... the procedure of **cost** **estimation** Automatic **Cost** Optimization **for** TED In this section we proposed a system **for** estimating and optimizing the **cost** of each edit operation **for** TED As mentioned earlier, ... quality of the system performance even more than the **cost** scheme used by the experts (Intuitive **cost** scheme) Furthermore, using the ﬁne-grained and weighted **cost** scheme **for** edit operations we could ... using: 1) The random **cost** assignment, 2) Assigning the **cost** based on the expertise knowledge and intuition (So called Intuitive), and 3) Automatic estimated and optimized **cost** **for** each operation...

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... keywords used **for** searches in SCI engine are „software **cost** 13 Chapter II Literature Review on Software **Cost** **Estimation** Methods **estimation** , „software effort **estimation** , „software resource **estimation** , ... been frequent studied/applied **for** **cost** **estimation** Many studies aim to improve the performance of ANN Srinivasan and Fisher (1995) first proposed neural network **for** **cost** **estimation** Samson et al (1997) ... phases, the **cost** estimates are useful **for** rough validation and process monitoring After completion, **cost** estimates are useful **for** project productivity assessment Since the software **cost** estimation...

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... lượng chi phí phần mềm (SE **Cost** Estimation) 1) Năng suất (Productivity) 2) Các kỹ thuật ước đoán (Estimation Techniques) 3) Mô hình chi phí thuật toán (Algorithmic **Cost** Model) 4) Nhân lực thời ... Phần VI Chương 11 Các chủ đề khác SE • ước lượng chi phí phần mềm (SE **Cost** Estimation) • Quản lý chất lượng (Quality Management) • Cải tiến trình (Process Improvement) ... tính, phần mềm) phát triển HT (3) Chi phí nỗ lực yêu cầu Chi phí phần mềm (Software Cost) tính: SC = Basic **Cost** x RELY x TIME x STOR x TOOL x EXP x lương TB người/tháng với: STOR không gian lưu...

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... etc Used **for** Used **for** Initial effor t **estimation** based on systemrequirements and design options Used **for** Effort to integ rate reusablecomponents or automatically generated code Used **for** Development ... project; Social and insurance costs Effort costs must take overheads into account • • • Costs of building, heating, lighting Costs of networking and communications Costs of shared facilities (e.g ... Chapter 26 Slide 23 **Estimation** techniques Algorithmic **cost** modelling A model based on historical **cost** information that relates some software metric (usually its size) to the project **cost** is used An...

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... performance **for** channel **estimation** based different interpolation 113 technique using LS technique **for** pilot **estimation** combined with wavelet denoising 5.8 MSE performance **for** channel **estimation** ... interpolation 114 technique using MMSE **for** pilot **estimation** 5.9 MSE performance **for** channel **estimation** based different interpolation 115 technique using MMSE technique **for** pilot **estimation** combined with wavelet ... based on pilot signal **for** channel 106 **estimation** 5.2 MMSE technique versus LS technique **for** pilot **estimation** in OFDM 107 signals 5.3 The performance comparison of LS pilot **estimation** with and without...

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... technological innovation in material processing ﬁxtures, **for** dispatching and transform operations and, in parallel, in the information processing aids, **for** monitoring and govern operations The three-R ... mainly performed by simulation Causal inference provides the assessment of performance by means of categorical features (patterns of actions); heuristics is called **for** to implement govern -for- ﬂexibility ... management loops **for** responses that close as standard govern -for- ﬂexibility property **for** the on-process adaptive control of the assembly cycles The option is central from two standpoints: • **for** assessment...

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... Taylor Models • Validated Solutions **for** Parametric ODEs • Algorithm Summary • Computational Studies • Concluding Remarks and Acknowledgments Background • Parameter **estimation** is a key step in development ... the states using a new validated solver **for** parametric ODEs (VSPODE) (Lin and Stadtherr, 2005) – Compute the Taylor model Tφ of the objective function – Perform constraint propagation procedure ... if < and Vi < a a ,∞ i =⇒ bi Xi = Xi ∩ Ui + xi0 − 2ai i Validated Solutions **for** Parametric ODEs • Consider the IVP **for** the parametric ODEs ˙ y = f (y, θ), y(t0 ) = y , θ ∈ Θ • Validated methods:...

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... Taylor Models • Validated Solutions **for** Parametric ODEs • Algorithm Summary • Computational Studies • Concluding Remarks and Acknowledgments Background • Parameter **estimation** is a key step in development ... the states using a new validated solver **for** parametric ODEs (VSPODE) (Lin and Stadtherr, 2005) – Compute the Taylor model Tφ of the objective function – Perform constraint propagation procedure ... if < and Vi < a a ,∞ i =⇒ bi Xi = Xi ∩ Ui + xi0 − 2ai i Validated Solutions **for** Parametric ODEs • Consider the IVP **for** the parametric ODEs ˙ y = f (y, θ), y(t0 ) = y , θ ∈ Θ • Validated methods:...

