AHA acute stroke endovascular 2015 khotailieu y hoc

47 3 0
  • Loading ...
1/47 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 05/11/2019, 16:56

Powers et al DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 AHA/ASA Guideline 2015 AHA/ASA Focused Update of the 2013 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Regarding Endovascular Treatment A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists Endorsed by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS); Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS); AANS/CNS Cerebrovascular Section; American Society of Neuroradiology; and Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology William J Powers, MD, FAHA, Chair; Colin P Derdeyn, MD, FAHA, Vice Chair; José Biller, MD, FAHA; Christopher S Coffey, PhD; Brian L Hoh, MD, FAHA; Edward C Jauch, MD, MS, FAHA; Karen C Johnston, MD, MSc; S Claiborne Johnston, MD, PhD, FAHA; Alexander A Khalessi, MD, MS, FAHA; Chelsea S Kidwell, MD, FAHA; James F Meschia, MD, FAHA; Bruce Ovbiagele, MD, MSc, MAS, FAHA; Dileep R Yavagal, MD, MBBS; on behalf of the American Heart Association Stroke Council Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 The American Heart Association makes every effort to avoid any actual or potential conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of an outside relationship or a personal, professional, or business interest of a member of the writing panel Specifically, all members of the writing group are required to complete and submit a Disclosure Questionnaire showing all such relationships that might be perceived as real or potential conflicts of interest This statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee on June 5, 2015, and the American Heart Association Executive Committee on June 12, 2015 A copy of the document is available at http://my.americanheart.org/statements by selecting either the “By Topic” link or the “By Publication Date” link To purchase additional reprints, call 843-216-2533 or e-mail kelle.ramsay@wolterskluwer.com The American Heart Association requests that this document be cited as follows: Powers WJ, Derdeyn CP, Biller J, Coffey CS, Hoh BL, Jauch EC, Johnston KC, Johnston SC, Khalessi AA, Kidwell CS, Meschia JF, Ovbiagele B; Yavagal DR; on behalf of the American Heart Association Stroke Council 2015 AHA/ASA focused update of the 2013 guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke regarding endovascular treatment: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke 2015;46:•••–••• Expert peer review of AHA Scientific Statements is conducted by the AHA Office of Science Operations For more on AHA statements and guidelines development, visit http://my.americanheart.org/statements and select the “Policies and Development” link Permissions: Multiple copies, modification, alteration, enhancement, and/or distribution of this document are not permitted without the express permission of the American Heart Association Instructions for obtaining permission are located at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/General/Copyright-PermissionGuidelines_UCM_300404_Article.jsp A link to the “Copyright Permissions Request Form” appears on the right side of the page (Stroke 2015;46:000-000.) © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc Stroke is available at http://stroke.ahajournals.org DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Abstract Purpose—The aim of this guideline is to provide a focused update of the current recommendations for the endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke Where there is overlap, the recommendations made here supersede those of previous guidelines Methods—This focused update analyzes results from randomized clinical trials of endovascular treatment and other relevant data published since 2013 It is not intended to be a complete literature review from the date of the previous guideline publication but rather to include pivotal new evidence that justifies changes in current recommendations Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council’s Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Manuscript Oversight Committee (MOC) Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process Recommendations follow the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association methods of classifying the level of certainty of the treatment effect and the class of evidence Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee Results—Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the selection of patients with acute ischemic stroke for endovascular treatment, the endovascular procedure and for systems of care to facilitate endovascular treatment Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Conclusions—Certain endovascular procedures have been demonstrated to provide clinical benefit in selected patients with acute ischemic stroke Systems of care should be organized to facilitate the delivery of this care Key Words: AHA Scientific Statements; stroke treatment; endovascular stroke treatment; intraarterial stroke treatment; neurointerventional stroke treatment; stent retriever; ischemic stroke Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 INTRODUCTION Since the publication of the most recent “Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke” in 2013,1 substantial new high-quality evidence regarding the clinical efficacy of endovascular treatments of acute ischemic stroke has become available This focused update on endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke analyzes results from randomized clinical trials of endovascular treatment and other relevant data published since 2013, while taking into account the previous evidence summarized in the 2013 guidelines This focused update is not intended to be based on a complete literature review from the date of the previous guideline publication but rather to include pivotal new evidence that justifies changes in current recommendations Where there is overlap, the recommendations made here supersede those of previous guidelines Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) Stroke