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Co m pl im en ts of Data Warehousing in the Age of Artificial Intelligence Gary Orenstein, Conor Doherty, Mike Boyarski & Eric Boutin Data Warehousing in the Age of Artificial Intelligence Gary Orenstein, Conor Doherty, Mike Boyarski, and Eric Boutin Beijing Boston Farnham Sebastopol Tokyo Data Warehousing in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Gary Orenstein, Conor Doherty, Mike Boyarski, and Eric Boutin Copyright © 2017 O’Reilly Media, Inc., All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc., 1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol, CA 95472 O’Reilly books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use Online editions are also available for most titles (http://oreilly.com/safari) For more information, contact our corporate/institutional sales department: 800-998-9938 or corporate@oreilly.com Editor: Colleen Toporek Production Editor: Justin Billing Copyeditor: Octal Publishing, Inc Proofreader: Jasmine Kwityn August 2017: Interior Designer: David Futato Cover Designer: Karen Montgomery Illustrator: Rebecca Demarest First Edition Revision History for the First Edition 2017-08-22: First Release The O’Reilly logo is a registered trademark of O’Reilly Media, Inc Data Warehousing in the Age of Artificial Intelligence, the cover image, and related trade dress are trade‐ marks of O’Reilly Media, Inc While the publisher and the authors have used good faith efforts to ensure that the information and instructions contained in this work are accurate, the publisher and the authors disclaim all responsibility for errors or omissions, including without limitation responsibility for damages resulting from the use of or reliance on this work Use of the information and instructions contained in this work is at your own risk If any code samples or other technology this work contains or describes is sub‐ ject to open source licenses or the intellectual property rights of others, it is your responsibility to ensure that your use thereof complies with such licenses and/or rights 978-1-491-99793-2 [LSI] Table of Contents The Role of a Modern Data Warehouse in the Age of AI Actors: Run Business, Collect Data Operators: Analyze and Refine Operations The Modern Data Warehouse for an ML Feedback Loop Framing Data Processing with ML and AI Foundations of ML and AI for Data Warehousing Practical Definitions of ML and Data Science Supervised ML Unsupervised ML Online Learning The Future of AI for Data Processing 11 13 15 15 The Data Warehouse Has Changed 19 The Birth of the Data Warehouse The Emergence of the Data Lake A New Class of Data Warehousing 19 20 21 The Path to the Cloud 23 Cloud Is the New Datacenter Moving to the Cloud Choosing the Right Path to the Cloud 23 25 27 Historical Data 31 Business Intelligence on Historical Data Delivering Customer Analytics at Scale Examples of Analytics at the Largest Companies 31 36 37 iii Building Real-Time Data Pipelines 41 Technologies and Architecture to Enable Real-Time Data Pipelines Data Processing Requirements Benefits from Batch to Real-Time Learning 41 43 45 Combining Real Time with Machine Learning 47 Real-Time ML Scenarios Supervised Learning Techniques and Applications Unsupervised Learning Applications 47 49 53 Building the Ideal Stack for Machine Learning 57 Example of an ML Data Pipeline Technologies That Power ML Top Considerations 58 60 63 Strategies for Ubiquitous Deployment 67 Introduction to the Hybrid Cloud Model On-Premises Flexibility Hybrid Cloud Deployments Multicloud Charting an On-Premises-to-Cloud Security Plan 67 69 70 70 71 10 Real-Time Machine Learning Use Cases 75 Overview of Use Cases Energy Sector Thorn Tapjoy Reference Architecture 75 76 77 79 80 11 The Future of Data Processing for Artificial Intelligence 83 Data Warehouses Support More and More ML Primitives Toward Intelligent, Dynamic ML Systems iv | Table of Contents 83 85 CHAPTER The Role of a Modern Data Warehouse in the Age of AI Actors: Run Business, Collect Data Applications might rule the world, but data gives them life Nearly 7,000 new mobile applications are created every day, helping drive the world’s data growth and thirst for more efficient analysis techni‐ ques like machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) According to IDC,1 AI spending will grow 55% over the next three years, reaching $47 billion by 2020 Applications Producing Data Application data is shaped by the interactions of users or actors, leaving fingerprints of insights that can be used to measure pro‐ cesses, identify new opportunities, or guide future decisions Over time, each event, transaction, and log is collected into a corpus of data that represents the identity of the organization The corpus is an organizational guide for operating procedures, and serves as the source for identifying optimizations or opportunities, resulting in saving money, making money, or managing risk For more information, see the Worldwide Semiannual Cognitive/Artificial Intelligence Systems Spending Guide Enterprise Applications Most enterprise applications collect data in a structured format, embodied by the design of the application database schema The schema is designed to efficiently