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Green Energy and Technology Amos Madhlopa Principles of Solar Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation Green Energy and Technology More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/8059 Amos Madhlopa Principles of Solar Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation 123 Amos Madhlopa Energy Research Centre, Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Cape Town Cape Town South Africa ISSN 1865-3529 ISSN 1865-3537 (electronic) Green Energy and Technology ISBN 978-3-319-68387-4 ISBN 978-3-319-68388-1 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68388-1 Library of Congress Control Number: 2018935877 © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer International Publishing AG part of Springer Nature The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Preface Since the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century, fossil fuels have played a critical role in the global economic advancement They fuel many technologies, ranging from motor vehicles to power plants Nevertheless, environmental degradation is one main concern about their exploitation It is perceived that emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels are contributing to global warming Therefore, at the Twenty-first Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Paris in December 2015, delegates agreed to limit the global temperature rise below K (2°C) above pre-industrial levels Achievement of this goal will require significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different sources, including power plants Another concern is that fossil fuels occur in finite quantities, implying that they can be depleted, thereby posing a risk to energy security On the other hand, renewable energy resources replenish themselves through natural mechanisms and have generally low GHG emissions In this vein, one of the most important renewable energy resources is solar radiation, which can be converted to electricity by using a suitable technology Conversion of primary energy to electricity requires technologies which usually come in the form of engines Heat engines (including gas turbines), predominantly fuelled by fossil resources, have found wide application in the energy sector A gas turbine is an internal combustion engine that traditionally comprises a compressor, combustion chamber (combustor), and turbine This engine utilizes air as the conventional working fluid which is sucked into the compressor and pressurized before flowing into the combustor where it mixes with fuel and combustion of the mixture takes place The hot fluid expands through the turbine section, thereby developing mechanical power Concerns about sustainable development are driving changes in national and international laws and policies that support transition to renewable energy These developments are affecting the direction of research on gas turbine and other technologies In this connection, solarization of the gas turbine engine is an important option for achieving a sustainable energy mix v vi Preface Generally, a gas turbine operates at high turbine inlet temperature (>673 K), and so concentrated solar radiation is suitable to achieve such temperature levels The intensity of direct normal irradiance is a good indicator of the suitability of a site for exploitation of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies Basically, a CSP power plant comprises a solar field (concentrator and receiver) and a power block The concentrator focuses direct (beam) radiation onto the receiver which heats up a heat transfer fluid flowing through it Then, the hot fluid is directly or indirectly used to drive an engine cycle in the power block The recommended minimum annual sum of direct normal irradiation for CSP technology to be economically viable is 2,000 kWhm−2, and many locations within the sunbelt in the world meet this requirement It is particularly pleasing to note that the worldwide technical potential of CSP is estimated at 3,000,000 TWh/year which significantly exceeds the world electricity consumption level of about 29,000 TWh/year in 2015 The commonest CSP technologies exploited globally are the linear Fresnel reflector (LFR), parabolic trough concentrator (PTC), parabolic dish concentrator (PDC) and solar tower (ST) Studies have shown that the LFR and PTC technologies are capable of attaining temperatures of about 323–573 K and 293–673 K, respectively, which are lower than those typically required at the inlet to the turbine section In contrast, the PDC and ST technologies exhibit high thermodynamic performance, being reportedly able to reach temperatures of 393–1773 K and 573– 1273 K, respectively, that are suitable for solarization of the gas turbine cycle However, at the time of writing this book, most of the operating CSP power plants in the world were based on the Rankine steam cycle driven by the PTC