Council’s Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the AHA/ASA Manuscript Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise Strict adherence to the AHA conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the stroke literature with emphasis on publications since the prior guidelines, and drafted recommendations in accordance with the American College of Cardiology/AHA’s Level of Evidence grading algorithm (Table 1) All recommendations were unanimously approved by the members of the writing group Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 TREATMENT WITH INTRAVENOUS RECOMBINANT TISSUE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR Rapid administration of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) to appropriate patients remains the mainstay of early treatment of acute ischemic stroke.1 Timely restoration of blood flow in ischemic stroke patients is effective in reducing long term morbidity For patients who meet national and international eligibility guidelines, intravenous r-tPA administration improves functional outcomes at to months when given within 4.5 hours of ischemic stroke onset and should be administered Every effort should be made to shorten any delays in initiation of treatment as earlier treatments are associated with increased benefits If patients who are eligible for intravenous r-tPA not have intracranial vascular imaging as part of their initial evaluation, they should begin receiving intravenous r-tPA before being transported for additional imaging and before being transferred for endovascular treatment This approach will help minimize onset-to-treatment times, a key driver of efficacy for r-tPA.1-6 NEW RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIALS OF ENDOVASCULAR STROKE TREATMENT Studies With Primarily Intra-Arterial Fibrinolysis and/or First-Generation Mechanical Embolectomy Devices (Tables 2-4) SYNTHESIS Expansion was a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end point (PROBE) 2-arm superiority trial that enrolled 362 patients with ischemic stroke eligible for intravenous rtPA within 4.5 hours of onset and for whom endovascular treatment was possible within hours No imaging other than nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) was required The patients were randomized 1:1 to standard dose intravenous r-tPA 0.9 mg/kg or endovascular therapy (intra- Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 arterial r-tPA, mechanical clot disruption or retrieval, or combination of these approaches) Only 8% had posterior circulation strokes Median onset to treatment time interval was 2.75 hours in the intravenous r-tPA group and 3.75 hours in the endovascular group Among the patients who received endovascular treatment, 66% underwent infusion of intra-arterial r-tPA and thrombus fragmentation with a guidewire only; in 34% a device was also deployed Stent retrievers were used in 14% Data on rates and efficacy of recanalization were not published There was no difference in the primary end point of the percentage with good outcome defined as modified Rankin scale (mRS)7,8 score of or or in death at months or in symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) at days There were no significant differences in outcome in subgroups including time to treatment (0-3 or 3-4.5 hours), baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)9 score (67 years).10 The Interventional Management of Stroke Trial III (IMS III) was a PROBE, 2-arm, superiority trial that enrolled patients with a major ischemic stroke defined by NIHSS score ≥10 who received intravenous r-tPA within hours and were likely to or known to have occlusion of a major cerebral artery Those who showed clear hypodensity in greater than one third of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory on nonenhanced CT were excluded No other imaging was required An amendment midway through the trial allowed screening with computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for patients with NIHSS score of >8 Over 95% received a clinical diagnosis of anterior circulation stroke Patients were randomly allocated 1:2 to standard dose intravenous rtPA (0.9 mg/kg) or to intravenous r-tPA 0.6 mg/kg followed by endovascular therapy with a device and/or intra-arterial r-tPA, if occlusion persisted and if the endovascular intervention could be begun within hours and completed within hours of onset In the endovascular group, groin puncture occurred at a mean of 208±47 (SD) minutes after stroke onset Endovascular therapy was Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 administered in 77% randomized to this treatment group Intra-arterial r-tPA alone was used in 41% and a device with or without intra-arterial r-tPA in 59%, in only 1.5% were stent retrievers used Recanalization occurred 325±52 (SD) minutes after stroke onset achieving Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction (TICI) grade11 of 2b/3 in 41% The trial was stopped early for futility after 656 of projected 900 subjects were enrolled There was no significant difference in outcome between the intravenous r-tPA only group and the endovascular group for the primary end point of the percentage of patients with a good outcome as measured by mRS score of to or for death at 90 days In the endovascular group, there was no difference in outcome between those treated 90 minutes from intravenous r-tPA to groin puncture The proportion of patients with mRS score of to at 90 days increased with increasing recanalization.12 MR and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy (MR RESCUE) was a PROBE, 2-arm, superiority trial that enrolled 118 patients with large artery occlusion and anterior circulation ischemic stroke within hours who were ineligible for intravenous r-tPA or had persistent vessel occlusion after intravenous r-tPA Patients were divided into subgroups by pretreatment CT or MRI into those with a favorable or an unfavorable penumbral pattern using imaging criteria based on a previous study.13 Patients were randomly allocated 1:1 to standard