The effects of brassinolide on the growth and yield of sesame ADB1 variety

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Research of the effects of brassinolide (BL) on the growth and yield of sesame, the field experiment was carried out in Randomize Complete Block design (RCBD) with 5 treatments and 5 replications, the replication area is 65m2. The treatments were three concentrations of BL (0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ppm), and 2 control treatments, Ca- Bo- K (CaO (18 mg/l), K2O (144 mg/l) and B2O3 (384 mg/l) (as farmer using) and spray water. AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol (3), – 16 THE EFFECTS OF BRASSINOLIDE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SESAME ADB1 VARIETY Tran Thi Nga1, Nguyen Hong Hue2, Le Vinh Thuc2 Master student of Crop Science, An Giang University, VNU - HCM Can Tho University Information: Received: 20/08/2018 Accepted: 06/12/2018 Published: 11/2019 Keywords: Sesamum indicum, proline, brassinolide ABSTRACT Research of the effects of brassinolide (BL) on the growth and yield of sesame, the field experiment was carried out in Randomize Complete Block design (RCBD) with treatments and replications, the replication area is 65m2 The treatments were three concentrations of BL (0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ppm), and control treatments, Ca- Bo- K (CaO (18 mg/l), K2O (144 mg/l) and B2O3 (384 mg/l) (as farmer using) and spray water All treatments were treated at two times, 15 and 30 days after sowing The results showed that plants treated with BL, the proline content in leaves increased Sesame was sprayed with 0.07 ppm of brassinolide producing highest yield (1,637.7 kg/ha) (increasing double times and 34.9% in comparison with spraying water and farmer control treatment, respectively) INTRODUCTION of flower or young pods drop are high and pest attack Sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.) is an annual plant with high nutritional value and has recently been selected for crop rotation on rice soil in the Mekong Delta (Mekong Delta) (Tran Thi Hong Tham et al., 2008; Le Van Khoa and Nguyen Thi Thuy Duong, 2012; Vu Van Long et al., 2018) In production to increase the productivity of sesame, there are many measures to be applied such as determining appropriate fertilizer dosage (Kalaiselvan et al., 2001), planting and tending techniques (Raikwar and Srivastva, 2013; Nadeem et al., 2015), applying growth regulators in sesame production (Greedly et al., 2005; Vekaria et al., 2017) However, in the Mekong Delta in recent years due to the effect of climate change such as increasing temperatures, erratic rain and wind, it has greatly affected the productivity of sesame due to number Brassinolide (C28H48O6) is an endogenous plant hormone, a newly recognized and effective broadspectrum plant hormone that is a non-toxic, fast and powerful plant growth regulator In plants, at low concentrations can make plants grow rapidly, promote fertilization, increase photosynthesis, increase chlorophyll content, stimulate root development, improve plant resistance, maintains flower and fruit preservation time, increase drought tolerance and alkali resistance, increases disease resistance, help plants recover quickly from injuries, resistance to biological agents such as pests (Abe, 1989; Khripach et al., 1999) and abiotic stresses such as inadequate environmental conditions such as saline condition (Ikekawa and Zhao, 1991; Peter, 1995; Fujioka and Yokota, AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol (3), – 16 2003) Brassinolide also helps plants increase crop yields (Pipattanawong et al., 1996; Serna et al., 2012; Ghorbani et al., 2017) In India, research on sesame spray 28-homobrassinolide at 30 days after sowing helped plant growth and yield (Prakash et al., 2007) Treatment of BL at a concentration of 0.1-10 µM stimulates the growth of rice leaves, increases the number of leaves but inhibits the height of rice plants (Nguyen Minh Chon, 2010) According to research by Le Kieu Hieu and Nguyen Bao Ve (2017), spraying of 0.05 mg/L helped OM2517 rice to increase yields by nearly 7% compared to no treatment.Brassinolide increases the germination rate when treated on the seeds of many crops, grasses and parasites (Kamuro and Takatsuto, 1999) Besides, BL is also used to increase the number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of leaves and roots, leaf age, number of effective shoots or branches People also use BL to increase the number of flowers on the cotton of the herbaceous plant, the amount of fruit on crops, fruit trees and tubers to increase yield (Nguyen Minh Chon, 2010) In Vietnam, applied research of BL on sesame has not been recognized Therefore, this