USING PROJECT BASED LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS AT HANOI UNIVERSITY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT

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VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Lê Minh Hằng USING PROJECT – BASED LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS AT HANOI UNIVERSITY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT MA THESIS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE HANOI, 2019 VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Lê Minh Hằng USING PROJECT-BASED LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS AT HANOI UNIVERSITY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Supervisor: Đặng Nguyên Giang, Ph.D HANOI, 2019 DECLARATION BY AUTHOR I hereby sincerely state that the thesis titled “Using Project-Based Learning to Improve Students’ Speaking Skills at Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment”is the result of my own research for the Degree of Master of Arts in English Language The things out of my masterpiece in this thesis are signed by citation and referred in the references Except where reference has been made in the text, this thesis contains no material previously published or written by another person.The study reported in this thesis was approved by Graduate Academy of Social Sciences Author’s Signature Lê Minh Hằng Approved by SUPERVISOR Đặng Nguyên Giang, Ph.D Date: ………………………… i ACKNOWLEGDEMENTS Completing this thesis is one of the hardest challenges and the greatest desires in my life It was made possible thanks to the encouragement, assistance and support of many people First of all, I would like to express my appreciation and deep gratitude to my supervisor, Dr Đặng Nguyên Giang who provided me with valuable advice from my first few days in the course and through the duration of my thesis to completion His constructive suggestion and untiring supervision not only encouraged me to complete my dissertation, but it helped me effectively develop my research skills as well In addition, I am very much grateful to the teachers of Department of Foreign Languages and the other staff at Graduate Academy of Social Sciences for granting me the honor of writing this thesis as well as their assistance and most valuable comments Especially, I would like to give sincere thanks to my colleagues at the Department of English at Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment for their encouragement and attendances during my study My appreciation also goes to all twenty eight students at class English3- 27 who participated in this study for their patient cooperation Both teachers and students who have been involved at different stages in this action research helped provide valuable data so that I have a better views of teaching speaking at university Finally, this study is dedicated to my family for their sympathy and financial support during my study for M.A degree at Graduate Academy of Social Sciences With their love and contribution, I am strongly motivated to complete this thesis ii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION BY AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES & CHARTS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Aims of the Study 1.3 Research Questions 1.4 Scope of the Study 1.5 Significance of the Study 1.6 Research Methods 1.7 Structure of the Study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Concepts of Speaking 2.1.1 Definitions of Speaking 2.1.2 The Nature of Speaking 2.1.3 The Components of Speaking 2.2 Speaking Teaching 2.2.1 Direct and Indirect Method of Teaching Speaking 2.2.2 Principles for Techniques in Teaching Speaking 2.2.3 Speaking Activities in the Classroom 2.3 Project-based Learning iii 2.3.1 Definitions of project-based Learning 2.3.2 Types of Projects 2.3.3 Evaluation in Project-based Learning 2.4 Project-based Learning in English Language Teaching 2.4.1 Phases for Implementing a Project-based Learning Projects Teaching Speaking 2.4.2 Teachers’ Roles in Project-based Learning 2.4.3 Advantages and Possible Restriction of Project-based Learning in Teaching English as Foreign Language 2.5 Previous Research 2.6 Summary CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Setting 3.2 Participants 3.3 Data Collection Instruments 3.4 Research Design 3.5 Research Procedures 3.6 Data Analysis 3.7 Summary CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Data Analysis from Questionnaires 4.2 Data Analysis from Test 4.3 Data Analysis from Interviews 4.4 Data Analysis from Classroom Observation 4.5 Summary CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION iv 5.1 Recapitulation 5.2 Concluding Remarks 5.3 Implications 5.4 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Studies REFERENCES APPENDIX 1: Scoring Rubic for Speaking Test APPENDIX 2: Pre-test of Speaking APPENDIX 3: Survey questionnaire APPENDIX 4:PBL survey questionnaire APPENDIX 5: Post-test of Speaking APPENDIX 6: Interview questions APPENDIX 7: A Sample of Lesson Plan v ABSTRACT This research tries to attempt to know the effectiveness of Projectbased learning on speaking ability as well as students’perceptions toward the implementation.The researcher executed action research design at class English 2-27 with the participation of twenty eight first-year students and cooperation of two teachers as observers at Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment for more than two months This research applied an embedded mixed-method design in which the quantitative data were collected using speaking test, and the qualitative data were collected using interview, observation checklist and survey questionnaires.The results of the analysis showed a significant effect of PBL on students’ speaking competence; additionally, theywere found to have a higher level of motivation, interest, confidence, creativity and collaborative learning skills in speaking lessons Based on the findings, this study recommends the implementation of PBL in Teaching English as Foreign Language vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Subdivision of Projects according to Outcomes Table 2: The Criteria of Speaking Performance Table 3: Observation Checklist Table 4: Students’ Evaluation of their Achievement on English knowledge Table 5: Students’ Evaluation of their Achievement on Speaking skills Table 6: Students’ Evaluation of their Achievement on Learning skills Table 7: Comparison of Mean Scores between Pre-test and Post-test Table 8: Students’ scores of both tests Table 9: Summary of projects carried out by students vii LIST OF FIGURES & CHARTS Chart 1: Students’ willingness in speaking English in class Chart 2: The factors affecting students’ limited performance of speaking skills Chart 3: Students’ choices of speaking activities Chart 4: Students’ comments on learning environment Chart 5: Students’ opinions of the application of PBL viii Burns, A., & Joyce, H (1997) Focus on speaking Sydney: National Center for English Language Teaching and Research Burns, A (1999) Collaborative Action Research for English Language Teacher Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Croh,M.& Burns, A (2012) Teaching Speaking: A Holistic Approach New York: Cambridge University Press Eyring, J L (2001) Experiential and negotiated language learning In Ceclce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language, 3nd ed, 333-334 Boston: Heinle&Heinle Flowrez, M.A.C (1999) Improving Adult English Language Learners’ Speaking Skills Washington, DC: National Clearning Fragoulis, L (2009) Project-based Learning in Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Greek Primary Schools: from Theory to Practice English Language Teaching, Vol.2, 320-325 Haines, S (1989) Projects for the EFL Classroom Edinburgh: Nelson Hilton-Jones, U (1988) Project-based Learning for Foreign Students in an English-speaking environment Washington, DC: US Department of Education Kemmis, S & McTaggart, R (1988) The Action Reseach Reader Victoria Deakin University Press Kriwas, S (1999) Environmental Education, a Handbook for Educators Athens: Ministry of Education (in Greek) Legutke, M & Howard, T (1991) Process and Experience in the Language Classroom London & New York: Longman Group UK Limited Lewis, M & Hill, J (1993) Source Book for Teaching English as a Foreign Language Oxford: Heineman Publishing Limited 74 Lindsay, C., & Knight, P (2006) Learning and Teaching English Oxford: Oxford University Press Mills, G E (2000) Action Research: A Guide for Teacher Researcher New York: Prentice Hall Nguyen, D (2009) Study of the Implementation of a Problem-based Learning Approach in University Classes in Vietnam.Unpublished doctoral dissertation, RMIT University Nunan, D (1997) Research Method in Language Learning Cambridge: Prentice Hall Patton, A (2012) Work that Matters: the Teacher’s Guide to Project Based Learning.The Paul Hamlyn Foundation Pham, H (2014) Using Project-based Learning Approach to improve ESP Vocabulary for the 2nd year students at Industrial Economics and Technology College Unpublished thesis dissertation, ULIS Vietnam National University Railsback, J (2002) Project-based Instruction creating Excitement for Learning.Portland: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory Richards, J.C (1990) Conversationally Speaking: Approaches to the Teaching of Conversation The Language Teaching Matrix New York: Cambridge University Press, 67-85 Richards, J.C & Schmidt, R (2002) Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics Essex: Pearson Education Limited Selinger, H.W & Shohamy, E (1989) Second Language Research Methods Oxford: Oxford University Press Stoller, F.L (2007).Project-based learning: An effective means for promoting purposeful language use In selected Papers from the 16th 75 International Symposium on English Teaching, 139-152 English Teachers’ Association – Republic of China Thomas, J W (2000) A review of Research on Project-based Learning San Rafael CA: Autodesk Thornbury, S (2005) How to teach Speaking Essex: Pearson Education Limited Thornbury, S & Slade, D (2006) Conversation: From Description to Pedagogy Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Westwood, P (2008) What teachers need to know about teaching methods Camberwell: ACER Press 76 APPENDIX SCORING RUBIC FOR SPEAKING TEST No I The Aspect Evaluated Pronunciation Vocabulary Structure Fluency Comprehension Total score II APPENDIX PRE-TEST OF SPEAKING Students are asked to take part in the speaking test individually Time allowed: 5-7 minutes/ pair Part 1: INTRODUCTION (Questions for suggestion) - What is your full name? Where are you from? What are you interested in doing? What you think about yourself? Tell something about your family Part 2: SOCIAL INTERACTION (Students pick up one of the following topics) Topic1: Talk about your daily routines - what time you get up every day? What you in the morning/ afternoon/ evening? Do you the same things every day? What you at weekends? … Topic 2: Talk about your eating habit - How many meals you have a day? - What are your favorite food/ drink? - What kinds of food you think are good for your health? Why? - … Topic 3: Talk about a place you would like to visit - Where would you like to visit? - How/ What you know about it? - What is it famous for? Part 3: QUESTIONS AND RESPONSES III APPENDIX 3: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE This survey questionnaire is designed for the study on improving students’ speaking skills in English speaking classes at HUNRE with the aim of investigating learner’s difficulties in mastering speaking skills as well as their needs for learning activities Your assistance in completing the following questions is greatly appreciated You can be confident that you will not be identified in any discussions or data analysis Thank you very much for your cooperation and assistance! Please give your answers: Name: ……………………………………………… Your major: ………………………………………… Please tick the answer you think the most suitable, or write some words to some questions For some questions you can tick more than one answer How old were you when you first started studying English? ………………………………………………………………………… Do you study any other languages? If yes, what is it? How long? ………………………………………………………………………… Are you taking any other extra English course outside class? Where and for how long? ………………………………………………………………………… What are your reasons for studying English? ………………………………………………………………………… Do you think you speak English confidently? A Yes B No What prevents you from speaking English in the class time? (You can choose more than one option) A You have no information to share with your friends IV B You feel shy in front of your classmates C You are afraid of making mistakes because teachers always correct your errors when you speak D You are afraid of making mistakes because your friends will laugh at you E The functional languages are not provided by teacher, therefore you not know how to express your ideas F Your range of vocabulary and grammar are not enough to express your ideas G The speaking tasks are not interesting enough to take part in If you have any other reasons, please write them down: ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… Which speaking activities below you think you would like to try and will increase your interest in speaking lessons? (You can choose more than one option) A individual presentation B groups’ presentation C discussion D role-play E movies making F interviewing foreigners for your projects? G recording your pronunciation If you’dlove to try any other activities, please write them down: ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… V APPENDIX PROJECT-BASED LEARNING OPINION QUESTIONNAIRE This survey questionnaire is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of project-based learning in teaching speaking skills after seven weeks of employing this approach Your assistance in completing the following questions is greatly appreciated You can be confident that you will not be identified in any discussions or data analysis Thank you very much for your cooperation and assistance! Please give your answers: Name: ……………………………………………… Your major: ………………………………………… Section I: This section aims to explore students’ attitudes toward the use of PBL after several weeks of employing this approach in learning Please indicate your opinion after each statement by circling the number that best indicates the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement For example, if you strongly agree with the statement, circle 4; if you strongly disagree with the statement, circle Statements Learning environment Teacher’s feedback for each week is necessary and helpful I like it when my teacher has many different roles in class She helps me in doing projects I like to present