technology, followed by the ST Consequently, research efforts are being directed towards the solarisation of gas cycles A solar gas turbine (SGT) is a device in which concentrated solar radiation is used to heat up a gas working fluid before it expands through the turbine section Considering the good thermodynamic performance and technological maturity, the ST technology is a promising candidate for solarization of gas turbines Many studies have examined the SGT technology but there is limited collated information (in book form) on advances in the various aspects of SGT systems This is the first book on solarization of gas turbines and it brings together pieces of new knowledge on this subject with adequate illustrations and coherent treatment The main objective of the book is to provide the reader with principles of solar gas turbines and a state of the art The context of solarising gas turbines is presented in Chap This chapter also introduces relevant fundamentals of gas turbines, heat transfer, solar thermal processes and solar gas turbines Chapters and focus on fuels and solar radiation, respectively, as heat sources for the SGT engine The discussion on fuels includes aspects of emissions, which is important for environmental protection Various components of a SGT are covered in Chap It is observed that the receiver and combustor are critical components in the solarization process Based on the heat transfer medium, receivers can be classified into gas, liquid and solid-particle categories Gas receivers are capable of attaining high temperatures (up to 1773 K) and therefore more suitable for exploitation in SGT systems Liquid and particle receivers can heat up the working fluid in a SGT only Preface vii via heat exchangers, which would tend to reduce the efficiency of converting solar energy to useful heat Receivers can also be classified based on their geometry: tubular, volumetric and microchannel receivers Although each category has advantages and some advantages, tubular and volumetric receivers are emerging to be in the most advanced stage of development These receivers can be linked to combustors in hybrid SGTs At present, combustors in use are designed for conventional gas turbines Thus, they cannot just be integrated with solar receivers without modification For example, the Mercury 50 gas turbine allows a combustor inlet air temperature of 923 K However, the receiver outlet air temperature may reach temperatures of 1773 K This challenge is aggravated by the lack of gas turbines tailor-designed to operate on solar energy Selected relevant engine cycles have been presented in Chap Based on the flow path of the working fluid, gas turbines can be classified into closed, open and semi-closed cycle systems In the closed cycle, the working fluid is indirectly heated, which diminishes the thermal efficiency of the system Combustion gases constitute part of the working fluid at the turbine inlet in an open cycle gas turbine, which boosts the thermodynamic efficiency of this cycle In view of this attractive thermal performance, open cycle gas turbines have found widest application in the electricity industry However, the use of CO2 as a working fluid in the supercritical phase is improving the thermodynamic performance of the closed cycle It is also possible to combine the Brayton and steam cycles to obtain a combined cycle with a high thermodynamic efficiency (>50%) Exergy analysis reveals that most of the exergy destruction occurs in the receiver due to the low rate of conversion of solar radiation to useful heat Components of a SGT can be arranged in many different configurations, some of which are presented in Chap This flexibility in engine layout is an advantage in the development of the SGT engine System design is one important aspect of the development of the SGT technology So, Chap covers principles of gas turbine design and testing Even if a SGT performs well thermodynamically, its rate of diffusion on the market is influenced by the cost of electricity production In view of this, the last chapter of this book (Chap 8) examines the economic performance of solar gas turbines Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is a common metric for comparison of the economic performance of power plants Attractive theoretical values of LCOE (as low as 0.06 US$/kWh) have been reported for the combined cycle SGT driven by a solar tower, which compares very well with some reported findings for coal power plants (0.092–0.095 US$/kWh) It is evident from these findings that the SGT technology is approaching the commercialization stage of development Cape Town, South Africa Amos Madhlopa Acknowledgements I am very grateful to my wife (Sellina) and our children (Vitumbiko, Thandiwe, Uchizi and Tawonga) for their love, care and moral support ix Contents Introduction to Solar Gas Turbines 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Energy Resources 1.1.2 Energy Conversion 1.2 Basic