medical care or endovascular therapy (MERCI or Penumbra device with optional intra-arterial rtPA) Onset to groin puncture in endovascular group was 6.35±1.2 (SD) hours TICI 2b/3 recanalization was achieved in 25% of the endovascular group Among all patients, mean scores on the mRS at 90 days did not differ between endovascular and standard medical care, nor was endovascular therapy superior to standard medical care in patients with a favorable penumbral pattern (mean score, 3.9 vs 3.4; P=0.23) or in patients with an unfavorable penumbral pattern, (mean score, 4.0 vs 4.4; P=0.32).14 Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Studies With Primarily Stent Retrievers (Tables 2-4) The Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (MR CLEAN) was a PROBE, 2-arm, superiority trial that studied 500 patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by an proximal intracranial occlusion in the anterior circulation (distal intracranial carotid artery, MCA [M1 or M2], or anterior cerebral artery [A1 or A2]) established with CTA, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or digital-subtraction angiography (DSA), and a score of ≥2 on the NIHSS The steering committee recommended that neuroimaging studies to assess vessel patency should preferably be done before or simultaneously with treatment with intravenous r-tPA Initiation of endovascular treatment within hours of stroke onset had to be possible There were different specific exclusion criteria for patients with coagulation abnormalities, previous ischemic stroke, ICH, or severe head trauma depending on whether intra-arterial fibrinolysis was contemplated Patients who were eligible in agreement with national guidelines received intravenous r-tPA Those with a nonfavorable response were eligible for inclusion There was no specified time for observation to determine the response to intravenous r-tPA nor was there an exact definition of what constituted a nonfavorable response, although recovery to level that would not result in administration of intravenous r-tPA was suggested Patients were randomly allocated 1:1 to either usual care alone or intra-arterial treatment plus usual care Intra-arterial treatment consisted of arterial catheterization with a microcatheter to the level of occlusion and delivery of a fibrinolytic agent, mechanical thrombectomy, or both The method of intra-arterial treatment was left to the discretion of the local interventionist Sixty-four percent of participants had M1 occlusion alone and an additional 27% had occlusion of M1 and the internal carotid artery (ICA) Of the 195 patients in the endovascular group of 233 who received endovascular treatment, onset Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 10 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 to groin puncture was 260 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 210–313), a stent retriever was used in 81.5% and TICI 2b/3 recanalization was achieved in 59% The treatment effect was estimated as an odds ratio (OR), adjusted for prespecified prognostic factors that intra-arterial treatment would lead to lower mRS score at 90 days, compared with usual care alone (shift analysis) The adjusted OR was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–2.30) in favor of intervention There was an absolute difference of 13.5% (95% CI, 5.9–21.2) in the rate of functional independence (mRS score, 0-2) in favor of the intervention (32.6% vs 19.1%) There were no significant differences in mortality or the occurrence of sICH Most patients received intravenous r-tPA (445/500) and showed benefit in subgroup analysis There were too few patients who did not receive intravenous r-tPA to draw any conclusions.15 In a subsequent presentation at the 2015 International Stroke Conference, the MR CLEAN investigators reported a stroke onset to reperfusion time of 332 minutes (IQR, 279–394) and demonstrated a marked decline in clinical benefit with time such that the benefit was no longer statistically significant if reperfusion occurred after hours and 19 minutes.16 The Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion with Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times (ESCAPE) was a PROBE, 2-arm superiority trial of 316 patients with disabling acute ischemic stroke (NIHSS score >5) who could be randomized up 12 hours after the onset Groin puncture had to be possible within 60 minutes of CT/CTA Nonenhanced CT and CTA (preferably multiphase) were performed rapidly with a target door-to-imaging time of 25 minutes to identify participants with a small infarct core (by Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score [ASPECTS]17 6-10 or CT perfusion), an occluded proximal intracranial artery in the anterior circulation (internal carotid, M1 MCA, or ≥2 M2s), and moderate-to-good collateral circulation defined as “the filling of 50% or more of the middle- Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 33 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Lindley RI, Murray G, Olivot JM, Parsons M, Tilley B, Toni D, Toyoda K, Wahlgren N, Wardlaw J, Whiteley W, del Zoppo GJ, Baigent C, Sandercock P, Hacke W Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials Lancet 2014;384:1929-1935 Rankin J Cerebral vascular accidents in patients over the age of 60: II Prognosis Scott Med J 1957;2:200-215 Banks JL, Marotta CA Outcomes validity and reliability of the modified Rankin scale: implications for stroke clinical trials: a literature review and synthesis Stroke 2007;38:1091-1096 Brott T, Adams HP Jr, Olinger CP, Marler JR, Barsan WG, Biller J, Spilker J, Holleran R, Eberle R, Hertzberg V Measurements of acute cerebral infarction: a clinical examination scale Stroke.1989;20:864-870 10 Ciccone A, Valvassori L, Nichelatti M, Sgoifo A, Ponzio M, Sterzi R, Boccardi E Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke N Engl J Med 2013;368:904-913 11 Zaidat OO, Yoo AJ, Khatri P, Tomsick TA, von Kummer R, Saver JL, Marks MP, Prabhakaran S, Kallmes DF, Fitzsimmons BF, Mocco J, Wardlaw JM, Barnwell SL, Jovin TG, Linfante I, Siddiqui AH, Alexander