Bài Thuyết trình tiếng anh

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EmotionsI. What exactly are emotions?There are numerous definitions of emotions were listed and more could be found but emotions are best defined as reactions consisting of subjective cognitive states, physiological reactions and expressive behavior. Cognitive states is about the personal experience we label as emotions as well as how you feel, think and understand about a thing from person to person. Physiological reactions are changes in our bodies such as heartbeats increase, difference in breathing rate and expressive behavior is the behavior that occurs based on your emotions.II. Different types of emotionsThere are many different types of emotions that have an influence on how we live and interact with others. At times, it may seem like we are ruled by these emotions. Emotions are responsible for our best moments and our worst moments. They are what makes love so good and heartbreak so bad. The choices we make, the actions we take, and the perceptions we have are all influenced by the emotions we are experiencing at any given moment.During the 1970s, psychologist Paul Eckman identified six basic emotions that he suggested were universally experienced in all human cultures. The emotions he identified were Happiness, Sadness, Disgust, Fear, Surprise, and Anger. However, in this presentation, we are going to talk only about four types of emotions which are Happiness, Sadness, Fear and Anger.Lets take a closer look at these types of emotions and explore the impact they have on human behavior. Emotions I What exactly are emotions? There are numerous definitions of emotions were listed and more could be found but emotions are best defined as reactions consisting of subjective cognitive states, physiological reactions and expressive behavior Cognitive states is about the personal experience we label as emotions as well as how you feel, think and understand about a thing from person to person Physiological reactions are changes in our bodies such as heartbeats increase, difference in breathing rate and expressive behavior is the behavior that occurs based on your emotions II Different types of emotions There are many different types of emotions that have an influence on how we live and interact with others At times, it may seem like we are ruled by these emotions Emotions are responsible for our best moments and our worst moments They are what makes love so good and heartbreak so bad The choices we make, the actions we take, and the perceptions we have are all influenced by the emotions we are experiencing at any given moment During the 1970s, psychologist Paul Eckman identified six basic emotions that he suggested were universally experienced in all human cultures The emotions he identified were Happiness, Sadness, Disgust, Fear, Surprise, and Anger However, in this presentation, we are going to talk only about four types of emotions which are Happiness, Sadness, Fear and Anger Let's take a closer look at these types of emotions and explore the impact they have on human behavior 1 Happiness Of all the different types of emotions, happiness tends to be the one that people strive for the most Happiness is often defined as a pleasant emotional state that is characterized by feelings of contentment, joy, gratification, satisfaction, and well-being This type of emotion is sometimes expressed through: • • • • Facial expressions such as smiling Body language such as a relaxed stance An upbeat, pleasant tone of voice Crying “Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence” The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle said these words more than 2,000 years ago, and they still true today It’s odd to talk about happiness in terms of benefits, isn’t it? After all, the benefit of happiness is obvious: it’s happiness itself — the experience of joy, contentment, or positive well-being, combined with a sense that one’s life is good, meaningful, and worthwhile Still, it turns out that happiness offers even more than the primary benefit of being happy itself Happiness improves many other aspects of life: • Happiness promotes a healthy lifestyle • Happiness boosts productivity • Happiness is good for our health; happy people are less likely to get sick, and their life expectancy is increased • Happiness is good for our relationships • Happiness is perhaps the best antidote for stress and anxiety Human beings are wired to seek pleasure and avoid pain; we look to not only survive in life, but to experience a sense of joy No one feels happy 100% of the time – that’s impossible But by making progress in life, you have the power to reframe your mindset and create a cycle of happiness These are some ways to keep maintain your happiness First, Love yourself more every single day and taking care of yourself Sometimes you need to be a little selfish Everyone needs to dedicate time to themselves Solitude doesn’t only increase productivity and focus, but it helps you reflect on what’s happening in your life Self-discovery is a resource you need to tap into every day And if you aren’t willing to love yourself, then you won’t be capable of discovering yourself Enjoy who you are, and devote the same amount of love you give to others to yourself Happiness is only achieved by being sure of yourself, and recognizing when things are starting to go sour Once the warning signs are addressed, you will alleviate your stress In addition, you should exercise regularly, maintain good hygiene and personal health, find a hobby you like and keep a list of goals Doing so will help keep your mood elevated Furthermore, seek help if you need it Persistent unhappiness may be rooted in serious mental illnesses such as major depressive disorder or social anxiety disorder A history of abuse can also contribute to unhappiness or depression There is no shame at all in seeking professional help if you need it Secondly, Accentuating the Positive • Build your self-worth To stay positive and maintain your happiness no matter what, it is important to recognize your value and learn to appreciate yourself Having self-worth means that you not base your value on what other people think of you, the job or title you have, or any other external factor If you have self-worth, then you will see yourself as a valuable person no matter what • Be at ease with yourself No matter what, you are a unique person with much to offer the world Everyone has flaws, but by accentuating the positive aspects of your personality, you can begin to eliminate negative thoughts about yourself • Appreciate the little things in life Any time something good happens to you, remember to savor the moment as much as possible Never take anything positive for granted Be grateful for little moments of joy in your daily life • Avoid focusing too much on negative situations Many people ruminate too much on their mistakes or other bad situations while forgetting good things that they have done or that have happened to them This is understandable because the human brain is hardwired to look for threats But excessive negative thinking can be bad for your health • Be grateful for what you have Don’t take anything for granted Show gratitude as much as possible, whether to your spouse, partner, parents, children, or friends Make sure they know how happy you are to know them If they know you appreciate them, they will appreciate you even more, which can only improve your self-esteem and mood Sadness Sadness is another type of emotion often defined as a transient emotional state characterized by feelings of disappointment, grief, hopelessness, disinterest, and dampened mood Like other emotions, sadness is something that all people experience from time to time In some cases, people can experience prolonged and severe periods of sadness that can turn into depression Sadness can be expressed in a number of ways including: • • • • • Dampened mood Quietness Lethargy Withdrawal from others Crying When you're feeling down, levels of brain chemicals called opioids increase in order to offset your distress, says Alan Prossin, lead author of the study and an assistant professor of behavioral sciences at UTHealth in Houston These opioids may have a negative impact on your body—messing with your immune system and potentially increasing your risk for disease, he says In his study, opioids sometimes triggered the release of an inflammatory protein— something called IL-18—that's been linked to cardiovascular disease Your eating habits can also take a nosedive A 2013 study in the journal PLOS ONE found crummy moods might heighten your ability to detect bitter, sweet, and sour flavors That may explain why rocky road ice cream tastes especially delish after a break-up Individuals who are sad consume significantly more junk and fewer micronutrients, putting themselves at a higher risk for weight gain in the short term and hypertension and heart disease in the long term Because, the longer your sadness sticks around, the more likely it is to elevate stress hormones like cortisol, which can screw with your blood sugar, blood pressure, and sleep quality Luckily, you can overcome your sadness Here a list of simple activity that you can do: • Writing It is one of the best ways and efficient ways to forget sadness Take a diary and pen, or may be open MS WORD in your phone/tablet/laptop Start writing Imagine dairy/laptop as a person and write as if you are speaking to it Write whatever comes to your mind You need not be perfect in what you are writing Sadness and loneliness are accomplices , and all we need at that moment of time is, company of someone; when you write ,your diary will turn out as your best friend You may not experience physical love But you will feel loved Never forget to ensure peaceful and natural environment Keeping a cup of coffee or tea would provide additional energy • Traveling Travel to new places Whatever mode of traveling you chose It always helps Especially when you have your own vehicle to ride/drive • Own a pet Owning a pet and loving it, taking care of it, will certainly help you forget your sadness • Read Read anything and everything Read a lot, stories, novels, articles Once you start reading, and start giving thoughts to what you have read, your sadness will be a forgotten story • Love and take care of environment/nature Plant some flower samplings , other plants, build yourself a garden, talk to them, talk to air, night stars, and so and so Go to water bodies, valleys, natural sights, treat them as humans and have compassion for them You will definitely forget your sadness • Music and Movies One of the best escapes, is listening your favorite songs and watching movies • Keep yourself busy in doing what you love Follow your hobbies,passions; pursue your dreams; learn something new, doing this, you can definitely overcome sadness • Sleep if nothing works Fear Fear is a powerful emotion that can also play an important role in survival When you face some sort of danger and experience fear, you go through what is known as the fight or flight response Your muscles become tense, your heart rate and respiration increase, and your mind becomes more alert, priming your body to either run from the danger or stand and fight This response helps ensure that you are prepared to effectively deal with threats in your environment Expressions of this type of emotion can include: • Facial expressions such as widening the eyes and pulling back the chin • Attempts to hide or flea from the threat • Physiological reactions such as rapid breathing and heartbeat Of course, not everyone experiences fear in the same way Some people may be more sensitive to fear and certain situations or objects may be more likely to trigger this emotion And now, I will figure out the solution to overcome the fear The first thing is that you need to understand your fear • Recognize when fears become overwhelming You may experience fear when you ride a bike for the first time or when you start a new job However, when fears begin to take over your life and affect your functioning, they become a problem If your fears feel overwhelming, the distress from the fear can interfere with your ability to function and you may experience intense anxiety or nervousness Reflect on your fears and notice how much they affect your life Are your fears keeping you from moving forward with what you want in your life? The following are some considerations: o o o o Your fear causes intense anxiety or panic You recognize that your fear is not rational You avoid specific places or situations Avoidance of the