Gas Turbine for Electricity Generation 1.3 Heat Transfer 1.3.1 Conduction 1.3.2 Convection 1.3.3 Radiative Heat Transfer 1.4 Heat Exchangers 1.5 Solar Thermal Processes 1.5.1 Flat-Plate Collector 1.5.2 Concentrating Solar Collectors 1.6 Solar Gas Turbines 1.7 Other Applications of Solar Gas Turbines 1.7.1 Combined Power and Desalination 1.7.2 Cogeneration References 1 7 12 15 17 17 17 20 21 21 23 24 Gas Turbine Fuels and Fuel Systems 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Fuel Specifications 2.2.1 Heating Value 2.2.2 Cleanliness of Fuel 2.2.3 Corrosion and Particulate Deposition 2.2.4 Fuel Availability 2.3 Fossil Fuels 2.3.1 Oil and Gas 2.3.2 Coal 27 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 33 xi Chapter Economic Performance of Solar Gas Turbines 8.1 Introduction Generally, solar technologies have high initial costs but low operating costs, partly due to savings associated with fuel In case of solar-only energy technologies, there are no operational costs associated with fuel This is advantageous because fuel costs contribute a significant proportion of the total operational costs However, solar-only technologies cannot meet base loads due to the intermittency of the solar resource This drawback can be circumvented through the inclusion of energy storage, auxiliary source of energy or a combination of these two components An auxiliary heater (combustion component) requires fuel during the operational phase The discussion of fuels for gas turbines has been presented in Chap Investment in the solar subsystem of an energy technology helps to reduce fuel-related costs in future terms Energy projects are usually large and capital-intensive, and so they require a high level of investment (Bhattacharyya 2011) Moreover, various economic activities compete for limited financial resources, and the development of a project is aimed at making some profit In view of this, choices have to be made carefully amongst competing opportunities for investment Even if the thermodynamic efficiency of a technology is good, cost is an important factor in the consideration of a suitable system design Cost is the amount of money paid or given up in order to acquire or produce an item A system design with lower cost may be more preferred for exploitation It is usual to base the decision-making on the costs and benefits over the lifetime of a project So, it becomes necessary to analyse these parameters in order to evaluate the performance of the project Nevertheless, data may not be available on project benefits in some projects In such cases, analysis of costs only can be applied to assist with comparison of the economic performance of two or more projects There are different elements of costs which need to be considered in the economic evaluation of a project These elements include (Sell 1989; Bhattacharyya © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018 A Madhlopa, Principles of Solar Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation, Green Energy and Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68388-1_8 205 206 Economic Performance of Solar Gas Turbines 2011): sunk cost, contingency cost, fixed investment, working capital, depreciation and depletion premium 8.2 8.2.1 Project Costs Sunk Cost A sunk cost is a cost which has already been incurred and it is non-recoverable A new project may exploit existing facilities for which investment has already been made These facilities not contribute an extra financial strain to the new project Consequently, past costs should be excluded from the inventory of costs of the new project For instance, two types of sunk costs are considered in auctions for renewable energy projects (Kreiss et al 2017): entry fees and participation Every bidder pays an entry fee before participation in the auction, and the fee is non-refundable Some costs are also incurred by the bidder during the preparation of bids (such as land use plan and feasibility studies) 8.2.2 Contingency Cost Usually, there are some uncertainties about the exact inventory of the items for estimating the cost of a project The need for certain items may not be obvious at the inception stage of the project but during project execution The purpose of a contingency budget is to take care of unforeseen risks during the implementation of a project It is customary to allocate about 5–15% of the total project cost to contingency (Idrus et al 2011; Shrestha and Shrestha 2016) This traditional method of estimating the cost of contingency is simple but it is inaccurate Underestimation of the contingency amount may result in a high probability of cost overrun while an overestimated contingency budget may elevate the probability of cost under run with a low magnitude of the feasibility of the project In view of this, research efforts have been made to develop accurate computational tools for estimating the cost of contingency For complex projects, a probabilistic method of