MJ, Hirsch JA, Wintermark M, Albers G, Woo HH, Heck DV, Lev M, Aviv R, Hacke W, Warach S, Broderick J, Derdeyn CP, Furlan A, Nogueira RG, Yavagal DR, Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Bendszus M, Liebeskind DS; for the Cerebral Angiographic Revascularization Grading (CARG) Collaborators, STIR Revascularization working group, and STIR Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) Task Force Recommendations on angiographic revascularization grading standards for acute ischemic stroke: a consensus statement Stroke 2013;44:2650-2663 12 Broderick JP, Palesch YY, Demchuk AM, Yeatts SD, Khatri P, Hill MD, Jauch EC, Jovin TG, Yan B, Silver FL, von Kummer R, Molina CA, Demaerschalk BM, Budzik R, Clark WM, Zaidat OO, Malisch TW, Goyal M, Schonewille WJ, Mazighi M, Engelter ST, Anderson C, Spilker J, Carrozzella J, Ryckborst KJ, Janis LS, Martin RH, Foster LD, Tomsick TA Endovascular therapy after intravenous t-PA versus t-PA alone for stroke N Engl J Med 2013;368:893-903 13 Kidwell CS, Wintermark M, De Silva DA, Schaewe TJ, Jahan R, Starkman S, Jovin T, Hom J, Jumaa M, Schreier J, Gornbein J, Liebeskind DS, Alger JR, Saver JL Multiparametric MRI and CT models of infarct core and favorable penumbral imaging patterns in acute ischemic stroke Stroke 2013;44:73-79 14 Kidwell CS, Jahan R, Gornbein J, Alger JR, Nenov V, Ajani Z, Feng L, Meyer BC, Olson S, Schwamm LH, Yoo AJ, Marshall RS, Meyers PM, Yavagal DR, Wintermark M, Guzy J, Starkman S, Saver JL A trial of imaging selection and endovascular treatment for ischemic stroke N Engl J Med 2013;368:914-923 Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 34 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 15 Berkhemer OA, Fransen PS, Beumer D, van den Berg LA, Lingsma HF, Yoo AJ, Schonewille WJ, Vos JA, Nederkoorn PJ, Wermer MJ, van Walderveen MA, Staals J, Hofmeijer J, van Oostayen JA, Lycklama a Nijeholt GJ, Boiten J, Brouwer PA, Emmer BJ, de Bruijn SF, van Dijk LC, Kappelle LJ, Lo RH, van Dijk EJ, de Vries J, de Kort PL, van Rooij WJ, van den Berg JS, van Hasselt BA, Aerden LA, Dallinga RJ, Visser MC, Bot JC, Vroomen PC, Eshghi O, Schreuder TH, Heijboer RJ, Keizer K, Tielbeek AV, den Hertog HM, Gerrits DG, van den Berg-Vos RM, Karas GB, Steyerberg EW, Flach HZ, Marquering HA, Sprengers ME, Jenniskens SF, Beenen LF, van den Berg R, Koudstaal PJ, van Zwam WH, Roos YB, van der Lugt A, van Oostenbrugge RJ, Majoie CB, Dippel DW A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke N Engl J Med 2015;372:11-20 16 Fransen P, Berkhemer O, Lingsma H, Beumer D, van den Berg L, van Zwam W, van Oostenbrugge R, van der Lugt A, Majoie C, Dippel D; for the MR CLEAN Investigators Time to reperfusion and effect of intra-arterial treatment in the MR CLEAN Trial http://my.americanheart.org/idc/groups/ahamahpublic/@wcm/@sop/@scon/documents/downloadable/ucm_471830.pdf Accessed June 15, 2015 17 Pexman JH, Barber PA, Hill MD, Sevick RJ, Demchuk AM, Hudon ME, Hu WY, Buchan AM Use of the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) for assessing CT scans in patients with acute stroke Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22:1534-1542 18 Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK, Eesa M, Rempel JL, Thornton J, Roy D, Jovin TG, Willinsky RA, Sapkota BL, Dowlatshahi D, Frei DF, Kamal NR, Montanera WJ, Poppe AY, Ryckborst KJ, Silver FL, Shuaib A, Tampieri D, Williams D, Bang OY, Baxter BW, Burns PA, Choe H, Heo JH, Holmstedt CA, Jankowitz B, Kelly M, Linares G, Mandzia JL, Shankar J, Sohn SI, Swartz RH, Barber PA, Coutts SB, Smith EE, Morrish WF, Weill A, Subramaniam S, Mitha AP, Wong JH, Lowerison MW, Sajobi TT, Hill MD Randomized assessment of rapid endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke N Engl J Med 2015;372:1019-1030 19 Straka M, Albers GW, Bammer R Real-time diffusion-perfusion mismatch analysis in acute stroke J Magn Reson Imaging 2010;32:1024-1037 20 Saver JL, Goyal M, Bonafe A, Diener HC, Levy EI, Pereira VM, Albers GW, Cognard C, Cohen DJ, Hacke W, Jansen O, Jovin TG, Mattle HP, Nogueira RG, Siddiqui AH, Yavagal DR, Baxter BW, Devlin TG, Lopes DK, Reddy VK, du Mesnil de Rochemont R, Singer OC, Jahan R Stent-retriever thrombectomy after intravenous t-PA vs t-PA alone in stroke N Engl J Med 2015;372:2285-2295 21 Campbell BC, Mitchell PJ, Kleinig TJ, Dewey HM, Churilov L, Yassi N, Yan B, Dowling RJ, Parsons MW, Oxley TJ, Wu TY, Brooks M, Simpson MA, Miteff F, Levi CR, Krause M, Harrington TJ, Faulder KC, Steinfort BS, Priglinger M, Ang T, Scroop R, Barber PA, McGuinness B, Wijeratne T, Phan TG, Chong W, Chandra RV, Bladin CF, Badve M, Rice Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 35 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 H, de Villiers L, Ma H, Desmond PM, Donnan GA, Davis SM Endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke with perfusion-imaging selection N Engl J Med 2015;372:1009-1018 22 Jovin TG, Chamorro A, Cobo E, de Miquel MA, Molina CA, Rovira A, San Roman L, Serena J, Abilleira S, Ribo M, Millan M, Urra X, Cardona P, Lopez-Cancio E, Tomasello A, Castano C, Blasco J, Aja L, Dorado L, Quesada H, Rubiera M, Hernandez-Perez M, Goyal M, Demchuk AM, von Kummer R, Gallofre M, Davalos A Thrombectomy within hours after symptom onset in ischemic stroke N Engl J Med 2015;372:2296-2306 23 Jayaraman MV, Grossberg JA, Meisel KM, Shaikhouni A, Silver B The clinical and radiographic importance of distinguishing partial from near-complete reperfusion following intra-arterial stroke therapy Am J Neuroradiol 2013;34:135-139 24 Zanaty M, Chalouhi N, Starke RM, Tjoumakaris S, Hasan D, Hann S, Ajiboye N, Liu KC, Rosenwasser RH, Manasseh P, Jabbour P Endovascular stroke intervention in the very young Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2014;127:15-18 25 Vega RA, Chan JL, Anene-Maidoh TI, Grimes MM, Reavey-Cantwell JF Mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric stroke arising from an atrial myxoma: case report J Neurosurg Pediatr 2015;15:301-305 26 Golomb MR, Rafay M, Armstrong D, Massicotte P, Curtis R, Hune S, deVeber GA Intraarterial tissue