deliver scalable, predictable transaction-processing performance The transactional schema in a legacy database often limits the sophistication and performance of analytic queries Actors have access to embedded views or reports of data within the application to support recurring or operational deci‐ sions Traditionally, for sophisticated insights to discover trends, predict events, or identify risk requires extracting application data to dedicated data warehouses for deeper analysis The dedicated data warehouse approach offers rich analytics without affecting the per‐ formance of the application Although modern data processing technology has, to some degree and in certain cases, undone the strict separation between transactions and analytics, data analytics at scale requires an analytics-optimized database or data warehouse Operators: Analyze and Refine Operations Actionable decisions derived from data can be the difference between a leading or lagging organization But identifying the right metrics to drive a cost-saving initiative or identify a new sales terri‐ tory requires the data processing expertise of a data scientist or ana‐ lyst For the purposes of this book, we will periodically use the term operators to refer to the data scientists and engineers who are responsible for developing, deploying, and refining predictive models Targeting the Appropriate Metric The processing steps required of an operator to identify the appro‐ priate performance metric typically requires a series of trial-anderror steps The metric can be a distinct value or offer a range of values to support a potential event The analysis process requires the same general set of steps, including data selection, data preparation, and statistical queries For predicting events, a model is defined and scored for accuracy The analysis process is performed offline, miti‐ gating disruption to the business application, and offers an environ‐ ment to test and sample Several tools can simplify and automate the process, but the process remains the same Also, advances in data‐ | Chapter 1: The Role of a Modern Data Warehouse in the Age of AI base technology, algorithms, and hardware have accelerated the time required to identify accurate metrics Accelerating Predictions with ML Even though operational measurements can optimize the perfor‐ mance of an organization, often the promise of predicting an out‐ come or identifying a new opportunity can be more valuable Predictive metrics require training models to “learn” a process and gradually improve the accuracy of the metric The ML process typi‐ cally follows a workflow that roughly resembles the one shown in Figure 1-1 Figure 1-1 ML process model The iterative process of predictive analytics requires operators to work offline, typically using a sandbox or datamart environment For analytics that are used for long-term planning or strategy deci‐ sions, the traditional ML cycle is appropriate However, for opera‐ tional or real-time decisions that might take place several times a week or day, the use of predictive analytics has been difficult to implement We can use the modern data warehouse technologies to inject live predictive scores in real time by using a connected process between actors and operators called a machine learning feedback loop The Modern Data Warehouse for an ML Feedback Loop Using historical data and a predictive model to inform an applica‐ tion is not a new approach A challenge of this approach involves ongoing training of the model to ensure that predictions remain accurate as the underlying data changes Data science operators mit‐ igate this with ongoing data extractions, sampling, and testing in order to keep models in production up to date The offline process The Modern Data Warehouse for an ML Feedback Loop | At the organization level: Compliance officer • Manages all role permissions • Most activity occurs at the beginning project stages • Shared resource across the organization Security officer • Manages groups, users, passwords in the datastore • Most activity occurs at the beginning project stages • Shared resource across the organization At the project level: Datastore maintenance and operations DBA • Minimal privileges to operate, maintain, and run the datastore • Can be shared resource across projects DBA per database application (application DBA) • Database and schema owner • Does not have permissions to view the data Developer/user per database application • Read and write data as permitted by the application DBA • Does not have permission to modify database After the roles and groups are established, you assign users to these groups You can then set up row-level table access filtered by the user’s identity to restrict content access at the row level For exam‐ ple, a agency might want to restrict user access to data marked at higher government classification levels (e.g., Top Secret) than their clearance level allows Too frequently, data architects have had to compromise on security for select applications With the proper architecture, you can ach‐ ieve real-time performance and distributed SQL operations while maintaining the utmost in security controls Charting an On-Premises-to-Cloud Security Plan | 73 CHAPTER 10 Real-Time Machine