estimating contingency costs was proposed by Touran and Liu (2015) Others estimation tools have included multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN) and linear regression (LR) approaches Based on a review of various methods, Shrestha and Shrestha (2016) concluded that regression analysis or ANN methods are more accurate in estimating the cost of contingency in road-maintenance projects 8.2 Project Costs 8.2.3 207 Fixed and Working Capital Fixed investment does not change with a rise or fall in the amount of goods or services produced or sold It includes land and title preparation, building and civil engineering, plant machinery, and industrial property rights (Sell 1989) For solar gas turbines (SGTs), land is one of the main constraints considering the fact that the solar field occupies a large size of land (see Sect 7.5.2) Working capital is the amount of funds required to maintain the operation of a plant before receiving payment for the sale of products For a SGT power plant, the working capital includes fuels (in case of hybrid systems), spare parts, labour, work in progress and cash in hand Costs that represent actual claim on the economic resources of a firm need to be included in the economic analysis The commonest method of measuring the working capital of a firm is the cash conversion cycle (Ukaegbu 2014) The cash conversion cycle (CCC) is the period (days) between the time the firm spends cash to procure raw materials (or other items) to produce the goods for sale, and the time of cash inflow from the sale of the finished products (say, electricity) A firm can augment its net present value through efficient management of cash A diminished CCC may result in increased profitability, and therefore viability of a project 8.2.4 Depreciation and Depletion Premium Depreciation is the decrease in the value of an asset over a certain period of time, predominantly caused by wear and tear In economic analysis, the difference between the initial cost of an asset and the residual value (remaining value of an asset after depreciation) is employed Consequently, the cost of using an asset is taken into consideration in the calculation of project costs Economic analysis includes the depletion rent in order to account for the economic cost to society of exploiting resources (energy and other resources) Economic rent of a natural resource is the extra money earned over the value of the capital, labour, materials and other production factors employed to utilize the resource (Rothman 2000; Shrestha and Abeygunawardana 2009) When the resource is exhausted, some substitutes have to be made which may entail opportunity costs Prljić et al (2018) studied the influence of coal, forest, mineral, natural gas and oil rents on economic growth They found that natural resource rents yielded different impacts on economic growth Other factors that need to be considered when costing a solar-based project are interest on loan, property and income taxes, resale of equipment, maintenance, insurance, fuel, and other operating costs In this context, economic analysis aims at finding the cheapest means of meeting an energy demand, bearing in mind the prevailing alternatives which include non-solar options For solar energy 208 Economic Performance of Solar Gas Turbines technologies, the challenge is to establish the right share of the solar subsystem that yields a composite system with the lowest cost Where the auxiliary source of energy is fossil fuel, there is need for trade-off between emissions and cost 8.2.5 Project Benefits By and large, the major benefit of a project is the output which has a monetary value For example, electric or thermal output from a power plant is sold (at a market price) as a main benefit of the project The market price is not influenced by the project when the output is incremental (Bhattacharyya 2011) In this case, the project is said to be a price taker, which happens when the level of output from the project is smaller than the size of the market and the product is tradable A price-taker has to be willing to accept the prevailing market price (Yucekaya 2013) It is still important for a price-taker power generator to ensure that some profit is made through the project in order to achieve economic viability For non-tradable goods or services, the supply is inclined to be a non-incremental type and the project output may cause a change in the market price Some benefits have non-market value Amongst them are social and environmental benefits to society in general Projects cause environmental impacts which may be negative or positive with varying magnitudes In view of this, environmental impact assessments are required in project development initiatives Some of the environmental issues considered in CSP are cooling and water use, materials (for thermal storage, heat transfer, etc.), soiling and atmospheric aerosol loads, and land use and other factors (Lamnatou and Chemisana 