plasminogen activator for thrombosis complicating cerebral angiography in a 17-year-old girl J Child Neurol 2003;18:420-423 27 deVeber GA Delays in the timely diagnosis of stroke in children Nat Rev Neurol 2010;6:64-66 28 Yeo LL, Paliwal P, Teoh HL, Seet RC, Chan BP, Liang S, Venketasubramanian N, Rathakrishnan R, Ahmad A, Ng KW, Loh PK, Ong JJ, Wakerley BR, Chong VF, Bathla G, Sharma VK Timing of recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis and functional outcomes after acute ischemic stroke JAMA Neurol 2013;70:353-358 29 Campbell BC, Yassi N, Ma H, Sharma G, Salinas S, Churilov L, Meretoja A, Parsons MW, Desmond PM, Lansberg MG, Donnan GA, Davis SM Imaging selection in ischemic stroke: feasibility of automated CT-perfusion analysis Int J Stroke 2015;10:51-54 30 Saver JL, Jahan R, Levy EI, Jovin TG, Baxter B, Nogueira RG, Clark W, Budzik R, Zaidat OO Solitaire flow restoration device versus the Merci Retriever in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (SWIFT): a randomised, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial Lancet.2012;380:1241-1249 31 Nogueira RG, Lutsep HL, Gupta R, Jovin TG, Albers GW, Walker GA, Liebeskind DS, Smith WS Trevo versus Merci retrievers for thrombectomy revascularisation of large vessel occlusions in acute ischaemic stroke (TREVO 2): a randomised trial Lancet 2012;380:1231-1240 Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 36 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 32 Humphries W, Hoit D, Doss VT, Elijovich L, Frei D, Loy D, Dooley G, Turk AS, Chaudry I, Turner R, Mocco J, Morone P, Fiorella D, Siddiqui A, Mokin M, Arthur AS Distal aspiration with retrievable stent assisted thrombectomy for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke J Neurointerv Surg 2015;7:90-94 33 John S, Hussain MS, Toth G, Bain M, Uchino K, Hui FK Initial Experience Using the 5MAX ACE Reperfusion Catheter in Intra-arterial Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg.2014;16:350-357 34 Deshaies EM Tri-axial system using the Solitaire-FR and Penumbra Aspiration Microcatheter for acute mechanical thrombectomy J Clin Neurosci.2013; 20:1303-1305 35 Nguyen TN, Malisch T, Castonguay AC, Gupta R, Sun CH, Martin CO, Holloway WE, Mueller-Kronast N, English JD, Linfante I, Dabus G, Marden FA, Bozorgchami H, Xavier A, Rai AT, Froehler MT, Badruddin A, Taqi M, Abraham MG, Janardhan V, Shaltoni H, Novakovic R, Yoo AJ, Abou-Chebl A, Chen PR, Britz GW, Kaushal R, Nanda A, Issa MA, Masoud H, Nogueira RG, Norbash AM, Zaidat OO Balloon guide catheter improves revascularization and clinical outcomes with the Solitaire device: analysis of the North American Solitaire Acute Stroke Registry Stroke 2014;45:141-145 36 Dorn F, Stehle S, Lockau H, Zimmer C, Liebig T Endovascular treatment of acute intracerebral artery occlusions with the solitaire stent: single-centre experience with 108 recanalization procedures Cerebrovasc Dis 2012;34:70-77 37 Marquering HA, Nederkoorn PJ, Beenen LF, Nijeholt GJ, van den BR, Roos YB, Majoie CB Carotid pseudo-occlusion on CTA in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a concerning observation Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2013;115:1591-1594 38 Heck DV, Brown MD Carotid stenting and intracranial thrombectomy for treatment of acute stroke due to tandem occlusions with aggressive antiplatelet therapy may be associated with a high incidence of intracranial hemorrhage J Neurointerv Surg 2015;7:170-175 39 Aghaebrahim A, Jovin T, Jadhav AP, Noorian A, Gupta R, Nogueira RG Endovascular recanalization of complete subacute to chronic atherosclerotic occlusions of intracranial arteries J Neurointerv Surg 2014;6:645-648 40 Anastasian ZH Anaesthetic management of the patient with acute ischaemic stroke Br J Anaesth 2014;113 Suppl 2:ii9-16 41 Berkhemer OA, van den Berg LA, Fransen PSS, Beumer D, Lingsma HF, van Zwam WH, Dippel DW, van der Lugt A, van Oostenbrugge RJ, Majoie CB, Roos YBW; for the MR CLEAN Investigators Impact of general anaesthesia on treatment effect in the MR CLEAN Trial http://my.americanheart.org/idc/groups/ahamahpublic/@wcm/@sop/@scon/documents/downloadable/ucm_471851.pdf Accessed June 15, 2015 Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 37 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 42 Brinjikji W, Murad MH, Rabinstein AA, Cloft HJ, Lanzino G, Kallmes DF Conscious Sedation versus General Anesthesia during Endovascular Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Am J Neuroradiol 2015;36:525-529 Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 38 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Writing Group Disclosures Writing Group Member William J Powers Colin P Derdeyn Other Speakers’ Research Research Bureau/ Employment Grant Support Honoraria University of None None None North Carolina Washington Microvention*; None None University Penumbra*; SILK Road* Expert Witness None Ownership Interest None Consultant/ Advisory Board None MedicoPulse None Therapeutics* legal cases (defense)* Other None None José Biller Loyola University None DSMB (ongoing clinical trial)* None Expert None witness (defense)* Frontiers in None Neurology (Editor)*; Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease (Editor)*; Stroke Editorial Board Member for UpTo-Date* Christopher S Coffey University of Iowa NIH/NINDS† None None None None None None Brian L Hoh University of Florida None None None None None None None Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 39 Writing Group Member Edward C Jauch Karen C Johnston S Claiborne Johnston DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Research Employment Grant Medical Covidien*; University of Genentech*; South Penumbra*; Carolina Stryker* University of FDA*; Virginia NIH/NINDS†; NIH/NHLBI†; NINDS*; Roche/ Genentech* University of None Texas Other Speakers’ Research Bureau/ Support Honoraria None None Expert Witness None Ownership Interest None Consultant/ Advisory Board None Other None None None None None None None None None None None None None Alexander A Khalessi University of California, San Diego