project was conducted to determine the suitable dose of BL for ADB1 sesame seed to grow and provide high yields MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1 Materials The experiment was conducted from January to April 2017 in Binh Thuy commune, Chau Phu district, An Giang province The variety used in the experiment is sesame ADB1 variety This is the black sesame variety restored by the Southern Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology from the local sesame variety of the Mekong Delta Brassinolide plant growth regulator (90% active ingredient brassinolide) is sourced from China 2.2 Methods and Experimental layout The experiment was arranged in the field in a completely randomized block design of treatments (NT) with replicates (LL) The area of each plot (replicate) was 65 m2 The treatments were described as Table The chemicals were treated at two times, 15 days and 30 days after sowing (DAS) Calcium-Bo-K mixture is a control NT according to farmers often applied to increase the rate of flowering beans and young pods on sesame Table The experimental treatments Number Treatments Contents BL 0,05 ppm Brassinolide 0,05 ppm BL 0,07 ppm Brassinolide 0,07 ppm BL 0,1 ppm Brassinolide 0,10 ppm Canxi-Bo-K CaO (18 mg/l), K2O (144 mg/l) B2O3 (384 mg/l) Control Apply water 2.3 Cultivation methods applied using the method of overflow irrigation The water went into the fields through the trenches, to irrigate the fields then drained when the plants were ripe (65 DAS) Fertilizers applied a local formula of 105.5 kg N/ha, 60 kg P2O5/ha and 50 kg K2O/ha Harvesting occurred when the plant has about 95% of the ripe dry pods Harvesting each plot individually, did not allow the pods to fall The After harvesting rice, the soil in the field is dried under the sun, plowing straw into the soil conducting deep trenching at distance of 25 - 30 cm between beds to drain water quickly Sowing seeds with the amount of seed kg/ha Sesame seeds are soaked with water to remove the poor seeds, then mixed with sand to sow The experiment was 10 AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol (3), – 16 seeds were beaten immediately after the fruit was dried diagonally marked track Number of seeds/pod (seeds) in each treatment randomly selected 10 large pods from 25 plants counting the number of seeds per plants The mass of 1000 grains (g) was repeated times, then an average of weighing times for each replication of the experiment 2.4 Indicator measurement methods Each experimental plot was marked with diagonal points, with each point hosting 25 plants, marked for monitoring indicators Plant height was measured from the ground to the tip The height to the first pod (cm) measured from the ground to the first left close position Number of branches/plant (branches) counts the total number of branches per plant The number of leaves/plant (leaves) and leaf size recorded in the pod plant period counted the total number of leaves per plant and used a 3-leaf ruler in the middle of each plant The yield (ton/ha) collected in the experimental plot was dried and weighed the total weight then converted to tons / Evaluation of wilt disease rates was recorded at 34, 44 and 54 DAS The disease rate is calculated according to the following formula: Ratio of dead plants Wilt disease rates (%) = x 100% Chlorophyll content in leaf is measured by chlorophyll metter SPAD - 502 Plus (Konica Minolta Sensing, INC - Japan) is sandwiched in the middle of the 3rd leafy meat of the sesame seedlings from top to bottom at 40 DAS , is the mature leaf (Dehnavi et al., 2017) Total plants track 2.5 Data processing methods The data is calculated and processed on a computer with the help of the Excel program, using SPSS 16.0 statistical software to analize the experimental data through the Duncan test to compare the differences between treatments Proline content in leaves was analyzed at the Department of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology, College of Agriculture, Can Tho University by the method of Base et al (1973) Each treatment randomly selected plants to collect a uniform leaf sample (select the 3rd leaf from the top) at 35 DAS Weigh 0.5g of crushed leaves in 10ml of sulfosalicylic acid 3% (w/v), centrifuge 7,000 cycles/20 minutes, collect the above extract to perform the color reaction, take 2ml of solution for the test, add 2ml of acetic acid and 2ml of nynhidrin acid (1.25g ninhydrin + 30 ml of acetic acid + 20 ml of M phosphoric acid, store the solution at 40°C), incubate the reaction at 100°C for hour, after cooling for minutes Add ml of toluene to the reaction mixture, shake well, take the upper color portion to measure OD520nm The proline content is calculated from the