2017) A project may be approved or rejected, depending on findings from this kind of assessment It is possible to approve the implementation of a project with some negative impacts if the forgone benefits are lower than the financial gains of the project 8.3 Indicators of Cost–Benefit Comparison It is necessary to analyze the costs and benefits of a project, once they are identified, to facilitate decision-making To this end, there are several methods for comparison of costs and benefits which may be brought about by an investment project These methods can generally be classified into two groups: (a) methods without time value and (b) those with time value of money (Bhattacharyya 2011) Selected methods are presented in this section 8.3 Indicators of Cost–Benefit Comparison 8.3.1 209 Methods Without Time Value of Money Methods without time value of money are extensively employed and well understood by many researchers Two widespread indicators of this group of methods are payback period and average rate of return on investment (a) Simple payback period The payback period indicates the number of years which are required to recoup the project cost of the investment in question (Orioli and Gangi 2017) A shorter payback period indicates that the funds of the investor will be recovered quickly Only cash flows and the initial cost of the project are considered in a simple analysis of payback period Cash flows are not considered beyond the payback period Usually, this technique is used as a starting point for project screening (b) Simple rate of return on investment The difference between total cost and revenue yields profit or loss When this difference is greater than zero, it is referred to as profit Otherwise, if the difference is less than zero, there is loss Profit is always desirable in project investment, and a simple rate of return on an investment is the annual net profit expressed as a ratio of initial investment For instance, if a project makes an annual profit of US$9,000 on an investment of US$100,000 then the rate of return is 9% This method is simple, and generally yields information that can easily be understood Nevertheless, the method is commonly concerned with the commercial profitability of the project and may therefore be less helpful in projects which mostly give social benefits (Bhattacharyya 2011) 8.3.2 Methods with Time Value of Money Practically, cash flows take place over a certain period of time It is therefore necessary to take into account the variation of the economic value of a project with time Some methods employ the time factor for determining indicators of economic performance These indicators include net present value (NPV), discounted payback (DPB), internal rate of return (IRR) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) (a) Net present value The present value of a sum of money is the current worth of a future amount of money at a specified rate of return So, future costs and benefits of a project have present values, and the net present value (NPV) of an investment is the difference between the present value of the costs and the present value of benefits It is a scaled measure with units of currency such as USD, Euro etc This analytical tool yields a robust measure of the net benefits (or costs) and it is commonly employed in 210 Economic Performance of Solar Gas Turbines decision-making about the economic feasibility of a project The NPV can be calculated from NPV ¼ À Á t¼N ^ ^t X Rt À C t¼1 ỵ iịt ^0; C 8:1ị ^ t ẳ cost in year t, i = discount rate, C b ¼ initial ^ t ¼ revenue in the year t, C where R investment cost, and N = project lifespan A positive NPV indicates that a project is economically feasible The degree of project feasibility increases with the NPV Equation (8.1) shows that that the NPV of an investment is influenced by the discount rate Generally, an investor is interested in projects that give returns (profits) on the investments, with an expectation that the return will be equal to (or higher than) the rate of interest earned from similar investments in alternative projects Often, investors use the market interest rate to estimate the NPV but other values of interest may be applied depending on the nature of the project The NPV is said to be undiscounted if i = (b) Discounted payback The discounted payback (DPB) period takes into account the time value of money At the start of the project, the NPV is negative because of the initial costs and the absence of revenue As time (t) increases, cash commences to flow in and out, and eventually, the total costs and benefits balance out (NPV = 0) The DPB period is the value of time (t = t0) which corresponds to NPV = 0, and so À Á t¼N ^ ^t X Rt À C ^ t À C0 ẳ tẳ1 ỵ iị 8:2ị The left-hand side of Eq (8.2) varies from negative through zero to positive values for a given discount rate (i) as t increases Solving for t in this equation would yield the DPB but the equation cannot be solved analytically