Bài giảng Lý thuyết ôn thi tốt nghiệp
Thông tin tài liệu
Ngày đăng: 29/11/2013, 21:11
Mô tả: Ngữ Pháp Căn Bản Ôn Thi Tốt Nghiệp SOME BASIC STRUCTURES (Cấu trúc cơ bản) 1. PHRASES OF RESULT (Cụm từ chỉ kết quả) a. TOO (quá … không thể) Ex: He is too short to play basketball. Tom ran too slowly to become the winner of the race. This book is too dull for you to read. b. ENOUGH (đủ … để có thể) Ex : Mary isn't old enough to drive a car. She speaks Spanish well enough to be an interpreter. It is cold enough to wear a heavy jacket. 2. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF RESULT (Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ kết quả) a. SO … THAT (quá (nhiều/ít)… đến nỗi) Ex: It was so dark that I couldn't see anything. The student had behaved so badly that he was dismissed from the class. The Smiths had so many children that they formed their own baseball team. He has invested so much money in the project that he can't abandon it now. b. SUCH . THAT (quá … đến nỗi) Ex: It was such a heavy box that the children couldn’t carry it. This is such difficult homework that I will never finish it. 3. PHRASES OF REASON (Cụm từ chỉ lí do) Ex: The students arrived late because of the traffic jam. She stayed at home because of feeling unwell. 4. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF REASON (Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ lí do) Ex: Because she behaves well, everybody loves her. As he behaved badly, he must be punished. 5. PHRASES OF CONCESSION (Cụm từ chỉ sự nhượng bộ) Ex: Despite the rain, we go to school on time. In spite of having a headache I enjoyed the film. Trang 1 S + be/look/ seem/ become/ get/ feel/ . + TOO + Adj (+ for + 0) + to V 0 …. S + V(thường) + TOO + Adv (+ for + 0) + to V 0 …. S + be/look/ seem/ become/ get/ feel/ . + Adj. + ENOUGH (+ for + 0) + to V 0 S + V(thường) + Adv. + ENOUGH (+ for + 0) + to V 0 S + be/look/ seem/ become/ get/ feel/ . + SO + Adj. S + V(thường) + SO + Adv. S + V + SO + many/ few + N (đếm được số nhiều) + THAT + S + V… S + V + SO + much/ little + N (không đếm được) Because of As a result of (bởi vì) + Noun / Noun phrase / V -ing Due to S + V + SUCH + (a/ an) + Adj. + N + THAT + S + V… Because of As a result of (bởi vì) + Noun / Noun phrase / V -ing Due to Because Since (bởi vì) + S + V … As Despite (mặc dù) + Noun / Noun phrase / V -ing In spite of Ngữ Pháp Căn Bản Ôn Thi Tốt Nghiệp 6. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONCESSION (Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ) Ex Although it rains, we go to school on time. Even though I didn’t know anybody at the party, I had a nice time. Ex: No matter who you are, I still love you. What others may say, you are certainly right. 7. CLAUSES AFTER “ AS IF, AS THOUGH ” (Mệnh đề sau “as if và as though”) Ex: He acts as though he were rich. The old lady dresses as if she owned the place. 8. CLAUSES AFTER “ IT’S TIME, IT’S HIGH TIME ” (Mệnh đề sau “ it’s time/it’s high time”) Ex: It’s time you started to work. It’s high time the boy was in bed. Ex: It’s time for her to go to bed. It’s high time to buy a car. 9. CLAUSES AFTER “ WOULD RATHER ” (Mệnh đề sau”would rather”) Ex: I would rather you went home now. Tomorrow is difficult. I’d rather you came next week. Ex: I would rather stay at home tonight. John would rather go to class tomorrow than today. I prefer going to the cinema to staying at home. She prefers oranges to apples. 10. PHRASES OF PURPOSE (Cụm từ chỉ mục đích) Ex : I learn English to study abroad. = I learn English in order to study abroad. He got up early so as not to miss the train. = He got up early in order not to miss the train. 