Learning Use Cases Overview of Use Cases Real-time data warehouses help companies take advantage of modern technology and are critical to the growth of machine learn‐ ing (ML), big data, and artificial intelligence (AI) Companies look‐ ing to stay current need a data warehouse to support them Choosing the Correct Data Warehouse If your company is looking to benefit from ML and needs data ana‐ lytics in real time, choosing the correct data warehouse is critical to success When deciding which data warehouse is best for your workload, here are a series of questions to ask yourself: • Do you need to ingest data quickly? • Do you need to run fast queries? • Do you need to have concurrent workloads? The use cases discussed in this chapter highlight how the combina‐ tion of these needs lead to amazing business results 75 Energy Sector In this section, you will learn about two different companies in the energy sector and the work they’re doing to drive equipment effi‐ ciency and pass along savings to customers Goal: Anomaly Detection for the Internet of Things At a leading independent energy company during its drilling explo‐ rations, drill operators are constantly making decisions for where, when, and in what direction to adjust, with the goal of decreasing the time it takes to drill a well Approach: Real-Time Sensor Data to Manage Risk Each drill bit on a drilling rig can cost millions of dollars, and the entire operation can cost millions per day, operating over the course of several months As a result, there is a delicate balance between pushing the equipment far enough to get the full value from it, but not pushing it too hard and breaking it too soon To better manage this operation, the company needed to combine multiple data types and third-party sources, including geospatial and weather data, into one solution, as illustrated in Figure 10-1 Figure 10-1 Sample real-time sensor pipeline in the energy sector Goal: Take Control of Metering Equipment Smart gas and electric meters produce huge volumes of data A lead‐ ing gas and electric utility needed to better manage meter readings and provide analytics to its data teams 76 | Chapter 10: Real-Time Machine Learning Use Cases Approach: Use Predictive Analytics to Drive Efficiencies The company had more than 200,000 meter readings per second load into its database while users simultaneously processed queries against that data Additionally, it had millions of meters sending between 10 and 30 sensor readings every hour, leading to billions of rows of data Just an initial part of a year contained more than 72 billion meter reads, which measured up to six terabytes of raw data To handle this amount of data, the company needed an affordable analytics platform to meet its goals and support data scientists using predictive analytics Implementation Outcomes This leading independent energy production company was able to save millions of dollars based on high data ingest from its equip‐ ment, receiving about a half a million data points per second The gas and electric utility was able to compress its data by 10 times and reduce its storage on disk The query time against the data dropped from 20 hours to 20 seconds Thorn Thorn is a nonprofit that focuses on defending children from sexual exploitation on the internet Goal: Use Technology to Help End Child Sexual Exploitation To achieve the goal of ending childhood sexual exploitation, Thorn realized it needed to create a digital defense to solve this growing problem Approach: ML Image Recognition to Identify Victims Currently, roughly 100,000 ads of children are posted online daily Matching these images to missing child photos is akin to finding a needle in a haystack To comb through these images, Thorn imple‐ mented the use of ML and facial recognition technology The technology allowed the nonprofit to develop a point map of a given face, with thousands of points, and use those points to assign a Thorn | 77 searchable number sequence to the face This process lets the tech‐ nology individually classify the image and match it to a larger data‐ base of images, as shown in Figure 10-2 Figure 10-2 Facial-mapping diagram To solve this problem, Thorn took advantage of the Dot Product function within its database as well as Intel’s AVX2 SIMD instruc‐ tion set to quickly analyze the points on a given face Implementation Outcomes This process allowed Thorn to reduce the time it took to make a positive photo match from minutes down to milliseconds (see Figure 10-3) Figure 10-3 Reference architecture for building image recognition pipelines 78 | Chapter 10: Real-Time Machine Learning Use Cases Tapjoy Tapjoy is a mobile advertising company that works with mobile applications to drive revenue Goal: Determine the Best Ads to Serve Based on Previous Behavior and Segmentation Tapjoy helps address app economics, given that mobile application developers want to pay on installations of the applications, as opposed to advertising impressions This is where Tapjoy comes in It uses technology to deliver the best ad to the person using the application Approach: Real-Time Ad Optimization to Boost Revenue Tapjoy wanted a solution that could combine many functions and eliminate the need for unnecessary processes