calibration curve equation Y = 0.017.X + 0.095 (R2 = 1.0) where X is the proline concentration (µg/ml), Y is OD520nm RESULT AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Effect of BL on plant height, height to first pod and number of branches on the plant By the time of harvest, the treatments BL 0.07 ppm, BL 0.1 ppm and Calcium-Bo-K had the highest plant height but not statistically different from each other (Figure 1) The height of plants in the spraying treatment BL 0.05 ppm (104 cm) and the control treatments (95.7 cm) had the lowest plant height According to Nguyen Minh Chon (2010), brassinolide stimulates the growth of many plants with very low concentrations and the treatment of BL helps these dwarf mutants grow normally again, showing that BL has an important role for normal plant growth Results in Figure shows that the number of branches/plant did not differ statistically between the treatments This shows that the treatment of BL did not effect on the number of branches/plant compared to the control The number of branches/plant affects the number of pods since the branch on the plant will bear flowers and pods, the The number of pods/plant (left) is recorded by counting the number of pods per plant, each treatment randomly selected 25 plants along the 11 AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol (3), – 16 between the treatments When spraying BL or Calcium-Bo-K, the pod is higher than the control, so the height to the first pod is low The height to the first pod had a significant difference of 1% through statistical analysis Plant heighth (cm) 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 The heighth to the first pod (cm) Number of branches (branch) 135,0a 127,0a 126,0a Plant height (cm) 104,0b 95,7b 7,0 38,7a 37bc 36,5ab Control 7,2 6,9 7,1 7,3 34,3c 33,2c Canxi -Bo-K BL 0,05 ppm BL 0,07 ppm 16 14 12 10 Number of branches (branch) number of branches/plant depends mainly on the characteristics of the variety BL 0,1 ppm Treatment Figure Plant height, height to the first pod and number of branches at time of harvest 3.2 Effect of BL on number of leaves and size of leaves on sesame plants to maintain cell tension is an important factor to ensure the increase in leaf size Figure shows the leaf size between the treatments with significant differences through statistical analysis In the treatment of BL 0.07ppm, the highest leaf size was followed by the treatment of BL 0.1 ppm and the lowest was BL spray with a concentration of 0.05 ppm This shows that BL has an influence on the size of sesame leaves and at the treatment concentration, the appropriate BL spray will give maximum leaf size The function of BL is involved in many plant development processes such as stretching, leaf expansion, flowering and aging (Rao et al., 2002) The results in Figure show that the number of leaves/plants did not differ significantly by statistical analysis between the treatments The number of leaves/sesame can be determined by the same variety as many other crops, such as the number of leaves on tomatoes is the genetic characteristics of the variety (Ta Thu Cuc, 2005) In photosynthesis process, leaf size is a factor affecting the ability to absorb light Therefore, leaf size is an important indicator to assess the growth of plants Providing enough nutrients to the leaves Number of leaves (leaf) Width of leaf (cm) 20 32,8 32,0 32,1 31,3 32,2 13,0 11,5 10,0 9,1 10,2 20 10 7,2 4,8 6,2 5,9 5,3 0 Control Canxi -Bo-K BL 0,05 ppm BL 0,07 ppm BL 0,1 ppm Treatments Figure Number of leaves and size of leaves on sesame plants 12 Size of leaf (cm) Number of leaves (leaf) 40 Length of leaf (cm) AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol (3), – 16 3.3 Effect of BL on chlorophyll and proline content in leaves in rice, according to Fujii and Saka (2001) at ambient temperature, using BL at a concentration of 2x10-8M or 2x10-9M to slightly increase the starch and chlorophyll content in the slab of rice leaves This is an important factor for photosynthesis plants to convert essential chemicals to increase crop productivity The results in Table show that chlorophyll content is significantly different from statistical analysis, which shows that BL increases chlorophyll content in leaves This was also found Table Chlorophyll content and proline content in sesame leaves Treatments Chlorophyll content Proline content (µmol/g) Control 53,6d 1,24c Canxi-Bo-K 59,3c 2,08b BL 0,05 ppm 57,9c 1,39c BL 0,07 ppm 73,0a 2,59a BL 0,1 ppm 69,7b 2,26ab F CV (%) * ** 14,05 9,77 Notes: In the same column, numbers with the same following digits not have statistically different; at significance level of 1%; * difference at significance level of 5% The results in Table show that the concentration