11. CLAUSES OF PURPOSE (Mệnh đề chỉ mục đích ) Ex : I’m buying some paint so that I can paint my room. = I’m buying some paint in order that I can paint my room. SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION (Biến đổi câu) MODEL 1 Trang 2 Although Though (mặc dù) + S + V … Even though No matter + who/what/when/where/why How (adj/adv) (dù …đi nữa) + S + V …. Whatever (+ N) V (present) V 2/ed …. S + AS IF/AS THOUGH + S + V (past) (như thể, dường như) had + V 3/ed …. It’s time/it’s high time (đã tới lúc) + S + V 2/ed … It’s time/it’s high time (đã tới lúc) + (for + O) + to V 0 …. S + would rather (that) + S + V 2/ed … (mong muốn rằng) S + would rather (not) + V 0 … (than) … (muốn) S + prefer + V -ing / Noun … + to V 0 …. Because Since (bởi vì) + S + V … As Because of As a result of (bởi vì) + Noun / Noun phrase / V -ing … Due to To V 0 : Để in order (not) to / so as (not ) to + V 0 : Để (để không) S + V + so that / in order that + S + modal verbs + V 0 …. ( will / would / can /could/may/might… ) Ngữ Pháp Căn Bản Ôn Thi Tốt Nghiệp Ex: Because she behaves well, everybody loves her. Because of her good behaviour, everybody loves her. Because of his bad behavior, he must be punished. As he behaved badly, he must be punished. MODEL 2 Ex Although it rains, we go to school on time. Despite / In spite of the rain, we go to school on time. Despite the noise, we continued to study our lessons. Though it was very noisy, we continued to study our lessons. MODEL 3 Ex: The film was so good that I saw it three times. It was such a good film that I saw it three times. It is such a bad book that nobody reads it. This book is so bad that nobody reads it. MODEL 4 Ex: Mary is too young to get married. Mary isn’t old enough to get married. The tea was not cool enough for her to drink. The tea was too hot for her to drink. MODEL 5 Ex: This raincoat is so small that she can’t wear it. This raincoat is too small for her to wear. It was such an interesting novel that I read it many times.The novel was interesting enough for me to read many times. This question is easy enough for us to answer. This question is so easy that we can answer. The box was too heavy for the child to carry. It was such a heavy box that the child couldn’t carry it. MODEL 6 Ex: To live on my salary must be hard. I find it hard to live on my salary. MODEL 7 (Câu điều kiện) Note: Clause 1 + so + clause 2 If + clause 1 … , clause 2 Clause 1 + because + clause 2 If + clause 2 … , clause 1 Ex: He can’t do the test because it is too difficult. If the test weren’t too difficult, he could do it. I didn’t eat anything so I was hungry. I wouldn’t have been hungry if I had eaten something. MODEL 8 Note: Không được thay đổi loại điều kiện, chỉ thay đổi cấu trúc thì của loại điều kiện đã cho. Ex: Unless it rains, we will go to the movies (loại 1) If it doesn’t rain, we will go to the movies. (loại 1) If they didn’t attend class regularly, they couldn’t understand the lesson (loại 2) Unless they attended class regularly, they couldn’t understand the lesson. (loại 2) Trang 3 Despite (mặc dù) + Noun / Noun phrase / V -ing In spite of Although Though (mặc dù) + S + V … Even though SO …THAT SUCH … THAT TOO … + to-infinitive ENOUGH … + to V 0 To V 0 … + be + Adj/N …. S + V + it + Adj/N + to V 0 … …. SO …THAT / SUCH … THAT …. …TOO … + to-infinitive / ENOUGH … + to V 0 … If …not Unless … - Hiện tại Câu ở - Quá khứ - Loại 2 (Quá khứ đơn) IF - Loại 3 (Quá khứ hoàn thành) Ngữ Pháp Căn Bản Ôn Thi Tốt Nghiệp MODEL 9 Ex: Tom and Mary have been married for five years. It is five years since Tom and Mary were married. I haven’t seen my father for one month. It’s one month since I last saw my father. MODEL 10 (Câu ao ước) Ex: She won’t visit me again. I wish she would visit me again. My wife can’t speak French. I wish my wife could speak French. What a pity you failed in your driving test. I wish you hadn’t failed in your driving test. MODEL 11 Ex: I haven’t heard him since August. The last time I heard him was in August. I haven’t seen him since I was a student. I last saw him when I was a student. MODEL 12 Ex: He started working for this factory a year ago. He has been working for this factory for a year./He has been working for this factory since last year. MODEL 13 Ex: She typed the letter in 20 minutes. It took her 20 minutes to type the letter. I walked to my office in 10 minutes. It took me 10 minutes to walk to my office. MODEL 14 Ex: Tom didn’t begin to read until he was eight. It was not until Tom was eight that he began to read. MODEL 15 (Thể truyền khiến) Câu chủ động Câu bị động Ex: I will have Tom wash the car. I will have the car washed. I will get Tom to wash the car. I will get the car washed. MODEL 16 (Câu bị động) Ex: The police is questioning him. Trang 4 - Tương lai Câu ở - Hiện tại - Quá khứ - would + V 1 Wish - Quá khứ đơn - Quá khứ hoàn thành S + have/has + not + V3/ed … since (for)… - S + last + V 2/ed … when… - The last time + S + was …. S + V (past) … ago S + have/has + been + V -ing + since (for)… S + V + … + time … It take/took + (Object) + time + to V 0 … ( Ai mất thời gian bao lâu để làm gì) S + didn’t +V 1 … until… It was not until … that… (Mãi cho đến khi… ) have + V 0 S + Object 1 Object 2 …… get + to V 0 S + HAD V 3/ed …. + time … It is + time … + since … + V 2/ed … have S + + Object + V 3/ed get S + V + Object … S + be + V 3/ed … + (by) …. Ngữ Pháp Căn Bản Ôn Thi Tốt Nghiệp He is being questioned by the police. MODEL 17 Ex: My mother was the most warm-hearted person I’ve ever known. I’ve never known a more warm-hearted person than my mother. MODEL 18 Câu chủ động Câu bị động Ex: They think that the owner of the house is abroad. It is thought that the owner of the house is abroad. The owner of the house is thought to be abroad. People thought that he had died in battle. It was thought that he had died in battle. He was thought to have died in battle. MODEL 19 Ex: Susan isn’t as good at chemistry as Sarah. Sarah is better at chemistry than Susan. MODEL 20 Ex: As he grows older, he becomes increasingly cheerful. The older he grows, the more cheerful he becomes. Trang 5 People / they + V 1 (consider/ know / believe/ say /…) + … + that + S + V 2/ed + …. SO SÁNH BẰNG SO SÁNH HƠN SO SÁNH KÉPClause 1 + Clause 2 It + is / was + V 3/ed (của V 1 ) + that + S + V 2/ed +…. to V 0 …. (khi V 2 /ed ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai) S + be + V 3/ed (của V 1 ) + to have + V 3/ed …. (khi V 2 ở quá khứ) SO SÁNH HƠN SO SÁNH NHẤT . Ngữ Pháp Căn Bản Ôn Thi Tốt Nghiệp SOME BASIC STRUCTURES (Cấu trúc cơ bản) 1. PHRASES OF RESULT (Cụm từ chỉ kết quả) a. TOO (quá … không thể) Ex: He is. Để (để không) S + V + so that / in order that + S + modal verbs + V 0 …. ( will / would / can /could/may/might… ) Ngữ Pháp Căn Bản Ôn Thi Tốt Nghiệp Ex:— Xem thêm —
Tài liệu mới nhất
Tài liệu mới bán
- Hoàn thiện kênh phân phối tại công ty xăng đầu bình định
- Luận văn thạc sĩ Hoàn thiện kênh phân phối tại công ty xăng đầu bình ...
- Quản trị quan hệ khách hàng tại chi nhánh phú tài ngân hàng ...
- Phát triển nguồn nhân lực tại tại bệnh viện phong da liễu trung ...
- Luận văn thạc sĩ Phát triển nguồn nhân lực tại tại bệnh viện phong ...
- TUYỂN CHỌN ĐỀ KIỂM TRA TOÁN LỚP 8 KÌ II
- TÁC ĐỘNG CỦA CHÍNH SÁCH TÀI KHÓA ĐẾN PHÁT TRIỂN KINH TẾ VIỆT NAM
- BỘ ĐỀ THI HỌC SINH GIỎI TOÁN TIẾNG VIỆT LỚP 3 CỰC HAY
Tài liệu liên quan
Từ khóa liên quan