Covidien*; None Microvention*; Penumbra*; Sequent* None None Lazarus* Codman*; MedtronicCovidien-ev3†; Microvention*; Penumbra*; Stryker* None Chelsea S Kidwell University of Arizona None None None None None None None James F Meschia Mayo Clinic None None None None None None None Bruce Ovbiagele Medical University of South Carolina NIH† None None None None None None Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 40 Writing Group Member Dileep R Yavagal DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Research Employment Grant University of Covidien/ Miami Miller Medtronic*; School of Penumbra* Medicine Other Speakers’ Research Bureau/ Support Honoraria None None Expert Witness None Ownership Interest None Consultant/ Advisory Board Covidien/ Medtronic*; Aldagen/ Cytomedix* Other None This table represents the relationships of writing group members that may be perceived as actual or reasonably perceived conflicts of interest as reported on the Disclosure Questionnaire, which all members of the writing group are required to complete and submit A relationship is considered to be “significant” if (a) the person receives $10,000 or more during any 12-month period, or 5% or more of the person’s gross income; or (b) the person owns 5% or more of the voting stock or share of the entity, or owns $10,000 or more of the fair market value of the entity A relationship is considered to be “modest” if it is less than “significant” under the preceding definition *Modest †Significant Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 41 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Reviewer Disclosures Reviewer Sepideh AminHanjani Research Employment Grant University of None Illinois at Chicago Other Research Support None Speakers’ Bureau/ Honoraria None Expert Ownership Consultant/Advisory Witness Interest Board Other None None None None Nicholas University Bambakidis Hospitals Case Medical Center AHA† None None None None None None Karen Furie Rhode Island Hospital None None None None None None None Laura Heitsch Washington University AHA†; EMF†; None VINDICO*; Genentech† None None Genentech* None Philip Meyers Columbia University None None None None None None None Peter Panagos Washington University None None Genentech† None None None None This table represents the relationships of reviewers that may be perceived as actual or reasonably perceived conflicts of interest as reported on the Disclosure Questionnaire, which all reviewers are required to complete and submit A relationship is considered to be “significant” if (a) the person receives $10,000 or more during any 12-month period, or 5% or more of the person’s gross income; or (b) the person owns 5% or more of the voting stock or share of the entity, or owns $10,000 or more of the fair market value of the entity A relationship is considered to be “modest” if it is less than “significant” under the preceding definition *Modest †Significant Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 et alClass 42of Recommendations and Level of Evidence to Clinical Strategies, DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Table 1.Powers Applying Interventions, Treatments, or Diagnostic Testing in Patient Care* CLASS (STRENGTH) OF RECOMMENDATION LEVEL (QUALITY) OF EVIDENCE‡ CLASS I (STRONG) LEVEL A Benefit >>> Risk Suggested phrases for writing recommendations: ■ Is recommended ■ Is indicated/useful/effective/beneficial ■ Should be performed/administered/other ■ Comparative-Effectiveness Phrases†: º Treatment/strategy A is recommended/indicated in preference to treatment B º Treatment A should be chosen over treatment B CLASS IIa (MODERATE) Benefit >> Risk Suggested phrases for writing recommendations: ■ Is reasonable ■ Can be useful/effective/beneficial ■ Comparative-Effectiveness Phrases†: º Treatment/strategy A is probably recommended/indicated in preference to treatment B º It is reasonable to choose treatment A over treatment B CLASS IIb (WEAK) Benefit ≥ Risk Suggested phrases for writing recommendations: ■ May/might be reasonable ■ May/might be considered ■ Usefulness/effectiveness  is unknown/unclear/uncertain or not well established CLASS III: No Benefit (MODERATE)  (Generally, LOE A or B use only) Benefit = Risk ■  LEVEL B-R (Randomized) Moderate-quality evidence‡ from or more RCTs Meta-analyses of moderate-quality RCTs ■  ■  LEVEL B-NR (Nonrandomized) Moderate-quality evidence‡ from or more well-designed, well-executed nonrandomized studies, observational studies, or registry studies  Meta-analyses of such studies ■  ■ LEVEL C Randomized or nonrandomized observational or registry studies with limitations of design or execution  Meta-analyses of such studies  Physiological or mechanistic studies in human subjects ■  ■ ■ LEVEL E Consensus of expert opinion based on clinical experience when evidence is insufficient, vague, or conflicting COR and LOE are determined independently (any COR may be paired with any LOE) A recommendation with LOE C or E does not imply that the recommendation is weak Many important clinical questions addressed in guidelines not lend themselves to clinical trials Although RCTs are unavailable, there may be a very clear clinical consensus that a particular test or therapy is useful or effective Suggested phrases for writing recommendations: ■ Is not recommended ■ Is not indicated/useful/effective/beneficial ■ Should not be performed/administered/other CLASS III: Harm (STRONG)  High-quality evidence‡ from more than RCTs Meta-analyses of high-quality RCTs ■ One  or more RCTs corroborated by high-quality registry studies ■  * The outcome or result of the intervention should be specified (an improved clinical outcome or increased diagnostic accuracy or incremental prognostic information) Risk > Benefit † For comparative-effectiveness recommendations (COR I and IIa; LOE A and B only), studies that support the use of comparator verbs should involve direct comparisons of the treatments or strategies being evaluated Suggested phrases for writing recommendations: ‡ The method of assessing quality is evolving, including the application of