Numerically, the NPV is calculated progressively from the initial year until NPV % 0, using discounted cash flows The value of t that corresponds to a NPV of zero gives the discounted payback period (c) Internal rate of return An internal rate of return (IRR) is a metric for estimating the profitability of an investment This measure is unscaled with a unit of % per unit time (e.g IRR = 9% per year), and has been used by economists, engineers and other experts for many years It is the discount rate which gives a net present value of cash flows equal to zero at the end of the project So, the IRR can be computed by setting NPV to zero and then solving for i: 8.3 Indicators of Cost–Benefit Comparison 211 À Á t¼N ^ ^t X Rt À C ^ t ẳ C0 tẳ1 ỵ iị 8:3ị The discount rate cannot be computed analytically from Eq (8.3) but through trial-and-error or use of specialized software for calculation of IRR Some attractive features of the IRR are (Mellichamp 2017): (a) Optimization of the desirable result is obvious, one just needs to maximize IRR, and (b) a lot of experience on IRR has been acquired by many individual practitioners and design groups over the time Projects are usually assessed using IRR and NPV rules, based on both socio-economic and financial considerations (Percoco and Borgonovo 2012) This blend of metrics is particularly important because some projects may have comparable IRR but different scope or size In such cases, the IRR and NPV can be blended in assessing the economic performance of alternative projects (d) Levelized cost of energy Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is the ratio of the sum of all costs incurred to the sum of all the energy produced during the lifetime of the project This parameter gives the average unit cost of energy generated by a power plant over its lifetime, and enables a comparison of different energy technologies of unequal lifespans and capacities The LCOE can be given by Zhao et al (2017) t¼N P LCOE ¼ t¼0 tP ẳN tẳ0 b t ỵ iịt C b t ỵ iịt E ; 8:4ị where ất is energy produced during the period t Some advantages of the LCOE over NPV are: (a) the absence of restrictions on project scale, (b) LCOE is independent of power generation technologies, and (c) LCOE is applicable even when energy technologies are different Consequently, many researchers have used this method to evaluate the feasibility of SGT projects Values of the LCOE, ranging from 0.06 US$/kWh for ST-driven CCSGT (Kribus et al 1998) to 0.40 US$/kWh for PTC-driven SISGT (Selwynraj et al 2015), have been reported For a coal power plant, Cruz et al (2017) reported a LCOE range of 0.092–0.095 US$/kWh, which shows that the economic performance of a SGT is theoretically approaching parity with conventional thermal power plants A review of the LCOE worldwide by Larsson et al (2014) showed that the values of LCOE for a given energy technology vary with region and study (authors report different values due to variations in methods and assumption) 212 Economic Performance of Solar Gas Turbines References Bhattacharyya SC (2011) Energy economics: concepts, issues, markets and governance Springer, London Cruz MA, Araújo OQF, Medeiros JL, Castro RPV, Ribeiro GT, Oliveira VR (2017) Impact of solid waste treatment from spray dryer absorber on the levelized cost of energy of a coal-fired power plant J Clean Prod 164:1623–1634 Idrus A, Nuruddin MF, Rohman MA (2011) Development of project cost contingency estimation model using risk analysis and fuzzy expert system Expert Syst Appl 38:1501–1508 Kreiss J, Ehrhart K, Haufeb M (2017) Appropriate design of auctions for renewable energy support–Prequalifications and penalties Energy Policy 101:512–520 Kribus A, Zaibel R, Carey D, Segal A, Karni J (1998) A solar-driven combined cycle power plant Sol Energy 62:121–129 Lamnatou C, Chemisana D (2017) Concentrating solar systems: Life Cycle 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Y, Thomson J (2017) Levelized cost of energy modeling for concentrated solar power projects: a China study Energy 120:117–127 Appendix A Units of Measurement Basic units Length Mass Temperature Time Conversion of units Length (m) ft = 0.3048 m in = 25.4 mm mile = 1.609 km Area (m2) ft2 = 0.09290304 m2 mile2 = 2.590 km2 hectare = 104 m2 Volume (m3) litre (L) = 10−3 m3 ft3 = 28.32 L U.K gal = 4.546 L U.S gal = 3.785 L Mass (kg) lb = 0.45359237 kg Conversion of units metre (m) kilogram (kg) Kelvin (K) second (s) Pressure (Pascal Pa  N m−2) atmosphere atm =101.325 kPa bar = 105 Pa mm H2O = 9.80665 Pa mm Hg = 133.3 Pa Pascal Pa = N m−2 psi = 6.894 kPa Energy (Joule J  Nm) Joule J = Nm kWh = 3.6 MJ Btu = 1.055 kJ kcal = 4.1868 kJ Power (Watt W  J s−1) Btu/h = 0.2931 W hp = 0.7457 kW W ft−2 = 10.76 W m−2 Btu ft−2 h−1 = 3.155 W m−2 Viscosity (Pa s  N s m−2) cP (centipoise) = 10−3 Pa s lbf h ft−2 = 0.1724 MPa s (continued) © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018 A Madhlopa, Principles of