of proline accumulated in sesame leaves increased and the difference was statistically significant at 1% In particular, the spray treatments of BL 0.07 ppm and BL 0.1ppm had the accumulation of proline concentration of 2.59 µmol / g and 2.26 µmol / g, respectively compare to the remaining treatments This shows that the sesame treated with BL has accumulated more proline than the control, thus helping to increase resilience and improve good growth for sesame According to Belkhodja and Benkablia (2000), proline accumulation is one of the adapters activated by plants that meet adverse environmental conditions Thus, spraying BL at doses of 0.10 ppm and 0.07 ppm both have an impact on proline accumulation process The time of flowering is when the plant changes from vegetative to reproductive stage, so it is very sensitive to external conditions, especially unfavorable external conditions (flooding, drought, physiological stress, ), affecting in the process of pollination, fertilization and pod formation so that the increase in proline content at this time is very important, proline will increase the osmotic ** difference pressure of cells to help the plant maintain its ability to absorb water In the absence of water or proline protects the cell membrane against the adverse effects of inorganic prints under stress conditions, ) thereby helping plants overcome adverse external conditions to minimize damage to formation the productivity of plants or in other words, the treatment of BL growth regulators in sesame plants gave the plants a lot of resistance adaptation to adverse environmental fluctuations 3.4 Effect of brassinolide on resistance to sesame wilt and leaf-eating pests of sesame Results in Table for wilt disease (Rhizoctonia sp.; Pythium sp.; Fusarium sp.) shows that at the time of 34 DAS, some treatments started to show signs of disease but with the same proportion as in the treatment spray BL 0.05 ppm; BL 0.07 ppm and controls 0.75%; 1.00%; 1.19%, the remaining treatments did not appear diseased At the time of 44 DAS, it is clear that the rate of disease among treatments are highest, BL 0.05 ppm is 2.78%, followed by Calcium-Bo is 1.62% and the lowest incidence is BL 0.07 ppm is 0.74 ppm Considering at the time of 54 DAS, although the 13 AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol (3), – 16 treatment of preventive medicine has not been effective, the disease rate still increases in all treatments but it is still lower than the control, in which the lowest BL 0.07 ppm is 3,56% This shows that, when increasing the treatment dose of BL, the rate of wilting disease tends to decrease, meaning that BL has helped the plant to respond to abiotic disadvantages (withering) It is related to the accumulation of proline of plants because BL 0.07 ppm of proline accumulation has the lowest rate of wilt infection Thus, initially it is recognized that BL has the ability to increase the resistance of the plant to help reduce the wilting disease in the sesame Table Resistant to wilt disease on seedling Wilt disease (%) Treatments 34 DAS 44 DAS 54 DAS Control 1,19 4,05 8,33 Canxi-Bo-K 0,00 1,62 4,37 BL 0,05 ppm 0,75 2,78 6,24 BL 0,07 ppm 1,00 0,74 3,56 BL 0,1 ppm 0,00 1,88 3,93 3.5 Effect of brassinolide component of sesame on the yield (2011), the mass of 1000 grains ranged from to g and due to genetic characteristics, different sesame varieties have weight of 1,000 seeds are different In V6 sesame variety and Rajeshwari (India), the weight of 1000 seeds is quite large (3g/1000 seeds) Thus, BL has an effect on the number of pods/plant but does not affect the weight of 1000 seeds of sesame seed, which is an important factor to help increase productivity and product quality According to Ali (2017) BL increases the rate of fruiting and helps the plant reduce physiological loss The results in Table show that BL 0.07 ppm resulted in a higher number of pods/plant compared to the control group and a 5% significant difference through statistical analysis compared to the remaining treatments This shows that BL has an influence on the number of pods/plant The mass of 1000 grains ranged from 2.4 g to 2.8 g, which shows that BL spray does not affect the weight of 1000 grains According to Nguyen Bao Ve et al Table Number of fruits/plant, weight of 1000 seeds and sesame yield Number of pods/plant (pod) Weight of 1,000 seeds (g) Control 46,7d 2,66 889,7d Canxi-Bo-K 53,4bc 2,70 1.213,3c BL 0,05 ppm 49,6cd 2,75 1.068,3cd BL 0,07 ppm 59,1b 2,75 1.637,7a BL 0,1 ppm 65,1a 2,81 1.444,0b ** ns * 5,99 3,83 12,5 Treatments F CV (%) Yield (kg/ha) Notes: In the same column, numbers with the same following digits not have statistically different; ** difference at significance level of 1%; * difference