The original architec‐ ture would have required streaming from Kafka and Spark to update the application numbers—conversion rate, spending history, and total views As the application grew, this process became more com‐ plicated with the addition of new features One downside to this model was that streaming failed, which was problematic because the data needs to be real time and it’s difficult to catch up when stream‐ ing stops working To fix this problem, most companies would add a Lambda process However, none of that architecture is easy to main‐ tain or scale The team needed a better way With the proper data warehouse, they were able to put raw data in, with the condition that the data could be rapidly ingested, and the aggregation and serve it out, as depicted in Figure 10-4 Tapjoy | 79 Figure 10-4 Reference architecture for building ad request pipelines Implementation Outcomes The new configuration allowed Tapjoy to run a query 217,000 times per minute on the device level, and achieve an average response time of 766 milliseconds This is about two terabytes of data over 30 days Additionally, the Tapjoy team learned that it could use a realtime data warehouse to support a variety of different tasks to reduce its tech stack footprint, which you can see in Figure 10-5 Figure 10-5 Example of uses for data warehouses Reference Architecture If you’re looking to real-time ML, Figure 10-6 gives a snapshot of what the architecture could look like 80 | Chapter 10: Real-Time Machine Learning Use Cases First you begin with raw data Then, you need to ingest that data into the data warehouse You could use applications such as Kafka or Spark to transform the data Or use Hadoop or Amazon S3 to han‐ dle your historical data After you’ve ingested the data, you can analyze it and manipulate it with tools such as Looker and Tableau Figure 10-6 provides an overview of the environment Figure 10-6 Reference architecture for data warehouse ecosystems Datasets and Sample Queries To begin transforming data, you can check out the following free datasets available online: • Data.gov • Amazon Web Services public datasets • Facebook Graph • Google Trends • Pew Research Center • World Health Organization Reference Architecture | 81 CHAPTER 11 The Future of Data Processing for Artificial Intelligence As discussed in prior chapters, one major thread in designing machine learning (ML) pipelines and data processing systems more generally is pushing computation “down” whenever possible Data Warehouses Support More and More ML Primitives Increasingly, databases provide the foundations to implement ML algorithms that run efficiently As databases begin to support differ‐ ent data models and offer built-in operators and functions that are required for training and scoring, more machine learning computa‐ tion can execute directly in the database Expressing More of ML Models in SQL, Pushing More Computation to the Database As database management software grows more versatile and sophis‐ ticated, it has become feasible to push more and more ML computa‐ tion to a database As discussed in Chapter 7, modern databases already offer tools for efficiently storing and manipulating vectors When data is stored in a database, there simply is no faster way of manipulating ML data than with single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) vector operations directly where the data resides This elim‐ 83 inates data transfer and computation to change data types, and exe‐ cutes extremely efficiently using low-level vector operations When designing an analytics application, not assume that all computation needs to happen directly in your application Rather, think of your application as the top-level actor, delegating as much computation as possible to the database External ML Libraries/Frameworks Could Push Down Computation When choosing analytics tools like ML libraries or business intelli‐ gence (BI) software, one thing to look for is the ability to “push down” parts of a query to the underlying database A good example of this is a JOIN in a SQL query Depending on the type of JOIN, the results returned might be significantly fewer than the total number of rows that were scanned to produce that result By performing the join in the database, you can avoid transferring arbitrarily many rows that will just be “thrown out” when they don’t match the join condition (see Figures 11-1 and 11-2) Figure 11-1 An ML library pushing JOIN to a distributed database 84 | Chapter 11: The Future of Data Processing for Artificial Intelligence Figure 11-2 Efficiently combining data for a distributed join ML in Distributed Systems There are several ways in which distributed data processing can expedite ML For one, some ML algorithms can be implemented to execute in parallel Some ML libraries provide interfaces for dis‐ tributed computing, and others not One of the benefits of expressing all or part of a model in SQL and using a distributed database is that you get parallelized execution for “free.” For instance, if run on a modern, distributed, SQL database, the sample query in Chapter that trains a linear regression model is naturally parallelized A database with a good query optimizer will send quer‐ ies out to the worker