Solar Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation, Green Energy and Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68388-1 213 214 Appendix A: Units of Measurement (continued) Basic units Conversion of units oz = 28.35 g Important prefixes Pico P Nano N Micro l −1 Volume flow rate (m s ) cubic foot per minute (cfm) = 0.4719 L s−1 −1 Mass flow rate (kg s ) lb h−1 = 0.0001256 kg s−1 Speed (m s−1) ft min−1 = 0.00508 m s−1 mile h−1 = 0.4770 m s−1 Force (Newton N  kg m s−2) 10−12 10−9 10−6 Milli M 10−3 Kilo K 103 Mega M 106 Giga G 109 Terra T 1012 −3 Density (kg m ) g cm−3 = 103 kg m−3 lb ft−3 = 16.02 kg m−3 Temperature conversion T = c + 273.15, where c temperature in °C Appendix B Selected Constants Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02252 *1023 molecules per gmole Boltzmann constant = 1.38054 * 10−23 J K−1 Speed of light = 2.9979 * 108 m s−1 Universal gas constant R = 8.3143 kJ kmole−1 K−1 © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018 A Madhlopa, Principles of Solar Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation, Green Energy and Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68388-1 215 Index A Absorber, 7, 8, 17, 20, 52, 67, 68, 73, 125 Aerodynamics, 164, 167, 170, 173 Air, 1, 2, 5, 6, 8–11, 13, 17, 21, 28, 29, 34, 38, 39, 42–44, 61, 62, 67, 68, 73–79, 86–91, 93, 94, 97–100, 111, 114, 119, 120, 122, 124, 133, 136–142, 146–148, 151, 152, 154, 157, 159, 165, 166, 170, 173, 185, 187, 189, 190, 193–195, 198–200 B Beam radiation, 20, 52, 54, 58–61, 112, 138 Benefit, 4, 43, 78, 91, 120, 174, 205, 208–210 Biobutanol, 41 Biodiesel, 34, 35, 37, 38 Bioethanol, 34 37, 39–41 Biofuels, 3, 27, 34–38, 41–44, 78, 89, 160 Biogas, 34, 35, 37, 39, 43, 174 Biomass, 2, 3, 34–37, 39–43, 116, 119, 137, 158 Biomethanol, 37, 41 Bio-oil, 36, 37, 41, 42 Blades, 5, 28, 85, 86, 88, 91, 92, 99, 107, 110, 141, 142, 166, 167, 171, 173 Brayton cycle, 5, 44, 65, 66, 75, 103, 110, 111, 119, 127–129, 131, 147, 155, 158 C Capital, 71, 86, 119, 129, 176, 177, 196, 205–207 Carbon dioxide, 3, 36, 39, 40, 42, 75, 86, 89, 111, 126, 129, 133, 134, 155, 187 Carnot cycle, 103, 104 Climate change, 1–3, 196 Closed cycle, 4, 27, 32–34, 37, 44, 45, 92, 111, 112, 116–120, 122, 124–126, 137, 146, 148–156, 189, 190 Coal, 2, 3, 27, 30–34, 90, 110, 116, 118, 119, 129, 137, 207, 211 Cogeneration, 23, 24, 189, 192–194 Collector, 7, 15, 17–20, 23, 52, 53, 58, 63, 65, 7274, 113, 187, 188, 192 Combined cycle, 22, 75, 78, 111, 125, 127–131, 138, 155, 165, 189, 190, 192 Combustion, 1, 4–7, 21–23, 28, 35–44, 65, 66, 68, 76, 77, 86–91, 98, 99, 116, 118–122, 131, 133, 136–138, 141, 145, 149, 170, 173, 174, 178, 182, 191, 194, 205 Combustor, 1, 5, 6, 21, 37, 41, 42, 44, 68, 76, 77, 86–88, 90, 91, 117, 118, 122, 124, 125, 137, 138, 145, 160, 164–166, 173, 182, 189, 193, 194, 200 Combustion chamber, 1, 6, 7, 21, 28, 40, 65, 66, 68, 77, 87, 88, 99, 116, 121, 149, 173, 194 Commercialization, 70, 195, 196, 198 Compressor 1, 5, 6, 7, 16, 21, 45, 65, 66, 77, 85–88, 91, 92, 98–100, 110–124, 127, 129, 136, 138–142, 145, 147–151, 154–156, 159, 160, 164167, 172, 173, 175, 178, 182, 189, 191 Concentrating solar power, 18, 20, 51, 65, 70, 163, 164 Concentrator, 18–20, 65–69, 71–73, 99, 100, 112, 150, 165, 166, 173, 178, 182, 183, 193, 195 Conduction, 7–9, 13, 194 © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018 A Madhlopa, Principles of Solar Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation, Green Energy and Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68388-1 217 218 Configuration, 18, 21–23, 67, 73, 75–77, 84, 96, 125, 145, 148–150, 155, 166, 169, 171–173, 189 Control system, 21, 97–99, 164, 174 Convection, 2, 9–13, 16, 73, 74 Conversion, 1, 4, 35, 39, 40, 42, 76, 93, 99, 105, 137, 140, 165, 174, 183, 207, 213, 214 Corrosion, 22, 28, 29, 119, 140, 141, 174 Cost, 23, 24, 29, 30, 42, 59, 66, 67, 71, 72, 78, 80, 81, 85, 89, 93, 95, 109, 119, 124, 125, 129, 145, 159, 163, 165, 166, 176, 177, 179, 186, 194, 197, 199, 200, 205, 207–211 Cycle, 2, 4–6, 18, 22–24, 27, 31–34, 36–38, 44, 45, 65–68, 70, 73, 75, 76, 78, 82, 85, 92, 103–113, 116–131, 137, 138, 146–160, 164–166, 178, 187, 189–192, 195–197, 199, 207 D Depreciation, 206, 207 Design, 7, 17, 20, 23, 24, 41, 42, 45, 58, 59, 62, 73, 74, 76, 86–88, 90, 92, 96, 97, 137, 140, 151, 159, 163–167, 170, 171, 174, 176, 177, 182, 189–191, 194, 199, 200, 205, 211 Degradation, 27, 28, 78, 97, 107, 140, 141, 187, 191 Desalination, 21–23 Development, 1, 2, 5, 6, 15, 18, 21, 27, 29, 33, 34, 44, 45, 51, 70, 71, 73–75, 78, 85, 86, 90, 91, 94–96, 100, 103, 107, 110, 126, 163–165, 176, 186, 188, 190, 193, 195–197, 201, 205, 208 Diffuse solar radiation, 52, 61 Digestion, 34, 35, 43 Direct normal irradiance, 52, 53, 60, 61, 71, 114, 147, 159, 173, 188, 194, 199 Discounted pay-back, 209, 210 E Emissions, 3, 23, 34, 37, 40, 41, 43, 44, 89, 90, 119, 124–126, 129, 174, 176, 190, 191, 208 Energy security, 1, 4, 27, 34, 78 Engine, 4–7, 18, 21, 23, 28, 29, 32, 33, 36–38, 