Intercultural communication in international negotiations

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES - ĐINH THU TRANG INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS GRADUATE THESIS International Relations Hanoi - 2014 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES - ĐINH THU TRANG INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS Graduate Thesis - International Relations Code: 60310206 Supervisor: Dr LÊ THẾ QUẾ Hanoi - 2014 ĐẠI HỌC QUỐC GIA HÀ NỘI TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC KHOA HỌC XÃ HỘI VÀ NHÂN VĂN -*** GIẤY XÁC NHẬN SỬA CHỮA LUẬN VĂN Kính gửi: PGS.TS Phạm Quang Minh Chủ tịch Hội đồng chấm luận văn thạc sĩ khoa học chuyên ngành Quan hệ Quốc tế (Mã số: 60310206) Tên em Đinh Thu Trang, học viên cao học khóa QHQT-2011, chuyên ngành Quan hệ Quốc tế, Khoa Quốc tế học Em hoàn thành bảo vệ Luận văn thạc sĩ khoa học chuyên ngành Quan hệ Quốc tế, mã số 60310206 ngày 26 tháng 12 năm 2014 với đề tài: “Intercultural Communication in International Negotiations” Theo đánh giá, nhận xét kết luận Hội đồng chấm luận văn ngày 26 tháng 12 năm 2014, luận văn em sửa chữa sau: - Diễn đạt lại mục tiêu nghiên cứu đề tài, phạm vi nghiên cứu kết nghiên cứu đề tài - Chuyển sang dạng bị động, thay cho cách dùng “we” “you”: trang 3,4, 27, 33, 32, 52, 56, 57, 44, 55 - Bổ sung ý vào tiểu kết chương - Giải thích rõ số ý: less education, ví dụ cho kỹ thuyết phục (persuasion skills), tính hiếu khách (hospitability) đàm phán quốc tế thể nào, cultural theme, low context, high context, yin culture - Bổ sung tính linh hoạt (Flexibility) phong cách đàm phán người Việt Nam - Giải thích rõ mối liên hệ tam giác đàm phán hiệu (Figure 2.4: trang 31) - Diễn đạt lại số câu cho phù hợp Nay em làm đơn kính đề nghị PGS.TS Phạm Quang Minh - Chủ tịch Hội đồng xác nhận việc bổ sung nói em tuân thủ theo yêu cầu Em xin trân trọng cảm ơn Hà Nội, Ngày 09 tháng 01 năm 2015 Học viên Xác nhận Chủ tịch hội đồng PGS.TS Phạm Quang Minh Đinh Thu Trang ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to express my most sincere gratitude to my advisor – Dr Le The Que, Faculty of International Studies, University of Social Sciences and Humanities (FIS/USSH), Vietnam National University, Hanoi- for his suggestions that helped me choose my thesis topic and his careful guidance throughout the writing process Secondly, I wish to convey my deep thanks to all my FIS/USSH lecturers who have imparted a great deal of content knowledge to me through their enthusiastic lectures Lastly, I would like to thank my loved ones for all their support and encouragement I welcome any comments and suggestions Hanoi, 11 th October, 2014 Graduate student Dinh Thu Trang TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Figures and Tables INTRODUCTION Besides the introduction and conclusion, the thesis consists of three chapters, in which: 12 Chapter 1: Overview of Basic Concepts - offers an overview of basic concepts relating to the thereotical issues of communication, culture, intercultural communication, negotiation, intercultural communication and international negotiation 12 Chapter 2: Communication Factors and Cultural Differences Influencing International Negotiations- mentions the influences of intercultural communication on the process of international negotiations 12 Chapter 3: Strategies to Deal with Intercultural Communication in International Negotiations and Implications for Vietnamese Negotiatorsprovides some useful solutions for the effective intercultural communication, especially for Vietnamese negotiators in order to facilitate international negotiations successfully 12 Chapter 1: Overview of Basic Concepts 13 1.1 Defining Communication 13 1.1.1 Verbal communication 13 1.1.2 Nonverbal communication 15 1.2 Defining Culture and Intercultural Communication 16 1.2.1 Culture 16 1.2.2 Intercultural Communication 17 1.3 The Concepts of International Negotiations 23 1.3.1 The Definition of International Negotiations 23 1.3.2 Types of Actors 24 1.3.3 Types of International Negotiations 25 1.3.4 Phases of International Negotiations 25 Chapter Summary .26 Chapter 2: Communication Factors and Cultural Differences Influencing International Negotiations 28 2.1 The influences of communication factors on international negotiation .28 2.1.1 The model of inter-cultural negotiation as a communication process 28 2.1.2 The impacts of communication factors on the process of international negotiation .29 2.1.3 The importance of questioning skills in negotiation 32 2.1.4 Listening skill from the message’s receiver in negotiation .34 2.1.5 Messages in international negotiations 36 2.1.6 Persuasion skills 37 2.2 The impact of inter-cultural factor on negotiation .38 2.2.1 The model of inter-cultural negotiation 38 2.2.2 The model of the negotiation process influenced by cultural differences 40 2.2.3 Culture affects the beginning of negotiations 42 2.2.4 Culture affects psychology of negotiators .43 2.2.5 Culture affects the process of negotiations 44 2.2.6 Negotiation style as a result of cultural influences 48 2.2.7 Cultural Barriers to International Negotiations .48 a/ Assuming Similarity in-lieu of Difference 49 The nature of assuming similarity in-lieu of difference is that someone thinks other people’s thoughts, viewpoints, situations being similar with his or her own ones This comes from the ethnocentric thinking which someone always puts himself or herself at the