machines that compute the linear functions over the data on that machine, and send back the results of the com‐ putation rather than all of the underlying data In effect, each worker machine trains the model on its own data, and each of these intermediate models is weighted and combined into a single, unified model Toward Intelligent, Dynamic ML Systems Maximizing value from ML applications hinges not only on having good models, but on having a system in which the models can con‐ tinuously be made better The reason to employ data scientists is because there is no such thing as a self-contained and complete ML solution In the same way that the work at a growing business is Toward Intelligent, Dynamic ML Systems | 85 never done, intelligent companies are always improving their analyt‐ ics infrastructure The days of single-purpose infrastructure and narrowly defined organizational roles is over In practice, most people working with data play many roles In the real world, data scientists write soft‐ ware, software engineers administer systems, and systems adminis‐ trators collect and analyze data (one might even claim that they so “scientifically”) The need for cross-functionality put a premium on choosing tools that are powerful but familiar Most data scientists and software engineers not know how to optimize a query for execution in a distributed system, but they all know how to write a SQL query Along the same lines, collaboration between data scientists, engi‐ neers, and systems administrators will be smoothest when the data processing architecture as a whole is kept simple wherever possible, enabling ML models to go from development to production faster Not only will models become more sophisticated and accurate, busi‐ nesses will be able to extract more value from them with faster train‐ ing and more frequent deployment It is an exciting time for businesses that take advantage of the ML and distributed data pro‐ cessing technology that already exists, waiting to be harnessed 86 | Chapter 11: The Future of Data Processing for Artificial Intelligence About the Authors Gary Orenstein is the Chief Marketing Officer at MemSQL and leads marketing strategy, product management, communications, and customer engagement Prior to MemSQL, Gary was the Chief Marketing Officer at Fusion-io, and he also served as Senior Vice President of Products during the company’s expansion to multiple product lines Prior to Fusion-io, Gary worked at infrastructure companies across file systems, caching, and high-speed networking Conor Doherty is a technical marketing engineer at MemSQL, responsible for creating content around database innovation, analyt‐ ics, and distributed systems While Conor is most comfortable working on the command line, he occasionally takes time to write blog posts (and books) about databases and data processing Mike Boyarski is Senior Director of Product Marketing at MemSQL, responsible for writing and discussing topics such as ana‐ lytics, data warehousing, and real-time decision making systems Prior to MemSQL, Mike was Sr Director of Product Marketing at TIBCO, where he was responsible for the analytics portfolio Mike has held product management and marketing roles for databases and analytics at Oracle, Jaspersoft, and Ingres Eric Boutin is a Director of Engineering at MemSQL and leads dis‐ tributed storage and transaction processing Prior to MemSQL, Eric worked as a Senior Software Engineer at Microsoft where he worked on Cosmos, a distributed data processing framework, and designed novel resource management techniques to scale big data processing systems to upwards of 20,000 servers per cluster He published influ‐ ential academic papers on the subject Eric is passionate about Machine Learning and has worked with Thorn to help them design scalable infrastructure that supports face matching in real time to fight child sexual exploitation ... 2: Framing Data Processing with ML and AI Figure 2-3 ML application with automatic retraining Supervised ML In supervised ML, training data is labeled With every training record, features represent... Practical Definitions of ML and Data Science | Figure 2-2 Simple development and deployment architecture Along with professional data scientists, “Data Engineer” (or simi‐ larly titled positions) has... recognition, pos‐ sessing the ability to apply historical events with current situational awareness to make rapid, informed decisions The same outcomes of data-driven decisions combined with live
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Xem thêm: IT training data warehousing in the age of AI khotailieu , IT training data warehousing in the age of AI khotailieu , Chapter 1. The Role of a Modern Data Warehouse in the Age of AI, Chapter 2. Framing Data Processing with ML and AI, Chapter 3. The Data Warehouse Has Changed, Chapter 4. The Path to the Cloud, Chapter 6. Building Real-Time Data Pipelines, Chapter 7. Combining Real Time with Machine Learning, Chapter 8. Building the Ideal Stack for Machine Learning, Chapter 9. Strategies for Ubiquitous Deployment, Chapter 10. Real-Time Machine Learning Use Cases, Chapter 11. The Future of Data Processing for Artificial Intelligence

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