standardized, ■ Potentially harmful widely used, and preferably validated evidence grading tools; and for systematic reviews, ■ Causes harm the incorporation of an Evidence Review Committee ■ Associated with excess morbidity/mortality COR indicates Class of Recommendation; LOE, Level of Evidence; ■ Should not be performed/administered/other NR, nonrandomized; R, randomized; and randomized controlled trial Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by RCT, guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 43 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Table Selected Eligibility Criteria for Recent Randomized Clinical Trial Of Endovascular Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke Study Treatment Groups Active vs Control SYNTHESIS Expansion IA drug/any device/both vs IV rtPA IMS III 2/3 standard dose IV rtPA + IA drug/any device/both vs IV rtPA Eligibility IV rtPA eligible Age (yrs) Time Territory NIHSS Pre-stroke Function required 18-80 hrs to IAT any ≤ 25 mRS 0-1 Anticoagulation/ Coagulopathy exclusion criteria ASPECTS Vascular Imaging Other Imaging No No No required, ≤ hrs 18-82 hrs to IAT any ≥ 10 or mRS 0-2 exclusion criteria 1/3 MCA excluded exclusion criteria No CTA, MRA multimodal CT/MR for stratification No CTA,MRA, DSA ≥6 CTA 8-9 with occlusion MR RESCUE Standard (± IV rtPA) + MERCI or Penumbra vs Standard (± IV rtPA) not required 18-85 hrs to IAT stop by hrs anterior circulation 6-29 mRS 0-2 MR CLEAN Standard (± IV rtPA) + IA UK, rtPA, device vs Standard (± IV rtPA) not required >18 hrs to IAT anterior circulation >2 none ESCAPE Standard (± IV rtPA) + stent retriever "recommended" vs Standard (± IV rtPA) not required > 18 12 hrs to randomization ICA/MCA >5 Barthel ≥ 90 SWIFT PRIME Standard (± IV rtPA) + stent retriever vs Standard (± IV rtPA) required 18-80 hrs to groin ICA/M1 8-29 mRS0-1 exclusion criteria ≥6 CTA ,MRA CT or MRI mismatch for first 71 ASPECTS ≥6 for remaining 125 EXTEND-IA Standard (± IV rtPA) + stent retriever vs Standard (± IV rtPA) required ≥ 18 hrs to groin complete in anterior circulation none mRS 0-1 exclusion criteria No CTA, MRA CT/MRI Mismatch REVASCAT Standard (± IV rtPA) + stent retriever vs Standard (± IV rtPA) not required 18-80 (85) hrs to groin ICA/M1 ≥6 mRs0-1 exclusion criteria ≥ (NECT) ≥ (MRI-DWI) ≥ 8, age > 81-85 CTA, MRA, DSA exclusion criteria no exclusion criteria multiphase CTA or CT perfusion for detection of core size and collaterals Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 CT-perfusion, CTA-source or MRI-DWI required if > 4.5 hrs Powers et al 44 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Table Selected Patient Charcteristics for Recent Randomized Clinical Trial Of Endovascular Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke Study Participants (Active/Control) Number SYNTHESIS EXPANSION 181/181 Age (yrs) Mean± SD(IQR) 66±11/67±11 IMS III 434/222 69/68 MR RESCUE MR CLEAN ESCAPE SWIFT PRIME EXTEND-IA REVASCAT 64/54 233/267 165/150 98/98 35/35 103/103 66± 15 66 (55-76)/66 (56-76) 71 (60-81)/70 (60-81) 65±13/66±11 69 ± 12//70±12 66 ± 11/67±10 NIHSS Median, (IQR),[Range] 13(9-17)/13(9-18) 17 [7-40]/16[8-30] 17 (13-21) 17 (14-21)[3-30]/18 (14-22)[4-38] 16(13-20)/17(12-20) 17(13-20)/17 (13-19) 17(13-20/13 (9-19) 17(14-20)/17(12-19) Territory(%) ASPECTS Median, (IQR) 88/94 anterior NA 97/97 anterior (clinical) 56.9%/59.0% 8-10 91% IA rtPA alone 66% device added 34% 77% Onset to IV rtPA (min) Mean ± SD, Median (IQR) 2.75 (2.33,3.33) hrs 122± 34/121±34 Time Onset to Groin (min) Mean ± SD, Median (IQR) 3.75 (3.23,4.33) hrs to clot Recanalization TICI 2b/3 208 ±47 41% 6.35± 1.2 hrs 25% 260 (210-313) 58.70% Time to Reperfusion Mean ± SD, 325 ± 52 41% IA rtPA 38% IA rtPA + device 21% device only 1.5% stent retriever ICA 20/13 M1 61/72 M2 19/15 95% 58% MERCI 22% Penumbra 16% both IC ICA 0.4/1.1 ICA+ M1 25.3/28.2 M1 66.1/62.0 M2 7.7/7.9 A1/A2 0.4/0.8 (7-10)/9 (8-10) ICA+ M1 27.6/26.5 M1 / all M2 68.1/71.4 M2 3.7/2.0 9(8-10)/9 (8-10) ICA 18.3/16.0 M1 68/77 M2 14/6 9(7-10)/9 (8-10) 83.70% 85 (67-10)/87 (65-116) 332 (279-394) 91.50% 110(80-142)/125(89-183) 88.80% 110.5 (85-156)/117(80-155) 77% 127(93-162)/145 (105-180) 224(165-275) 86% 248 (204-277) 95% 118(90-150)/105(86-138) 269(201-340) 66% 355(269-430) 81.5% stent retriever IAT 21% 72.40% 72.7% stent retriever 88% all stent retriever ICA 31/31 M1 57/51 M2 11/17 ICA 0/1 ICA+M1 26/27 M1 65/64 M2 10/8 Device Deployment in Active Group all stent retriever 7(6-9)/8(6-9) all stent retriever Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 Powers et al 45 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Table Selected Clinical Outcomes for Recent Randomized Clinical Trial Of Endovascular Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke Study Outcomes SYNTHESIS EXPANSION mRS 0-1 at mos IMS III mRS 0-2 at 90 d MR RESCUE mean mRS MR CLEAN improvement mRS at 90 d (shift analysis) ESCAPE Primary Endpoint Active Control Comparison 30.4% 34.8% 0.71 (0.44-1.14)* 40.8% 38.7% 3.9 3.9 improvement mRS at 90 d (shift analysis) SWIFT PRIME Rankin shift , 5&6 combined EXTEND-IA Median Reperfusion at 24 hrss dec in NIHSS or NIHSS 0,1 at d REVASCAT improvement mRS at 90 d & combined (shift analysis) 1.5 % (-6 to 9)† 37% 37% Time 7d Symptomatic ICH Active (%) Control (%) 6 Comparison P=0.53 mRS 0-2 at 90 d Active (%) Control (%) Comparison 41.9 46.4 19.1 21.6 P=0.52 30 h 6.2 5.9 P=0.83 40.8 38.7 P=0.99 19 24 P=0.75 7d P=0.24 19 20 1.67 (1.21-2.3)* 21 22 90 d 7.7 6.4 32.6 19.1 3.1 (2.0,-4.7)* 100% 80% Death (90 d/3 mos) Active (%) Control (%) Comparison 14.4 9.9 P=0.22 10.4 19 0.5 (0.3-0.8)§ 90 d 3.6 2.7 1.2 (0.3-4.6)§ 53 29.3 IV rtPA none 1.5 % (-6, to 9)† all 2.16 (1.39-3.38)* yes no 1.8(1.4-2.4)§ yes no P < 0.001 12 0.74(0.33-1.68)# 27 hrs 60 35 1.7 (1.23-2.33)# all 4.7 (2.5-9.0)* 6.0 (2.0 - 18.0)* 20 0.45 (0.1 - 2.1)* 36 hrss -6 (95% CI, -13 to 2) 71 40 4.2 (1.4-12)* all 1.7 (1.05-2.8)* 18 16 1.1 (0.8-1,4)† † 90d 2 1.0(0.1-7.0)† † 44 28 2.1 (1.1-4.0)ll yes no IV rtPA Subgroups N Comparison 0-3 hrs to treatment 3-4.5 hrs > 4.5 hrs Time Subgroups N Comparison 161 0.79 (0.33-1.88)* 