central or most important position Therefore, other viewpoints not exist He or she just thinks and solves the issues in his or her own ways although there are different ways of thinking and problem solving based on different cognitions [19, pg.13] In international communication environment like international negotiations, the differences in cognition between negotiators are bigger If the similarity assuming exists, it means that the misunderstandings, misevaluations and conflicts tend to happen This will disrupt cooperative communication atmosphere between negotiators because some side just follows one own’s tunes while ignoring the counterpart’s ideas Consequently, it would be difficult for all sides to come to some compromise or agreement In order to overcome this defect, all sides need to be at central, neutral positions in the process of international communication to evaluate all viewpoints objectively and comprehensively 49 b/ Ethnocentrism 49 c/ Stereotypes and Prejudice 50 d/ Complex .51 Chapter 3: Strategies to Deal with Intercultural Communication in International Negotiations and Implications for Vietnamese Negotiators 53 3.1 Strategies to Deal with Intercultural Communication in International Negotiations 53 3.1.1 Applying Key Components of Intercultural Communication Competency (ICC) 53 3.1.2 Entering into Dialogue 56 3.1.3 Training intercultural communication 58 3.2 Implications for Vietnamese Negotiators 62 3.2.1 The Positive Aspects of Vietnamese Communication Style .63 Face saving 63 3.2.2 The Negative Aspects of Vietnamese Communication Style .64 Internality/ Isolation (Hard to integrate, adapt) 64 Beyond this close community, they feel strange, difficult to adapt themselves to new environments It would be difficult for them to communicate and integrate with strange people, especially from foreign cultures Therefore, this would be one barrier for Vietnamese negotiators in international negotiations when they would feel difficult to approach and understand deeply about their counterparts It would be difficult for them to adapt to new, common rules or working styles quickly 65 Indistinct Separation Between Work and Relations .65 Lack of self-determination 65 3.2.3 Some Recommendations for Vietnamese negotiators 66 Chapter Summary .66 CONCLUSION 67 REFERENCES 69 Figures and Tables Figure 2.1: The culture as one influence factor of communication pattern in international negotiation [17, pg.89] 29 Figure 2.4: Triangle of an effective negotiation [20, pg.26] 35 Figure 2.5: The model of inter-cultural negotiation [16, pg.101- 102] .38 Figure 2.6: The influence of cultural distance on the negotiation process [17, pg.93- 94] 42 Figure 3.1: Satoshi Ishii’s Model of Culture [11, pg.66] 59 Table 2.2: Non-verbal language in negotiation 31 Table 2.3: Importance of communication skills in negotiation 32 Table 2.7: Communication Rules for Global Negotiators 45 Table 3.2: Hierarchical Decision Making of German negotiators [7, pg.156] 60 Table 3.3: Indonesian communication style [7, pg.139- 140] 60 Table 3.4: How to talk with an Australian [7, pg.209- 210] 62 INTRODUCTION Rationale of the Study In the era of globalization nowadays, people in the world have been interacting more increasingly and intensively with one another One of the main reasons is that because of the rapid and strong development of sciences and technologies in all aspects that have blurred, flatenned and connected all corners of the world closely Therefore, people in different countries, in different cultures have been communicating with one another very much They meet one another in international or regional, conferences, forums, discussions especially in international negotiations in all different aspects such as politics, economics, social and cultural fields This reflects a more general trend toward multilateralism As Robert O Keohane writes in “Multilateralism: An Agenda for Research” on International Journal 45, no (1990), p.731: “since the end of World War II, multilateralism has become increasingly important in world politics, as manifested in the proliferation of multilateral conferences on a bewildering variety of themes…” International negotiations are advantageous opportunities which different actors can interact and exchange their mutual ideas, opinions, preferences and compromises These negotiations also help them understand one another better Clearly, international negotiations are considered one of interaction environments for actors from different cultures And we see clearly that there is a relationship between intercultural communication and international negotiations Intercultural interaction is an inherent, attached feature of international negotiations Certainly, cultural differences are regarded as one of indispensable traits in international negotiations One of the big barriers to international negotiations is the difference in cultural values in which conflicting cultural values create their own special obstacles and barriers to negotiations Culture can be conceived as a system or entity which consists of interdependent parts that can be understood through related contexts Culture can shape the behavior of individuals and negotiators in a wide range of situations Culture–bound aspects of behavior, including language, forms of communication, and customs, as well as the individual traits or psychological characteristics of members of a delegation, can also affect