fear causes distress and interferes with your functioning o The fear has persisted months or more • Understand symptoms of fear Fears often manifest as phobias, which can include situations (fear of public speaking or raising your hand), animals (fear of snakes or spiders), blood, injections, etc When you experience fear, physiological, mental, and emotional reactions occur, which can include: o o o o o o o Racing heartbeat Difficulty breathing Feeling dizzy Sweating Overwhelming anxiety, panic Feeling pressured to it Needing to escape Next, Interacting With Your Fear • Acknowledge your specific fears It's easy to ignore or deny your fears, even to yourself But courage can't come into play unless you have a fear to face down By owning your feelings you've taken the first step toward gaining control over the situation • Question the power the fear holds over you Does your fear cause you to stay in bed instead of getting up and going to a class you're afraid of failing? Do you avoid visiting your family in another state because you don't want to get on a plane? Figure out exactly what power your fear has over your mind and behavior • Imagine the outcome you desire Now that you better understand your fear, think about what exactly you want to change Think about yourself experiencing life without your fear How you feel? For example: If your fear is commitment, imagine yourself happily with a partner If your fear is heights, imagine yourself conquering a tough hike Connect with the feeling of accomplishment If your fear is spiders, imagine yourself seeing a spider and feeling neutral Finally, facing with your fear • Identify false beliefs Many fears are based in false beliefs or catastrophic thinking For instance, when you see a spider, you may immediately have a belief that says that the spider will harm you, and that you will die Identify these patterns of thinking, and start to question them Do some research and start to talk back to those thoughts • Try gradual exposure After you have confronted your false beliefs, begin to expose yourself to the fear Oftentimes we're afraid of something because we haven't been exposed to it very much • Practice engaging with the fear Through all the steps above, now you can start to face with your fear For example, if you're afraid of dogs, start by looking at a badly drawn doodle of a dog done in silly colors Look at it until you feel no fear response Then, look at a photo of a dog, then a video of a dog Examine it until no fear response exists Go to a park where you know one or a few dogs will be on-leash and watch them until you feel no fear And then, go to a friend’s house who has a dog and watch him interact with a dog until no fear response is elicited Ask a friend to let you touch or pet his dog while the dog is restrained by your friend until you feel neutral Finally, be near a dog and spend one-on-one time with a dog Anger The emotion, Anger, also known as wrath, is an intense emotional state It involves a strong uncomfortable and hostile response to a perceived provocation, hurt or threat Anger can be a particularly powerful emotion characterized by feelings of hostility, agitation and frustration, towards others Like fear, anger can play a part in your body's fight or flight response (a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival) When a threat generates feelings of anger, you may be inclined to fend off the danger and protect yourself People feel angry when they sense that of they or someone they care about has been offended, or when they are distatisfied with others Anger is often displayed through: • Facial expressions such as frowning or glaring • Body language such as taking a strong stance or turning away from someone • Tone of voice such as speaking gruffly or yelling, and become easy to blame or nag others • Physiological responses such as sweating or turning red • Aggressive behaviors such as hitting, kicking, throwing objects or even bullying and fight Anger can become a problem, however, uncontrolled anger can quickly turn to aggression, abuse, or violence It alsos cause a reduction in mental ability and the accuracy of thinking Angry people are more likely to make risky decisions Anger is attached to heart attack,and maybe headache In relationship, anger makes people think in more negative way about everything, and they tend to blaming on others This can destroy a relationship While anger is often thought of as a negative emotion, when compared to positive emotions such as hapiness, joy and enthusiasm, it can sometimes be a good thing, if it is expressed appropriately It can be constructive in helping clarify your needs in a relationship, and it can also motivate you to take action and find solutions to things that are bothering you Anger is useful when you are a boss need to overwhelm your subordinate staffs Being angry is probably one of the worst feelings in the world It can be hard to focus and think rationally I will provide some ways to turn off the anger: • Identify your triggers Being self-aware of what makes you angry is important It allows you to prevent the situation from getting worse, so you can take a step back and calm down They need to identify their triggers and avoid them You can not be angry and calm at the same time, so if you have strong relaxation techniques to pull from, you will be a true master of your anger • Take a deep breath If you aren’t able to have a sleep or a nap, close your eyes and take three deep breaths to relax Think about things that make you happy and try to visualize the big picture • Get physical Doing a small workout is a great way to stop your anger from escalating When your body experiences stress or physical pain, your brain produces endorphins, which are natural painkillers Take a brief walk, exercise such as swimming, yoga, or something even more physical • Engage in Self-Talk Ask yourself what you need to to manage your mood better, so you're less likely to let the anger rise to a level where it's uncontrollable Take a moment to figure out why you're reacting this way and how you're going to change it Whether you it through journaling or self-talk, it's important to find a solution as to why you get angry so easily • Attending Anger Management Classes
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