at significance level of 5% 14 AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol (3), – 16 CONCLUSION Fujii, S and H Saka 2001 Distribution of assimilates to each organ in rice plants exposed to a low temperature at the ripening stage, and the effect of brassinolide on the distribution Plant Prod Sci 4(2): 136-144 Spraying brassinolide on leaves at two concentrations of 0.07 ppm and 0.10 ppm helped the height of the black sesame seed ADB1 reach 153.13 cm Number of branches/plant and number of leaves/plant, leaf size and leaf weight were not affected Spraying brassinolide at a concentration of 0.07 ppm for sesame accumulating proline high of 2.59 µmol/g dry weight and achieving a chlorophyll index of 73 SPAD is the highest Treating brassinolide at a dose of 0.07 ppm helps the sesame tend to increase disease resistance and have a high yield of ADB1 black sesame seed of 1,637 kg / Fujioka, S and T Yokota 2003 Biosynthesis and metabolism of brassinosteroids Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:137- 64; PMID:14502988 Ghorbani, P., S Eshghi and H Haghi 2017 Effects of brassinosteroid (24-epibrassinolide) on yield and quality of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) 'Thompson Seedless' Vitis 56, 113–117 Greedly, E.l., H.M, Nadiaand B.B Mekki 2005 Growth, yield and endogenous hormones of two sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Cultivars as influenced by stigmasterol Journal of Applied Sciences Research 1(1): 63-66, 2005 In production, brassinolide spray can be applied at a dosage of 0.07 ppm at 15 days and 30 days after sowing, helping the sesame to increase tolerance to wilt and seedling death and increase productivity Ikekawa, N and Y Zhao, 1991 Application of 24EpiBR in Agriculture Brassinosteroids: chemistry, bioactivity and application ACS Symposium Series 474 1991; 280 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study is funded in part by the Can Tho University Improvement Project VN14-P6, supported by a Japanese ODA loan Kalaiselvan, P., K Subrahmaniyan and T.N Balasubramanian 2001 Effect of nitrogen on the growth and yield of sesame - a review Agric Re.,22(2): 137-140 REFERENCES Abe, H 1989 Advances in brassinosteroid research and prospects for its agricultural application Japan Pesticide Information, 10-14 Kamuro, Y and S Takasuto 1999 Bractical application of Brassinnosteroid in agricultural fields Steroidal plant hormones, 223-241 Ali, B 2017 Practical applications of brassinosteroids in horticulture - Some field perspectives Scientia Horticulturae (225): 15-21 Khripach, V., V Zhabinskii and de Groot A 1999 Brassinosteroids: A new class of plant hormones San Diego, CA: Academic Press 1999; 263 Bates, L.S., R.P Waldren, I.D Teare 1973 Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies Plant Soil 39: 205-207 Kočová, M., O Rothová, D Holá, M Kvasnica and L Kohout 2010 The effects of brassinosteroids on photosynthetic parameters in leaves of two field-grown maize inbred lines and their F1 hybrid Biologia Plantarum 54(4): 785–788 Belkhodja, M and M Benkablia 2000 Proline response of broad bean (Viciafaba L.) under salt stress Egypt J Agric Res 78: 185-195 Dehnavi, M.M., M Misagh, A Yadavi and M Merajipoor 2017 Physiological responses of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) to foliar application of boron and zinc under drought stress Journal of Plant Process and Function 6(20): 27-35 Krishnan, S., Azhakanandam, K., Ebenezer, G., Samson, N P and P Dayanandan 1999 Brassinosteroids and benzylaminopurine 15 AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol (3), – 16 increase yield in IR 50 Indica rice Current science, 145-147 on morphophysiological and yield parameters of sesame Indian J Plant Physiol 12(1): 91-94 Le Kieu Hieu and Nguyen Bao Ve 2017 The effect of brassinolide plant growth regulators on the growth and yield of OM2517 rice variety in Bac Lieu province Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 1: 275-284 Raikwar, R S and P Srivastva 2013 Productivity enhancement of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) through improved production technologies African Journal of Agricultural Research 8(47): 6073-6078 Le Van Khoa and Nguyen Thi Thuy Duong 2012 Current situation of cultivation and production potential of weathered land in Tri Ton district, AnGiang province Science Journal of Can Tho University 21b: 78-86 Rao, S.S.R., Vardhini B.V., E Sujatha 2002 Anuradha, S., Brassinosteroids – New class of phytohormones Curr Sci 82: 1239-1245 Serna, M., F Hernandez, A Amoros 2012 Brassinosteroid analogues effect on yield and quality parameters of field-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) 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