the ways issues are In intercultural training, there should be three steps to cross cultural dialogue With “a global mindset by which we try to see things through the eyes of others and add their knowledge to our personal repertories” (Chen & Starosta, 2000) [18, pg.9], we can perhaps take three steps to cross cultural dialogue The first step is to understand the mental layer of our own culture and its impact on the behavioral and material layers The second step is to understand the mental layer of other cultures and its impact on the behavioral and material layers The third step is to listen to others’ perspectives on our culture and share our perspectives on other cultures in order to reflect on what it means In this step, we must engage in the spirit of mutual respect and learning such as “As creators of our own societies, we have valuable experiences to share, not to impose, which might be examined and adapted in a spirit of sharing and dialogue This is the real meaning of intercultural interaction” (Asante, 2006) [11, pg.70] = Mental layer = Behavioral layer 3 = Material layer Figure 3.1: Satoshi Ishii’s Model of Culture [11, pg.66] Acquiring cultural knowledge by studying national cultures is paramount to improving communication skills in the negotiation across cultures It starts with studying a country’s history, economics, geography, politics, religion and psychology (Rosen, 2000) [10, pg.5] It is essential to engage in cultural training to 59 study and understand the behaviors of different cultures to ascertain how they affect communication and decision making Therefore, it should be necessary to research different negotiation styles, particularly in the negotiation style of the partners For example, Brazilians are more concerned about the involvement of people and the completion of a transaction rather than adherence to preset schedules They like to take time in developing a long-lasting business relationship; getting down to business is viewed as inefficient and rude Lunch is a time to develop rapport rather than to discuss pure business The Japanese prefer relatively brief sessions, but they need many sessions with a great deal of time between them The group must thoroughly discuss all issues and reach consensus on their next position before they meet again with the other side Therefore, a negotiation that might require a few days for two Americans companies can take months in Japan Some negotiation styles will be analysed in depth to choose the proper ways of negotiation as below: Table 3.2: Hierarchical Decision Making of German negotiators [7, pg.156] There is a big gap between the top and bottom in larger German corporations Regardless of the size of the organization, decision making is centralized, and power remains at the top, as a general rule The pervasiveness of authoritarianism and paternalism in Germany, despite its exposure to modern managerial techniques, encourages this kind of centralization Other negotiators: For business negotiations, try to develop contacts in the top layer of the German organization where the most important decisions are made However, communication between layers in the organization is so poor and information so well-guarded that you will have to make more effort getting the information you need than you would in other countries Table 3.3: Indonesian communication style [7, pg.139- 140] 60 Indonesian negotiators: Indonesians strongly believe in staying in harmony with nature and with everyone and everything that is part of it Pleasant interpersonal relationships, soft-spokenness, and trying to please characteristically mark their way of interacting with people They have great concern for maintaining face or avoiding being placed in a position of embarrassment Thus, they are averse to people who shout, criticize in public, and talk with loud and grating voices Subordinates in businesses, government, and society in respect for superiors They are not supposed to question a superior’s decision Other negotiators: Negotiators will need to understand the complicated social rules that govern personal interactions in Indonesia They take great pains to avoid a confrontation, so they not say “no” very often and directly For example, they may even disappear from negotiating sessions if they have to give you unfavorable news Negotiators who are used to fast decision making must curb the tendency to apply pressure when feedback is slow in coming 61 Table 3.4: How to talk with an Australian [7, pg.209- 210] 1/ Keep an equal footing Australian negotiators: They want to be talked with as equals, they resent condescension of any kind Even if they know your accomplishments, they will not be particularly impressed by them and will not make them the basis of the initial phase of your relationship Other negotiators: Keep the atmosphere informal and be comfortable and direct with them Do not patronize them – not offer help, sympathy, or solace unless asked 2/ Inner- directedness Australian negotiators: They evaluate each person in terms of their own personal reactions, feelings, preferences, and expectations of that person They are less influenced by your status and accomplishments – in other words, by your external presentations Effective interaction with Australians is therefore important in winning them over Other negotiators: Recognize their complexity Meeting with them is a good opportunity for you to get away from the