my projects in front VI of the class and receive from teacher and other students I feel interested to watch other students’ work and give them some of my comments Project work I understand about project-based learning before carrying out a project The amount of work is appropriate to me I am able to handle with my difficulties to finish the projects the projects make me interested in learning and get me more willing to present and speak English in the class The collaborationof members in doing projects is effective Section II: In this section, the researcher would like to find out how PBL improved students’ learning skill as well as the way PBL helped them enhance speaking skill Please indicate your opinion after each statement by circling the number that best indicates the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement If you strongly agree with the statement, circle 4; if you strongly disagree with the statement, circle Statements A Students’ knowledge of English VII a PBL helped me recall known words, learn more new words and use them more appropriately b I learnt more grammar structures and issues I also could use them more correctly in producing oral activities B Student’s Achievements English skills c My pronunciation is getting better through seven weeks of making records I paid more attention to the word stress when speaking d I can make a longer speech and communicate with friends in some daily topics e I produce less pauses and pay more attention to the grammar accuracy when speaking Learning skills f PBL helps me increase my learning autonomy g PBL techniques information in h Besides speaking skill, my other skills (information technology skills) are improved VIII APPENDIX POST-TEST OF SPEAKING Students are asked to take part in the speaking test individually Time allowed: 5-7 minutes/ pair Part 1: INTRODUCTION (Questions for suggestion) - What is your full name? Where are you from? What are you interested in doing? What you think about yourself? Tell something about your family Part 2: SOCIAL INTERACTION (Students pick up one of the following topics) Topic1: Describe your favorite leisure activities Topic 2: Talk about your ways of keeping fit Topic 3: Tell a story that makes you most remember Topic 4: Describe a job you would like to in the future Topic 5: Describe one of your typical days Topic 6: Talk about a special occasion in Vietnam or in the world Topic 7: Talk about a famous person you admire Topic 8: Talk about your ambitions/ dreams that you would like to achieve Topic 9: Imagine you are going to have a holiday and talk about your plans Topic 10: Describe a city in the world that you would like to live Part 3: QUESTIONS AND RESPONSES IX APPENDIX INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR STUDENTS What is your definition of project-based learning? What are some examples of projects you have done in your classes this semester? Do you think working on projects is an effective way to learn language? Why or why not? What are your difficulties in completing a project? What will you avoid if you the project once more? What of your skills can be improved after PBL being adopted in teaching – learning process? (presentation, discussion, cooperation, creativity, critical thinking…) After eleven weeks of English with PBL, you feel more confident and interested in speaking English? How? X APPENDIX 7: Lesson Plan SAMPLE LESSON PLAN Module 2: IMPORTANT FIRSTS Teacher: Lê Minh Hằng Textbook: New Cutting Edge - Elementary Time: 50 minutes Class: English - 27 AIMS: By the end of the lesson, the studets are able to talk about their past using words and phrases corresponding to past tense MATERIALS: powerpoint, posters, recorders, speaker ANTICIPATED PROBLEMS: The students may cause lots of noise and make difficulties in presenting their posters, so the teacher must be ready for help and controlling the class PROCEDURES Stages/ Time Warm-up (10’) XI Presentation (30’) - T lets them mingle activity, exchange their posters and collect informations from their friends by making and answering questions After each minutes, they should change partners Every one has to interview other students - After mingling, Ss are back to their seats and share what they T’s feedbacks and comments (10’) XII ... ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Lê Minh Hằng USING PROJECT- BASED LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS AT HANOI UNIVERSITY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT. .. HANOI, 2019 DECLARATION BY AUTHOR I hereby sincerely state that the thesis titled Using Project- Based Learning to Improve Students’ Speaking Skills at Hanoi University of Natural Resources and. .. into five stages: Selection of topic and idea generation, organization of ideas and identification of areas of enquiry; research and information gathering; compilation and analysis of information;
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