal of spinal cord compression and superior vena caval obstruction, shrinkage of painful masses, and opening of threatened ... being used with increasing frequency to treat skin cancer; ovarian cancer; and cancers of the lung, colon, rectum, and esophagus Palliation of recurrent locally advanced disease can sometimes...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 7) docx

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 7) docx
... in providing a basis for patients to make sensible choices Cancer Drugs: Overview and Principles for Use Cancer drug treatments are of four broad types Conventional chemotherapy agents were historically ... normal structures Patients treated with palliative intent should be aware of their diagnosis and the limitations of the proposed treatments, have access to supportive care, and have suitable "performance ... requiring treatment; PS2, symptoms requiring some treatment; PS3, disabling symptoms, but allowing ambulation for >50% of the day; PS4, ambulation ...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 8) ppt

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 8) ppt
... metastatic cancers If a tumor is localized to a single site, serious consideration of surgery or primary radiation therapy should be given, as these treatment modalities may be curative as local treatments ... Chemotherapy may be employed after the failure of these modalities to eradicate a local tumor or as part of multimodality approaches to offer primary treatment to a clinically localized tumor In ... Chemotherapy agents may be used for the treatment of active, clinically apparent cancer Table 81-1, A lists those tumors considered curable by conventionally...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 9) pdf

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 9) pdf
... least an increased time to further progression of disease Active efforts are being made to quantitate effects of anticancer agents on quality of life Cancer drug clinical trials conventionally use ... during the ontogeny of the organism Anoikis refers to the death of epithelial cells after removal from the normal milieu of substrate, particularly from cell-to-cell contact Cancer chemotherapeutic ... Modulation of apoptosis by manipulation of signal transduction pathways has emerged as a basis for understanding the actions of drugs and designing new strategies to improve their use A general view of...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 10) pdf

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 10) pdf
... novel mechanisms of action, combinations of drugs and targeted agents may maximize the chances of affecting critical pathways in the tumor Chemotherapeutic Agents Used for Cancer Treatment Table ... action of particular pathways For example, the p210bcr-abl fusion protein tyrosine kinase drives chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and HER-2/neu stimulates the proliferation of certain breast cancers ... important in regulating cellular proliferation and the behavior of tumor cells in vitro, in vivo it is unclear whether all of the actions of chemotherapeutic agents to cause cell death can be attributed...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 11) potx

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 11) potx
... 665 mg/m2 Diarrhea bid Prodrug 5FU due of to Hand-foot continuous; intratumoral syndrome 1250 mg/m metabolism bid weeks on/ off; 829 mg/m2 bid weeks on/ off + 60 mg/d leucovorin Cytosine arabinoside ... Carboplatin 365 mg/m2 Marrow platelets IV > WBCs q3–4 weeks Reduce dose according to CrCl: to AUC of 5–7 mg/mL Nausea as adjusted Renal (high dose) dose/(CrCl + 25)] for CrCl Oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 ... Mucositis Vesicant Alopecia Mitomycin C 6–10 mg/m2 Marrow q6 Treat superficial bladder Vesicant weeks cancers Hemolytic- by intravesical infusion uremic syndrome Delayed Lung marrow toxicity CV—heart...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 12) ppsx

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 12) ppsx
... Busulfan can cause profound myelosuppression, alopecia, and pulmonary toxicity but is relatively "lymphocyte sparing." Its routine use in treatment of CML has been curtailed in favor of imatinib (Gleevec)or ... that covalently modify bases in DNA This leads to cross-linkage of DNA strands or the appearance of breaks in DNA as a result of repair efforts "Broken" or cross-linked DNA is intrinsically unable ... body surface area or the presence of nephrectomy Several alkylating agents are less commonly used Nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) is the prototypic agent of this class, decomposing rapidly...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 13) docx

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 13) docx
... incidence of anaphylaxis with early preparations of the drug has led to the practice of administering a test dose of 0.5– unit before the rest of the dose The most feared complication of bleomycin treatment ... with p53 and Rb pathway lesions as the result of defective checkpoint mechanisms in cancer cells Owing to the role of topoisomerase I in the procession of the replication fork, topoisomerase I poisons ... Kaposi's sarcoma and ovarian cancer Bleomycin refers to a mixture of glycopeptides that have the unique feature of forming complexes with Fe2+ while also bound to DNA Oxidation of Fe2+ gives rise to...
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Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 14) pps

Chapter 081. Principles of Cancer Treatment (Part 14) pps
... particularly in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer While chemotherapy-associated leukemia is generally of the acute myeloid type, APL arising in the setting of prior mitoxantrone treatment had the ... resealed lead to progress of the replication fork off the end of a DNA strand The DNA damage is a potent signal for induction of apoptosis Camptothecins promote the stabilization of the DNA linked to ... treatment of superficial transitional bladder carcinomas and, with radiation therapy, for curative treatment of anal carcinoma Mitoxantrone is a synthetic...
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