uninteresting small talk that is usually used to open conversations Instead, use the meetings you have with them to really get to know them 3/ Comfortable with conflict Australian negotiators: Another strength is the relative ease they have in dealing with conflict They expect it in most transactions in life, they are familiar with it whenever they deal with unions, they are quite capable even of enjoying it, to the point of intentionally creating conflict at times just to engage the other side They admire people who can handle conflict with style Negative reactions evoked by conflict not bother them too much Other negotiators: Accept the Australians as they are, allowing room for idiosyncratic and unexpected behavior Understand that conflict is their way of adding spice to life Australians may start badgering you with derisive comments and criticisms, all in the spirit of fun, simply to get you to budge a little from your positions Do not feel bad when this happens Simple state your beliefs firmly and leave it at that Meanwhile, take advantage of the opportunity to learn more about them, for an interesting sparring session will very likely motive them to share important opinions with you 3.2 Implications for Vietnamese Negotiators 62 3.2.1 The Positive Aspects of Vietnamese Communication Style Face saving Vietnamese people are characterized by saving face for themselves in the community Even though living in very difficult situations, they always preserve their honour So good opinion and evaluation of others are very important to them Losing face for Vietnamese people would be impossible though they could suffer from being hungry or poor To save face, people often live by listening to public opinion [2, pg.312] Accordingly, face-saving has a great influence on the Vietnamese communication style Inclination to Build Good Relationships Originating from agriculture, Vietnamese culture is inclined to the yin principle It means that Vietnamese culture respects emotionalism [2, pg.309] Therefore, since ancient times, the life of people has depended mainly on natural environment and the coordination of farmers who are all members in their family and village As a result, the solidarity and close association between people in the society have become one of typical characteristics of Vietnamese people In the intercultural communication environment, this characteristic is regarded as one advantage when Vietnamese people are evaluated as being friendly, empathetic, sociable When Vietnamese negotiators meet the foreign partners, it would be easier for them to understand the partners’ feelings, needs and share the opinions with one another Moreover, the building of the harmonious relationships between negotiators also facilitates the negotiation process Negotiation sides would get the consensus from one another Hospitality Although hospitality is one character in daily communication of Vietnamese people, in negotiations, this character affects Vietnamese negotiators’ friendly, harmonious styles in interacting with other parties This characteristic stems from respect for maintaining good relationships in the community of Vietnamese people Therefore, Vietnamese people are very happy to welcome guests to their home and neigbours in the village are used to contacting one another to share daily stories or helping one another in life [2, pg.308] 63 The hospitality is described through warm welcomes, polite manners…especially, on the special occasions such as New Year holidays, women’s day, first month of a newborn baby, mid autumn festival…Vietnamese people usually exchange good wishes or greetings or give presents to one another The like for contacting and communicating with one another in the community is also showed through many traditional village festivals In Vietnam, festivals vary from place to place These festivals often take place in the beginning of year, in which people meet one another and seek closer ties besides getting other spiritual meanings In international negotiations, the hospitality shows the care about the counterparts And Vietnamese negotiators would like to present meaningful gifts to other party such as Vietnamese traditional gifts (silk scarf, Vietnam’s landscape pictures, conic hat…) in order to introduce the beauties of the country and Vietnamese people to foreign negotiators Flexibility One of the inherent characters of Vietnamese people is the flexibility This character also comes from agricultural culture and Vietnam has been the cross road of many cultures such as Chinese culture, Indian culture, Western culture Flexibility shows the flexible manners and behaviors in the daily communication of Vietnamese people In international negotiations, this character shows the flexible skills of negotiation Vietnamese negotiators can give different, proper ways in specific circumstances For example, they can give up or postpone some interests in the short-term to gain the compromise or agreement in order to look forward to longterm targets 3.2.2 The Negative Aspects of Vietnamese Communication Style Internality/ Isolation (Hard to integrate, adapt) This trait of Vietnamese people comes from the isolation of each village community in the past Each village became self-ruling(each village has its rules and customs) What the Vietnamese proverb says “The King’s law stops at the village gate” connotes this So, Vietnamese people are hospitable but only in their familiar community with their close friends, neighbors and members or relatives And they only feel comfortable in their community [2, pg.309] 64 Beyond this close community, they feel strange, difficult to adapt themselves to new environments It would be difficult for them to communicate and integrate with strange people, especially from foreign cultures Therefore, this would be one barrier for Vietnamese negotiators in international negotiations when they would feel difficult to approach and understand deeply about their counterparts It would be difficult for them to adapt to new, common rules or working styles quickly Indistinct Separation Between Work and Relations This feature is brought out by Vietnamese people’s way of evaluating and thinking of flexible or polychronic time They can many things at the same time or they not separate clearly between work and relations Moreover, they tend to build good relationships rather than focusing on settling the problems of the work This creates challenges for Vietnamese negotiators in choosing between gaining contracts or benefits on their own or gaining good relationships with their partners Furthermore, this characteristic makes Vietnamese negotiators solve problems emotionally, not logically and rationally Lack of self-determination This trait of Vietnamese people comes from the respect for harmonious communication and tendency for consensus between communicators When there are any issues which need to be decided, directed clearly, they not decide by themselves because they are afraid of their decisions which may affect others negatively Moreover, Vietnamese people have the habit of indirect communication They not go into issues directly and quickly They need time to build relationships and search the information about their counterparts carefully However, this sometimes make foreign counterparts misunderstand their purposes Moreover, collectivism culture affects collecivistic decision making of Vietnamese negotiators, not individualistic decision making Negative Aspect of Saving face One consequence of saving face is that people tend to live in accordance with community opinion Sometimes they not dare to live with their real feelings and needs For example, they hide difficult things in their own life with others, they not dare to ask for help from others in difficult situations They always want to be 65 perfect in the eyes of public They are upset by bad rumors for them They live on the evaluations from others It would be difficult for Vietnamese negotiators when they not express frankly their proposals or offers with their counterparts 3.2.3 Some Recommendations for Vietnamese negotiators In the current strong era of globalization, the tendency of international communication is inevitable Therefore, to be efficient or effective practitioners in the field of international negotiations , Vietnamese people need to be prepared for different things ranging from language and communication skills, cultural knowledge, to psychological problems We need to know advantages as well as disadvantages of Vietnamese communication style so as to make proper adjustments in communication styles when contacting foreign negotiators For example, Vietnamese negotiators should overcome their internality to be more adaptive in interaction The using of foreign language is also considered one big barrier in the process of communication Therefore, Vietnamese negotiators should be selected to be well specialized not only in professional knowledge, negotiation skills but also in using foreign languages proficiently Moreover, we need to understand negotiation styles of our counterparts We need to base not only on signal words from our counterparts but also on meanings of non-verbal communication.The centers for training intercultural communication skills should be set up and developed with financial support from various sources This requires the coordination from many branches both at the national level and local level Cooperative programs with foreign partners need to be implemented in order to educate and improve human resources (teachers, practitioners…) For the country’s further integration into the world and for successful communication with foreign partners, we should overcome barriers and develop positive aspects of our communication style Chapter Summary 66 Chapter Three focuses on measures to deal with intercultural communication in international communication These measures are very useful for Vietnamese people who are to communicate with foreign partners These strategies include cognitive, affectional, behavioral aspects of intercultural communication in international negotiations, which should be learned and trained They also involve interaction skills such as asking questions, listening, developing messages…aimed at understanding foreign partners deeply and make others understand us As a result, these factors will facilitate the process of negotiation effectively The chapter also analyses positive sides and negative sides of Vietnamese communication styles, so that Vietnamese people can select what should be applied and what should be avoided in intercultural interaction So as to be a successful negotiator, two factors including culture and communication are required Firstly, communication skills are necessary because the nature of negotiation is the interaction between actors Therefore, how to connect all actors