156 0.88 (0.4-1.92 )* 28 78 (0.03-22.1)* ≤ 120 to IV rtPA < 120 445 55 235 76 150 56 1.17 (1.22-2.40)* ≤ 120 to randomization 2.06 (0.69-6.13)* < 120 2.5(1.6-4.0)ll 2.6 (1.1-5.9)ll 1.4(0.8-2.6)ll 2.7(1.0-7.1)ll NIHSS Subgroups N Comparison 129 0.57(0.27-1.2)* 233 0.82(0.43-1.57)* Age Subgroups ≤ 67 > 67 Age Subgroups (yrs) N Comparison Vessel Subgroups 153 1.13(0 54-2.37) adj OR, Anterior 95% CI 209 0.52 (0.27-1.10) Posterior Vessel Subgroups N Comparison 330 0.77 (0.47-1.27)* 29 0.35 0(.05-2.56)* 1.24 (0.88-1.74)‡ 0.88 (0.6-1.24)‡ 8-10 0-7 378 271 1.03 (0.79-1.14)‡ 1.12 (0.67-1.87)‡ 8-19 ≥20 452 1.01(0.78-1.31)‡ 204 1.37 (0.6-,2.99)‡ 18-65 ≥ 66 270 1.07(0.7-,1.48)‡ 386 1.10 (0.69-1.5)‡ ICA,M1 or basilar 220 1.05 (0.67-1.64)‡ 449 51 1.69 (1.21-2.38)* 1.57 (0.51-4.85)* 8-10 5-7 0-4 376 92 28 1.61(1.11-2.34)* 1.97 (0.89-4.35)* 1.09 (0.14-8.46)* 2-15 16-19 ≥20 164 1.71 (0.96-3.02)* 115 1.5 (0.8-,2.67)* 183 1.85 (1.06-3.21)* < 80 ≥ 80 419 1.6 (1.1-,2.28)* 81 3.24 (1.22- 8.62)* ICA T no ICA T 134 2.43( 1.24-4.77)* 366 1.61(1.11-2.33)* EC ICA no EC ICA 146 1.43( 0.78-2.64) 354 1.85 (1.26-2.72) 2.6(1.3-4.5)ll 2.5 (1.4-4.5)ll > hrs 49 1.7 (0.7- 4.0) < 189 to randomization ≥ 189 96 94 1.62 (1.08-2.42)** 1.77 (1.07-2.93)** ≤4.5 hrs to randomization > 4.5 hrs 135 71 1.8(1.0-3.4)ll 1.4 (0.6-3.3)ll Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 NIHSS Subgroups < 11 ≥ 11 345 310 ≤180 to randomization > 180 * adjusted odds ratio, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) † adjusted difference, 95% CI ‡ relative risk, 99% CI § adjusted rate ratio, 95% CI ll odds ratio, 95% CI # risk ratio, 95% CI ** relative risk, 95% CI † † adjusted risk ratio, 95% CI ASPECTS Subgroups ASPECTS subgroups N Comparison NA 8-10 17 2.2(1.1-4.4)ll 1.4 (0.7-2.9)ll < 17 ≥17 2.6 (1.6-4.2)ll 2.4 (1.1-5.3)ll ≤ 80 > 80 110 1.49 (1.05-2.11)** 80 2.21 (1.17-4.19)** < 70 ≥ 70 92 114 1.5(0.7-3.1)ll 2.0 (1.0-4.0)ll 1.78 (1.31-2.42)ll 2.06 (0.9-,4.45)ll 106 1.67 (1.13-2.47)** 83 1.78 (1.03-3.09)** < 70 ≥ 70 121 85 2.5 (1.3-4.6)ll 0.9 (0.4-2.0)ll ICA + No ICA 2.6 (1.2-5.9)ll 2.7 (1.7-4.4)ll ICA M1 M2 30 2.04 (0.67-6.21)** 133 1.74 (1.23-2.46)** 18 1.35 (0.41-4.41)** M1 135 1.2(0.7-2.2)ll Powers et al 46 DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000074 Table Abbreviations (Tables 2-4) ASPECTS Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score; CT computed tomography; CTA computed tomography angiography; d days; EC extra-cranial; ESCAPE Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion with Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times; EXTEND-IA Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits- Intra-Arterial; hrs hours; IA intra-arterial; IAT intra-arterial therapy; ICA internal carotid artery; IMS III Interventional Management of Stroke Trial III; IQR interquartile range; IV intravenous; MCA middle cerebral artery; minutes; mos months; MR magnetic resonance; MR CLEAN The Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke; MR RESCUE MR and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy; ICH intracerebral hemorrhage; mRS modified Rankin scale; N number; NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; OR odds ratio; rtPA recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; SD standard deviation; SWIFT PRME Solitaire FR with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke; T terminus (of the internal carotid artery); TICI thrombolysis in cerebral infarction; yrs years Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 2015 AHA/ASA Focused Update of the 2013 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Regarding Endovascular Treatment: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association William J Powers, Colin P Derdeyn, José Biller, Christopher S Coffey, Brian L Hoh, Edward C Jauch, Karen C Johnston, S Claiborne Johnston, Alexander A Khalessi, Chelsea S Kidwell, James F Meschia, Bruce Ovbiagele and Dileep R Yavagal on behalf of the American Heart Association Stroke Council Stroke published online June 29, 2015; Stroke is published by the American Heart Association, 7272 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, TX 75231 Copyright © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc All rights reserved Print ISSN: 0039-2499 Online ISSN: 1524-4628 The online version of this article, along with updated information and services, is located on the World Wide Web at: http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2015/06/26/STR.0000000000000074 Permissions: Requests for permissions to reproduce figures, tables, or portions of articles originally published in Stroke can be obtained via RightsLink, a service of the Copyright Clearance Center, not the Editorial Office Once the online version of the published article for which permission is being requested is located, click Request Permissions in the middle column of the Web page under Services Further information about this process is available in the Permissions and Rights Question and Answer document Reprints: Information about reprints can be found online at: http://www.lww.com/reprints Subscriptions: Information about subscribing to Stroke is online at: http://stroke.ahajournals.org//subscriptions/ Downloaded from http://stroke.ahajournals.org/ by guest on June 29, 2015 ... with acute ischemic stroke for endovascular treatment, the endovascular procedure and for systems of care to facilitate endovascular treatment Downloaded from http:/ /stroke. ahajournals.org/ by guest... stroke Systems of care should be organized to facilitate the delivery of this care Key Words: AHA Scientific Statements; stroke treatment; endovascular stroke treatment; intraarterial stroke treatment;... the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke in 2013,1 substantial new high-quality evidence regarding the clinical efficacy of endovascular treatments of acute ischemic stroke
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: AHA acute stroke endovascular 2015 khotailieu y hoc , AHA acute stroke endovascular 2015 khotailieu y hoc

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn