... associated **cost** (denoted as γ(a → b)) An edit script on two trees is a sequence **of** edit operations changing a tree to another Consequently, the **cost** **of** an edit script is the sum **of** the costs **of** its ... set **of** values for operation costs in TED algorithm Our method is built on adapting the PSO optimization approach as a search process to automate the procedure **of** **cost** **estimation** Automatic **Cost** ... and optimizing the **cost** **of** each edit operation for TED As mentioned earlier, the aim **of** this system is to ﬁnd the optimal set **of** operation costs to: 1) improve the performance **of** TED in different...

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... „software **cost** 13 Chapter II Literature Review on Software **Cost** **Estimation** Methods **estimation** , „software effort **estimation** , „software resource **estimation** , „software effort prediction‟, „software ... Literature Review on Software **Cost** **Estimation** Methods Chapter Literature Review on Software **Cost** **Estimation** Methods To obtain accurate software project **cost** estimates, various kinds **of** methods have ... development effort or **cost** **estimation** Papers related to prediction **of** software size/defects, modeling **of** software process, or identification **of** factors correlated with software project cost, are included...

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... HUT, Falt **of** IT © Dept **of** SE, 2001 SE-VI.32 Tái kỹ nghệ phần mềm (Software Re-engineering) • • • • Dịch chuyển mã nguồn Cấu trúc lại CT Tái lập DL Kỹ nghệ ngược HUT, Falt **of** IT © Dept **of** SE, 2001 ... lượng chi phí phần mềm (SE **Cost** Estimation) 1) Năng suất (Productivity) 2) Các kỹ thuật ước đoán (Estimation Techniques) 3) Mô hình chi phí thuật toán (Algorithmic **Cost** Model) 4) Nhân lực thời ... Falt **of** IT © Dept **of** SE, 2001 SE-VI.8 (1) Chi phí phần cứng HT (2) Chi phí phương tiện, thiết bị (máy tính, phần mềm) phát triển HT (3) Chi phí nỗ lực yêu cầu Chi phí phần mềm (Software Cost) ...

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... as: • • Number **of** lines **of** new code to be developed; Estimate **of** equivalent number **of** lines **of** new code computed using the reuse model; An estimate **of** the number **of** lines **of** code that have ... The salaries **of** engineers involved in the project; Social and insurance costs Effort costs must take overheads into account • • • Costs **of** building, heating, lighting Costs **of** networking and ... 37 Use **of** COCOMO models Number **of** application points Application compositionmodel Based on Numberoffunction points Based on Numberoflinesof code reused or generated Based on Numberoflinesof source...

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... **estimation** 4.20 COFDM system based different type **of** interpolation technique for the 102 channel **estimation** **of** the system based on pilot signals xv Figure No 5.1 Page Baseband model **of** the OFDM ... **of** interpolation with fast and easy implementation in the OFDM system for the best channel **estimation** Enhance the performance **of** the OFDM system based on the pilot signal for the **estimation** **of** ... follows: Review **of** previous literature pertaining to available techniques **of** channel **estimation** for the OFDM system for solving the channel effect on OFDM signals Study **of** different types **of** interpolation...

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... **of** screws or other items in plates **of** different sizes, screws fastening, withdrawal **of** subassemblies, recognition and positioning **of** parts/sub-assemblies, check **of** parts presence, fastening **of** ... coefﬁcient **of** machinery Because **of** the irregular supply **of** subassemblies and the stochastic rejection **of** parts, the number **of** empty pallets varies during the work-shift, as well as the number **of** rejects ... constraints **of** dedicated equipment (ﬁxtures, jigs, grippers, feeders, etc.) and require a considerable amount **of** propriety software; as a result, side costs are four to ﬁve times the robot cost; and...

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... Acknowledgments Background • Parameter **estimation** is a key step in development **of** mathematical models • Models **of** interest may be ODEs/DAEs • Minimization **of** a weighted squared error r φ = θ,z ... extension **of** a function f (x) over X F (X) ⊇ {f (x) | x ∈ X} • Natural interval extension – leads to overestimation (dependence problem) Taylor Models • Taylor Model Tf – an interval extension **of** a ... possible to compute Taylor models **of** complex functions Taylor Models - Range Bounding • Exact range bounding **of** the interval polynomials – NP hard • Direct evaluation **of** the interval polynomials –...

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... Acknowledgments Background • Parameter **estimation** is a key step in development **of** mathematical models • Models **of** interest may be ODEs/DAEs • Minimization **of** a weighted squared error r φ = θ,z ... extension **of** a function f (x) over X F (X) ⊇ {f (x) | x ∈ X} • Natural interval extension – leads to overestimation (dependence problem) Taylor Models • Taylor Model Tf – an interval extension **of** a ... possible to compute Taylor models **of** complex functions Taylor Models - Range Bounding • Exact range bounding **of** the interval polynomials – NP hard • Direct evaluation **of** the interval polynomials –...

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... estimates **of** software costs are essential Because software size is usually the most influential factor in determining software costs, good estimates **of** size are critical to good **cost** **estimation** ... remainder **of** the document addresses the more global risks inherent in **cost** **estimation** **Cost** analysts must produce software **cost** estimates for a variety **of** programs Ideally, the estimated **cost** will ... the software, or what kind **of** design will solve the problem described by the software requirements Thus, the notion **of** risk is central to any **cost** analysis In particular, since the size **of** a software...

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... period **Cost** A sacrifice **of** resources Variable costs Costs that vary with the volume **of** activity Full-absorption **cost** Costs used to compute inventory value according to GAAP Product costs Costs ... Period costs Costs that can be more easily attributed to time intervals Indirect costs Fixed costs Costs that cannot be directly related to a **cost** object 11 Costs that not vary with the volume **of** ... as the **cost** basis D The total **cost** per case for production **of** 120,000 cases, including marketing costs, could be used as the **cost** basis Unit **Cost** Options (One Unit = One Case **of** Fang) Costs A...

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... calculation **of** distributional similarity The method is straightforward: Instead **of** using the point **estimation** **of** v(wi ), we ﬁrst estimate the distribution **of** the context proﬁle, p(v(wi )), by Bayesian **estimation** ... on IDs (A): Avg ID **of** answers (B): Avg ID **of** system outputs (C): Avg ID **of** correct system outputs Table 4: The numbers **of** improved, unchanged, and degraded words in terms **of** MP@20 for each evaluation ... as well That is, the tuning **of** α as above is not unrealistic in In the case **of** EM clustering, the number **of** unique contexts, fk , was also set to one million instead **of** 100,000, following Kazama...

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... parsing **of** DCG can be seen as a special case **of** deduction **of** Horn clauses; conversely, deduction can be seen as a generalization **of** parsing Their idea **of** using chart parsers as deductive-proof procedures ... $20 This assignment **of** costs is suitable for a situation in which the speaker reports his experience In spite **of** the difficulty **of** assigning suitable costs in general, the cost- based interpretation ... subscript $c **of** a formula A represents the **cost** **of** assuming formula A A is easy to assume when c is small, while A is difficult to assume when c is large For instance, the **cost** **of** interpreting...

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... order **of** the highest to the lowest sensitivity To make the adjustment **of** the net influence **of** each **of** the remaining parameters on the already selected parameters, all **of** the original columns **of** ... comparison **of** the UKF to other methods **of** parameter estimation, the identifiability analysis was performed separately This should not affect the advantage **of** integration **of** identifiability with estimation, ... reactions, each **of** which is made up **of** the sum or difference **of** individual rate laws (see Additional file 1, Supplementary data) The vector X is the state vector **of** the model, values **of** which are...

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... with one OFDM symbol, we omit the index **of** the OFDM symbol for notational simplicity Let us consider the transmission **of** one OFDM symbol with N number **of** subcarriers At the transmitter, a serial ... shown in Figure The second part **of** the preamble initiation, which corresponds to the first two OFDM symbols **of** Figure 1, requires the transmission **of** two columns **of** pilot symbols in all active ... no pilot subcarriers close to the edges **of** the active band The lack **of** the pilot subcarriers at the edges **of** the OFDM symbol may lead to higher channel **estimation** errors for the active subcarriers...

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... convergence **of** the parameter estimates as a function **of** the number **of** iterations **of** the Gibbs sampler applied to the second data Variance **of** measurement noise exploiting the linearity **of** our SDE ... Iteration number **of** Gibbs sampler 5000 Figure 4: The convergence **of** the noise variance estimate as a function **of** the number **of** iterations **of** the Gibbs sampler set We note that the ratio **of** the estimated ... “Real-time detection **of** DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical wave guides,” Proceedings **of** the National Academy **of** Sciences **of** the United States **of** America, vol...

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... the quantity **of** errors that will occur as a proportion **of** the total quantity **of** notes present 4.2 Parameterization A data set **of** random pitch combinations, also used in the evaluation **of** Klapuri ... is not need for a priori **estimation** **of** the number **of** concurrent sounds before detecting the fundamental frequencies, and the polyphony is implicitly calculated in the f0 **estimation** stage, choosing ... 11 for the rest **of** the candidates in the combination in ascending frequency order 2.4.2 Candidate evaluation The intensity l(c) **of** a candidate c is a measure **of** the strength **of** a source obtained...

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... problem **of** photometric stereo In practice, the observations are often blurred due to camera jitter or outof-focus blur Joshi and Chaudhuri [18] address the problem **of** simultaneous **estimation** **of** the ... knowledge **of** the position **of** the light source (with respect to some reference plane) We now discuss brieﬂy some **of** the research works that have been carried out on the **estimation** **of** position **of** the ... one on each **of** the critical points **of** the critical boundary (5) The point **of** intersection **of** these tangents gives x and y coordinates **of** the light source position The rough estimates **of** the light...

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... examines the performance **of** other proposed motion **estimation** processors, and ﬁnally some conclusions are drawn in Section Analog Motion **Estimation** Array Variable block-size motion **estimation** is based ... design, the two DACs should be **of** the same type (NMOS/PMOS), which means that one **of** the **inputs** has to be mirrored in order to perform the subtraction The type **of** the switches used (NMOS/PMOS) ... transistor option, for evaluating the performance **of** the proposed motion **estimation** approach in practice The chip enables the evaluation **of** the motion **estimation** operations within a [8,8] search range...

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