40–43, 69, 70, 73, 76, 86, 87, 90, 91, 98, 103–105, 109–111, 133, 135, 145–147, 149, 150, 157–159, 165–167, 170, 170, 173, 182, 183, 187, 189–194 Index Enthalpy, 5, 83, 93, 106, 107, 113, 127, 131, 184 Entropy, 6, 104–107, 111, 120, 122, 131, 132, 146, 147 Exergy, 6, 125, 130–137 F Fermentation, 35, 39 Fluid, 1, 5, 6, 9–12, 15–19, 21, 34, 37, 42, 44, 45, 65–68, 70, 73–79, 82, 88, 91–93, 100, 103–107, 109–120, 122, 125–127, 137, 140, 146–153, 155–157, 159, 166, 167, 169, 170, 173, 174, 182–190, 192, 193, 195, 199, 200 Fuel heating, 138 Fuels, 1–4, 20–23, 27–30, 32, 34, 36–38, 40–42, 44, 78, 86, 88–90, 119, 133, 137, 160, 165, 174, 189, 191, 194, 205, 207 G Gasification, 34–36, 42 Generator, 16, 22, 23, 65, 66, 75, 91, 93–99, 115, 123–125, 130, 145, 157–159, 166, 171, 172, 174, 175, 190, 191, 193, 208 H Heat, 1–18, 21–23, 27, 28, 32, 34, 36–38, 40–45, 51, 53, 60, 62, 65–68, 70, 72–87, 90–93, 96, 97, 99, 100, 103, 105–127, 129, 131, 133–135, 137–141, 146, 150, 152, 153, 155–160, 170, 171, 173, 175, 178, 182, 183, 186–188, 190, 193–195, 199, 200 Heating value, 27, 28, 34, 36, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 117, 118, 122, 134 Heliostats, 70–72, 74, 173, 182, 198, 199 Humidity, 97, 100, 139, 190 Hybrid, 1, 21, 23, 27, 34, 45, 76–78, 116–121, 133, 136, 146, 147, 149, 150, 152–158, 160, 166, 173, 174, 189, 193, 194, 197, 207 Hybridization, 27, 34, 69, 76–78, 160, 200 Hydrogenation, 35 I Internal rate of return, 209, 210 Investment, 72, 165, 176, 177, 196, 205–210 L Levelized cost of energy, 209, 211 Linear Fresnel reflector, 20, 23, 65, 68, 73 Index M Mirrors, 18, 65, 68, 70–73, 173, 182, 183, 193 N Natural gas, 2, 3, 27, 29, 32, 40, 41, 43, 88, 110, 117, 129, 137, 191 Net present value, 207, 209, 210 Nuclear energy, 44 O Objective function, 172, 177–180 Oil, 2, 3, 16, 27, 29–38, 41, 42, 66, 67, 80, 81, 116, 117, 129, 137, 141, 174, 187, 207 Open cycle, 27, 34, 37, 44, 111, 120–123, 137, 146, 148–155, 157, 158, 160, 178, 190, 191 Optimization, 21, 163, 170, 172, 175–182, 198, 211 P Parabolic dish concentrator, 20, 65, 69, 195 Parabolic trough concentrator, 66–68, 150 Particulate deposition, 28 Pay-back period, 209, 210 Photovoltaic, 2, 51, 60 Power, 1, 2, 5–7, 13, 16–24, 27, 34, 36–38, 40, 43–45, 51, 58, 65–70, 72–76, 78, 82, 83, 86, 90–92, 94, 96–100, 106, 109, 113, 115, 119, 124, 129, 138–140, 145, 147, 155, 158, 159, 164–167, 173–178, 182, 187–193, 195–200, 211 Pressure, 10, 24, 30, 37, 40, 45, 53, 67, 73, 74, 77, 80, 82, 83, 85–88, 92, 93, 97–99, 103, 104, 106–111, 114, 119, 122, 125, 130, 131, 133, 140, 146–151, 166, 167, 169, 170, 174, 178, 182, 183, 185, 186, 189, 190, 194, 200 Pressure losses, 122, 140, 166 Pyrolysis, 35, 36, 41, 42 R Radiation, 2, 3, 7, 12–15, 17–21, 51–62, 65, 67, 68, 70–77, 90, 99, 100, 105, 111, 112, 114–116, 120, 127, 131, 135, 137, 138, 182–184, 190, 194, 197, 200 Rankine cycle, 44, 70, 75, 105–110, 119, 127, 155, 158, 187, 192, 196, 197 Receiver, 7, 12, 13, 15, 18–21, 51, 52, 65, 66, 68–78, 84, 99, 100, 112–115, 120, 122, 127, 137, 145, 146, 148–154, 158–160, 165, 173, 182–184, 189, 193–195, 197, 199, 200, 201 219 Re-compression, 147 Recuperation, 129, 151, 152, 155–157, 160, 174 Regeneration, 158 Renewable energy, 1, 4, 19, 24, 27, 29, 34, 70, 95, 160, 174, 176, 188, 194, 197–199, 206 Rent, 207 Resources, 1, 2, 31, 32, 44, 91, 116, 122, 129, 147, 194, 196, 197, 205, 207 S Semi-closed cycle, 27, 111, 124–126, 189, 190 Site altitude, 138 Solar field, 24, 65, 66, 69–73, 100, 110, 112–114, 117, 122, 149, 150, 155, 159, 166, 173, 182, 183, 189, 195, 197, 198, 200, 207 Solar radiation, 2, 17–21, 51–58, 60–62, 65–77, 90, 99, 100, 105, 112, 114–116, 120, 127, 131, 135, 137, 138, 173, 182, 183, 187, 190, 194, 197 Solar tower, 12, 15, 20, 23, 65, 70, 71, 73, 110, 113, 114, 166, 183, 185, 188, 193, 195, 198, 199 Standards, 21, 28, 58, 60, 89, 106, 163, 182, 183, 187–192 Steam, 5, 7, 18, 21–24, 36, 39, 42–44, 66, 67, 70, 75, 76, 90, 91, 93, 103, 105–107, 110, 111, 119, 124–127, 130, 136–138, 140, 158, 183, 186, 187, 191, 192, 195, 199 Sub-optimization, 175 Sun position, 54 Syngas, 36, 42, 43, 125, 126 T Testing, 7, 58, 59, 163, 164, 182, 183, 187, 188, 191–194 Thermal storage, 73, 74, 78, 79, 82, 84, 111, 159, 160, 188, 195, 208 Thermodynamic cycles, 76, 103, 120, 131 Thermodynamics, 5–7, 17, 19, 20, 27, 34, 44, 45, 69, 70, 75–78, 92, 103, 105, 106, 109, 115, 119, 120, 126, 130, 131, 147, 148, 153, 155, 156, 159, 164–167, 170, 174, 176, 177, 187, 195, 197, 205 Transesterification, 35–38 Transfer, 5, 7–10, 12–17, 51, 65–67, 70, 73–76, 78, 82, 97, 112, 113, 115, 117, 119, 127, 137, 141, 153, 156, 157, 159, 170, 172, 182–187, 189, 195, 199, 200, 208 220 Turbine, 1, 2, 5–7, 12, 17, 20–24, 27–29, 32–34, 36–38, 40–45, 51, 65–70, 73–78, 83, 86–93, 96–100, 103, 107, 110–127, 129, 130, 136–138, 140–142, Index 145–160, 163–176, 178, 179, 182, 183, 189–197, 199, 200, 205 Turbomachine, 5, 6, 119, 164, 170, 173
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