Bài giảng Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm dạy từ vựng Tiếng Anh 12 chuẩn

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Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience SỞ GIÁO DỤC - ĐÀO TẠO TRÀ VINH TRƯỜNG THPT TÂN AN GIÁO VIÊN: NGUYÊN DUY TUÂN BỘ MÔN: NGOẠI NGỮ TRƯỜNG THPT TÂN AN TÊN ĐỀ TÀI: DẠY TỪ VỰNG TRONG PHỔ THÔNG TRUNG HỌC ỨNG DỤNG: DẠY TRONG SÁCH GIÁO KHOA LỚP 12 CƠ BẢN NĂM HỌC 2009-2010 Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 1 1 Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience THE THEME HOW TO TEACH VOCABULARIES IN HIGH SCHOOL FOCUS ON ENGLISH 12 TEACHER: NGUYEN DUY TUAN SCHOOL: TAN AN HIGH SCHOOL Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 2 2 Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience PREFACE Studies have shown that vocabulary knowledge is strongly correlated, and researchers have found that word knowledge in high school can predict how well students will be able to comprehend texts they read in high schools. Limited vocabularies prevent students from comprehending a text. Direct instructions in vocabulary can help arrest this cycle. Good readers often acquire much of their vocabulary through wide independent reading, also known as incidental learning. However, explicit instructions can help students learn enough words to become better readers (and thus acquire even more words). Direct vocabulary instructions are useful for students at all ability levels, but it is particularly useful for beginning students who have a limited reading vocabulary and little exposure to incidental vocabulary learning outside of schools. Studies have shown that the key to increase vocabulary is exposure to new words—not an innate ability to learn from context. Experts emphasize that vocabulary development is an attainable goal. If given the opportunity to learn new words as well as effective instruction, most students can acquire vocabulary at rates that will improve their comprehension. This enables them to read increasingly challenging texts with fluency and betters their chances for success in school and afterward. These are some methods I have applied to teach in school which depends on each lesson and time. In my initiative experience I focus on 4 main methods: I. Showing the meaning of words visually 1. Using pictures 2. Using media 3. Using realia 4. Using mine II. Showing the meaning of words in context Using examples, situations, explanations III. Using synonyms or antonyms IV. Translation and Definition V. Use exercises 1. Gap filling 2. Multiple choice Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 3 3 Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience I. SHOWING THE MEANING OF WORDS VISUALLY 1. USE PICTURES AND CARDS Picture cues are a great mechanism for teaching young Students to study Vocabularies. They can combination of words and visual cues can help a young mind piece together a word. There are several ways to approach it. The approach shown here works with whole words. First, you can plan your lesson and pick the words you'll teach your student. An effective way to do this is by categories. For example, teach your student how to read words associated with fruit, such as apple, orange or peach. Since the human mind likes to categorize things, this method helps these words gel into your young student’s mind. Second, Get the corresponding picture cue cards. You can obtain picture cue cards with one letter on them or with entire words on them. When teaching a student to read by showing whole words, its best to look for picture cue cards that deal with life activities. These packages normally have food groups and other categories in them. Third, Sit the child down in a quiet place before starting the lesson. The trick to getting picture cues to work is to keep a young student’s attention and have her connect a picture with a word. This won’t happen if she can’t see the picture cue card or is distracted by sounds. Forth, Pick up a picture cue card and say the corresponding word. Make sure you explain what you are doing before the lesson. Then, as you say the word and show the picture cue card, allow a time delay. This time delay (1 to 3 seconds) will allow your student to soak in the word and associate it with the image. After you show the picture card, spell the word so your student will associate certain alphabetic letters with the image. Next, Repeat this exercise at least two times. This means you should show a picture cue card of an apple and say the word twice. Repetition is a proven method of learning, so use it to your advantage. Then, coordinate picture cues with spelling lessons. You can do this by covering up the word on the picture cue card and revealing only one letter at a time as the student says it to you. This will further associate the word with the picture and help the young student learn to read. Last but not least, Allow your student a chance to show off his stuff. After you’ve been working with your student for a while, mix up the order of your picture cue cards and allow him to read the words back to you. This will let you see if he is really learning or if he has just memorized the order of the picture cue cards. These are one activity which helps Ss guess the meaning vocabularies which is related to the lesson ILLUSTRATED LECTURE Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 4 4 Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience unit 9: Deserts Speaking ( page 99) Choose the right words or phrases which best describe the pictures. CARDS: A B C D E F G H I J Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 5 5 Eucalyptus desert Dessert Grass Date palm Crocodile Camel Fox Lizard Frog Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience PICTURES: P1. P2. P3. P4. P5. P6. P7. P8. P9. P10 Students’activies Ss is devided two groups, and they have to observe pictures carefully and use cards to paste in the pictures The class will be vibrant Teacher’s activities T devides the class into 2 groups T asks Ss to paste pictures which are suitables with cards T helps Ss to discuss T gives small presents or add mark for the winning group T helps to read Suggested answers A. Eucalyptus /,ju:kə'liptəs/ P9 B. desert/de'zə:t/ P10 C. Dessert /di'zə:t/ P3 Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 6 6 Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience D. Grass /grɑ:s/ P7 E. Date palm /'deitpɑ:m/ P8 F. Frog /frɔg/ P4 G. Crocodile 'krɔkədail P1 H. Camel /'kæməl/ P5 I. Fox/fɔks/ P4 J. Lizard /'lizəd/ P2 