well in the negotiation table requires these skills Secondly, understanding cultural differences is very essential How to research the characteristics of cultures, the psychology of negotiators and how to build the positive and proper manners when interacting with other negotiators play an important role The kind of negotiation can be different such as business, political, diplomatic, security…negotiations, but all these kinds need to be considered in communication and culture aspects besides skills of specific negotiations Especially, negotiators should pay much attention to different awareness and behaviors from actors across cultures The more and more different from actors in cultures, the more and more skillful treatment is required for the participants in the negotiation CONCLUSION 67 In the era of globalization nowadays, there is the strong tendency of intercultural interaction – the communication between different cultures in many aspects of the life Among them, the need for intercultural communication in international negotiations has increased rapidly, especially in the fields of economics Therefore, the thesis analyses the nature of intercultural communication, the relationship between culture and communication and its impacts on international negotiation And the thesis approaches the field of international negotiation in the cultural and interaction aspects Clearly, culture plays a very important role in international negotiation One typical feature in international negotiation is that negotiators belong to different cultures, which affect greatly every aspect of the negotiation process from the beginning of negotiation, the contents of negotiation to psychological aspects and negotiation styles Surely, the process of negotiation is regarded as the process of communication which contains all factors of communication including: senders, receivers, messages, noise, feedback The nature of negotiation is considered the process of interaction between actors In this process, communication skills are applied with the high rate As a result, the success of the negotiation depends much on communication skills such as message transfer, questioning and listening ability, debating skills…To implement the process of international negotiation effectively, negotiators need to pay attention to improve both communication skills (verbal and non verbal skills) as well as intercultural interaction skills In international negotiations, it is important to learn about the counterparts’ culture and thus ameliorate the problems at cultural as well as interaction sides that can arise in the course of the negotiation From this study, we can see that there are marked differences in the negotiation styles which stem from cultural differences among cultures Knowledge of these differences will enable negotiators understand the negotiation behaviors of their counterparts with a view to making negotiations proceed with more ease However, it is also important not to allow intercultural barriers such as stereotypes, prejudices, ethnocentrism… to determine the relationships with the potential partners This is because individuals may have their 68 own distinct culture which does not always mirror the country’s perceived culture Therefore, the process of communication between the partners in fact is very necessary In the real and practical interaction between intercultural negotiators, all sides can understand much more about one another, since then misunderstanding, misperception or misevaluation may be rejected so as to get common compromises or agreements between sides In summary, the author would like to remark that international negotiation is not only the meeting between sides to bargain, compromise and gain benefits of each side but also the subtle art of interaction This art of intercultural communication requires the ability of connecting the cultural differences between intercultural negotiators REFERENCES 69 I/ Vietnamese Books and Magazines Nguyễn Quang (2008); Văn hóa, Giao thoa Văn hóa Giảng dạy Ngoại ngữ; Tạp chí Khoa học Đại học Quốc gia Hà Nội, Ngoại ngữ (24); tr 69 – 85 Trần Ngọc Thêm (1997); Tìm sắc văn hóa Việt Nam; Nhà xuất thành phố Hồ Chí Minh II/ English Books Russell Arent (2009); Bridging the cross- cultural gap: Listening and Speaking tasks for developing fluency in English; Michigan ELT Guo-Ming Chen & William J.Starosta (1998); Foundations of Intercultural Communication; Allyn and Bacon Hossein Dadfar (2001); Intercultural communication: Theory and Practice; Department of Management & Economics, Institute of Technology/ Linkoping University Fen Osler Hampson, Michael Hart (1999); Multilateral Negotiations: Lessons from Arms Control, Trade, and the 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Deal with Intercultural Communication in International Negotiations and Implications for Vietnamese Negotiators 53 3.1 Strategies to Deal with Intercultural Communication in International Negotiations. .. relationship between intercultural communication and international negotiations Intercultural interaction is an inherent, attached feature of international negotiations Certainly, cultural differences... of intercultural communication on international negotiations Clearly, the international negotiations would be evaluated and analysed in communication and cultural aspects of intercultural communication
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