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... inherent in **cost** **estimation** **Cost** analysts must produce software **cost** estimates **for** a variety of programs Ideally, the estimated **cost** will prove to be very close to the actual cost, and several **estimation** ... and **cost** CHAPTER ONE Introduction The Air Force **Cost** Analysis Agency (AFCAA) supports the Air Force Secretariat by conducting independent component **cost** analyses, special **cost** reviews, and cost- analysis ... Software **Cost** **Estimation** and Sizing Methods: Issues and Guidelines supports the Air Force Secretariat by conducting independent **cost** analyses, special **cost** reviews, and cost- analysis research for...

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... important **for** income tax and financial reporting purposes as well as **for** most bonus and cost- plus contracting purposes Costs **for** performance evaluation are not necessarily differential costs Companies ... the **cost** basis B The total **cost** per case **for** normal production of 80,000 cases could be used as the **cost** basis C The total **cost** per case **for** production of 120,000 cases, excluding marketing costs, ... as the **cost** basis D The total **cost** per case **for** production of 120,000 cases, including marketing costs, could be used as the **cost** basis Unit **Cost** Options (One Unit = One Case of Fang) Costs A...

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... the results **for** Set A The MAP and the MPs at the top 1, 5, 10, and 20 are shown **for** each similarity measure As **for** BCb and BCa , the results **for** the tuned and several other values **for** α are shown ... Table **For** this set, we observed a tendency that is different from Sets A and B Cls-JS showed a particularly good performance BCb surely improves upon BC **For** example, the improvement was 7.5% **for** ... into account The Bayesian **estimation** usually gives diverging distributions **for** infrequent observations and thus decreases the expectation value as expected The Bayesian **estimation** and the expectation...

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... subscript $c of a formula A represents the **cost** of assuming formula A A is easy to assume when c is small, while A is difficult to assume when c is large **For** instance, the **cost** of interpreting ... word sense/structural disambiguation, etc., will be usable **for** better **cost** assignment Probability will also be a key technique **for** the **cost** assignment (Charniak and Shimony, 1990) Lexical Rules ... $20 This assignment of costs is suitable **for** a situation in which the speaker reports his experience In spite of the difficulty of assigning suitable costs in general, the cost- based interpretation...

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... be Max(CL) < 0.004 The UKF parameter **estimation** algorithm was repeated **for** 97 runs to provide statistics of the **estimation** In order to compare the parameter **estimation** Table Parameters chosen to ... were performed **for** each of these methods The comparison of the parameter **estimation** methods is presented in Table and Figure In each case, the mean and standard deviation are calculated **for** the ... models based on ODEs **for** biological networks inference Bioinformatics 23, 3209–3216 (2007) doi:10.1093/ bioinformatics/btm510 S Julier, J Uhlmann, Unscented filtering and nonlinear **estimation** Proc...

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... i.e., no information is sent [12] The presence of null subcarriers complicates the design of both the training preamble **for** channel **estimation** and pilot symbols **for** pilot-aided channel **estimation** ... performance of the Baxley design is similar to the proposed design **for** QPSK-modulated data However, **for** 16-PSK and 64-PSK modulation, our proposed design outperforms the Baxley design Also, **for** ... the BER performance **for** different designs **for** Np = (IEEE 802.16e) Proposed PEP Baxley 10 64 PSK QPSK BER 16 PSK 10 10 10 15 20 SNR(dB) Figure 13 Comparison of the BER performance **for** Np = 16...

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... ), nc (ti+1 ); θ), a closed form expression **for** the transitional density between two consecutive discrete observation points is unavailable **for** the system in (4) Therefore, the likelihood function ... process In Section 3, parameter **estimation** in discretely sampled diﬀusion processes is described, assuming noiseless data acquisition An MCMC algorithm **for** the parameter **estimation** in the realistic ... the binding process and state a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm **for** the **estimation** of the target analytes The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on both synthetic and experimental...

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... perform pitch tracking The inclusion of the tracking stage did not improve the results **for** frame by frame estimation, but in the note tracking task the results outperformed those obtained **for** ... and low computational **cost** The chosen parameter values **for** the core method are shown in Table **For** the extended method, when considering K adjacent frames, diﬀerent values **for** parameters H = 15, ... reported **for** frame by frame estimation, whereas precision, recall and F-measure were used **for** the note tracking task The core method (PI1-07) was evaluated using the parameters speciﬁed in Table For...

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... **for** shape (depth) **estimation** Next, we explain the forward model **for** formation of blurred images in Section Section describes the proposed approach **for** light source direction **estimation** A brief ... approach **for** simultaneous **estimation** of scene structure, light source direction, and blind image restoration We present the results of experimentation **for** light source direction estimation, depth estimation, ... the shoe images, which degrades the performance of our light source position **estimation** algorithm The blur parameter σ estimated **for** this experiment was 0.95 **For** this experiment, the initial values...

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... examines the performance of other proposed motion **estimation** processors, and ﬁnally some conclusions are drawn in Section Analog Motion **Estimation** Array Variable block-size motion **estimation** is ... integrate the motion **estimation** circuitry together with each pixel in the photosensor array By not having to convert the analog pixel values into digital form before motion estimation, considerable ... the motion **estimation** procedure **for** a continuous stream of frames, after the motion vector **for** a frame has been determined, the reference frame will typically become the current frame **for** the next...

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