2. USING MEDIA ( USING VIDEO) Almost any video can be used to teach English: commercial films, TV programmers, home-made dramas and holiday films. Live television programmers are NOT recommended. Your method should vary according to the language point you wish to teach and the level of your student(s) Although a handset is ideal, it is not essential. Position yourself near the front of the class, to one side - close enough to the video player to work the controls if you do not have a handset. If the video player is independent of the TV, turn it so you can work the controls easily without interfering with your students' view of the TV screen. This medium can be used to pratise consolidate range of language points to introduce subject(s) for debate to encourage conversation amongst students to improve writing skills to introduce new vocabulary to develop listening skills (with visual aid) Few lessons would involve continuous viewing - even with speech-free films. Strategic stopping is essential. The teacher controls what students see and hear: Films, with excessive bad language, can be shown without sound If the majority of film is good, unsuitable sex or violent scenes can easily be avoided as follows plan in advance how to exploit the remainder of the film knowing the exact counter positions of scenes to be omitted ILLUSTRATED LECTURE Unit 2: Cultural diversity _ Listening ( page 24) Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 7 7 Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience Warm up: T gives a short video about a marriage in VietNam and America When Ss watch video clip, T points some important words which are shown on screen Some important words: Altar/ Master of celemony/ Banquet/ Groom/ Bridge/ Ancestor/Tray/ Schedule/ Blessing 3. USING REALIA The main advantage of using real objects into the classroom is to make the learning experience more memorable for the learner. To give a couple of simple examples, if you are going to teach vocabulary of fruit and vegetables it can be much more affective for students if they can touch, smell and see the objects at the same time as hearing the new word. This would appeal to a wider range of learner styles than a simple flashcard picture of the piece of fruit or vegetable. (With very young learners, classroom management can become trickier if you bring in real objects as excitement levels tend to rise. Last year one of my students bit into an onion we were passing round. I’m sure he hasn’t forgotten that class!) A second example would be if you are going to teach some functional language for asking for the timetable for a train. You could use a fictitious timetable or you could use a real one from the local train station, one from the internet, or if you’re really organised, some you brought back from your last trip to the UK. This way you expose students to more language than simply the times and destinations. They will see information about prices, discounts, bank holidays etc. ILLUSTRATED LECTURE Unit 2: Cultural diversity _ Writing ( page 25) T brings the “ Nón lá” ( conical leaf hat) T shows it in front of the class T asks Ss to guess which is “leaf, rim, ribs, shape” Ss learn vocabularies by waching realia Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 8 8 Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience 4. USING MINE This is the way of using actions and facial expressions to show the meaning of words. Most action verb ( sits, stand, open…) and some adjectives showing feelings and stantus ( happy, worried…) can be taught using mine ILLUSTRATED LECTURE Unit 3: Ways of socialising-Reading (page 30) Warm up: Vocabularies Some words teacher can express by actions: Clap: T claps in front of the class and asks Ss what it means “ Vỗ tay” Shake hand: T shakes hands with one student in the class and aks Ss what is she doing “ Bắt tay” Wave: T also “waves” and makes Ss understand his/her actions II. WORD MEANINGS FROM CONTEXT Using examples, situations, or explanations is another ways of showing what word mean. Most abstract words ( love, happiness…) can be taught effectively in context. There are some points to consider when using this method Besides, it is not necessary to give a complicated explanation, the meaning can be shown by simple sentences. The teacher can ask Ss to find the meaning by guessing the meaning of sentences which are around ILLUSTRATED LECTURE Unit 1: Home life _Reading (page 12) T asks ss to see in the book and pay attention to the sentences “ The main responsibility is to wash the dishes and take out the gabage” I also look after the boys” Depennds on the sentences T aks Ss to guess the meaning of words “responsibility, look after” Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 9 9 Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience III. USING SYNONYMS OR ANTONYMS Synonyms are different words with similar or identical meanings. They are interchangeable. For example: Car and automobile. Antonyms are words with opposite or nearly opposite meanings.For example: Large and small. This is a nice warm up game using synonyms and antonyms. You can make it as difficult or easy as you wish, depending on the level of your students. Hand out a list of words to each student. There should be two columns next to each word, label the heading of each column, synonym and antonym. You can make up your own lists using words you've already taught. Thesaurus.com is a useful tool for this exercise. Then read out the synonyms and antonyms of those words. The students have to write these words next to the word they are the same or the opposite of. ILLUSTRATED LECTURE Unit 6: Future Job Speaking: Task 2 page 66 Find each pair of antonym from the following: Boring Rewarding Dangerous Difficult Fantastic Easy Fascinating Unsastified Grotesque Safe T adds words in the board or give small handouts to ask Ss to match Ss guess and match T checks corrected answers T helps SS to read voca and explains Suggested answers Boring Fascinating Rewarding Unsastified Dangerous Safe Difficult Easy Fantastic grotesque Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 10 10 . TÀI: DẠY TỪ VỰNG TRONG PHỔ THÔNG TRUNG HỌC ỨNG DỤNG: DẠY TRONG SÁCH GIÁO KHOA LỚP 12 CƠ BẢN NĂM HỌC 2009-2010 Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 1 1 Sáng. DO EXERCISES 1. GAP FILLING Nguyen Duy Tuan – Tan An High School 12 12 Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm initiative experience Gap-fills are an excellent way to reinforce
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