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Linux Bible ® 2007 Edition Boot Up Ubuntu®, Fedora™, KNOPPIX, Debian®, SUSE™, and 11 Other Distributions Christopher Negus Linux Bible ® 2007 Edition Boot Up Ubuntu®, Fedora™, KNOPPIX, Debian®, SUSE™, and 11 Other Distributions Christopher Negus Linux® Bible 2007 Edition: Boot Up Ubuntu®, Fedora™, KNOPPIX, Debian®, SUSE™, and 11 Other Distributions Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-08279-9 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600 Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Negus, Chris, 1957Linux bible : boot up to Ubuntu, Fedora, KNOPPIX, Debian, SUSE, and 11 other distributions / Christopher Negus 2007 ed p cm Includes index ISBN 978-0-470-08279-9 (paper/dvd) Linux Operating systems (Computers) I Title QA76.76.O63N42153 2007 005.4'32 dc22 2007000458 Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat, Inc Debian is a registered trademark of Software in the Public Interest, Inc SUSE is a trademark of Novell, Inc Ubuntu is a registered trademark of Canonical Limited Company All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners Wiley Publishing, Inc is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books About the Authors Chris Negus has written or co-written dozens of books on Linux and UNIX, including Red Hat Linux Bible (all editions), Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux Bible, Linux Troubleshooting Bible, and the recent Linux Toys II For eight years he worked with the organization at AT&T that developed UNIX before moving to Utah to help contribute to Novell’s short-lived UnixWare project in the early 1990s When not writing about Linux, Chris enjoys playing soccer and just hanging out with his family Wayne Tucker is a Linux enthusiast and has been a professional system administrator for six years He is currently a technical manager, systems administrator, and network engineer at an Internet company in Washington state He lives in Bellingham, Washington, with his beloved wife, Danielle, whom he would like to thank for her patience while he was working on this project His future projects include continuing his education and working on the things that have recently accumulated on his “honey-do” list Eric Foster-Johnson is a veteran software developer and the author or co-author of over 18 books on programming, operating systems, and open source software William von Hagen (Bill) has been a UNIX system administrator for over twenty years, and a Linux fanatic since the early 1990s He has worked as a systems programmer, system administrator, writer, application developer, programmer, drummer, and content manager Bill has written books on such topics as Linux server hacks, Linux filesystems, SUSE Linux, Red Hat Linux, GCC, SGML, Mac OS X, and hacking the TiVo He has also written numerous articles on Linux, embedded computing, Unix, and Open Source topics Jaldhar Vyas is a 35-year-old Hindu priest and Linux consultant currently working for Linspire, Inc Jaldhar has been using Linux for eleven years and has been one of the volunteer maintainers of Debian GNU/Linux for nine years He lives in Jersey City, NJ with his wife Jyoti, daughter Shailaja, and son Nilagriva As always, I dedicate this book to my wife, Sheree Credits Executive Editor Carol Long Project Coordinator Bill Ramsey Acquisitions Editor Kit Kemper Graphics and Production Specialists Sean Decker Joyce Haughey Jennifer Mayberry Alicia B South Development Editor Sara Shlaer Technical Editors Thomas Blader John Kennedy Production Editor Angela Smith Copy Editor Nancy Rapoport Editorial Manager Mary Beth Wakefield Production Manager Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher Richard Swadley Vice President and Executive Publisher Joseph B Wikert Proofreading Christopher Jones Indexing Johnna vanHoose Dinse Anniversary Logo Design Richard Pacifico I consider anyone who has contributed to the open source community to be a contributor to the book you are holding The backbone of any Linux distribution is formed by the organizations that produce the distributions, the major projects included in Linux, and the thousands of people who give their time and code to support Linux So, thanks to you all! As for direct contributors to the book, the good people at Wiley put together a great team of people to help bring the Linux Bible 2007 Edition in on time Primary contributors include Wayne Tucker (who originally wrote and then updated the chapters on Debian, LAMP servers, and mail servers) and Eric Foster-Johnson (who worked through updates to six of the chapters) Bill von Hagen contributed updates to the SUSE, Yellow Dog, and Ubuntu chapters Jaldhar Vyas updated the Linspire chapter Thanks to the folks at Wiley for helping me press through the project Kit Kemper helped put together the team to handle this edition Sara Shlaer did her usual great job of keeping everyone on track to get the book done on time Nancy Rapoport provided an excellent copyediting pass on the book Thomas Blader and John Kennedy did a thorough job of technical editing Thanks to Margot Maley Hutchison and Maureen Maloney from Waterside Productions for contracting the book for me with Wiley And finally, special thanks to my wife, Sheree There’s no way I could the work I without the solid support I get on the home front I love you, and thanks for taking such good care of Seth, Caleb, and me v Acknowledgments v Introduction xxix Part I: Linux First Steps Chapter 1: Starting with Linux Chapter 2: Running Commands from the Shell 33 Chapter 3: Getting into the Desktop 77 Part II: Running the Show 123 Chapter 4: Learning Basic Administration 125 Chapter 5: Getting on the Internet 171 Chapter 6: Securing Linux 195 Part III: Choosing and Installing a Linux Distribution 241 Chapter 7: Installing Linux 243 Chapter 8: Running Fedora Core and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 273 Chapter 9: Running Debian GNU/Linux 295 Chapter 10: Running SUSE Linux 319 Chapter 11: Running KNOPPIX 337 Chapter 12: Running Yellow Dog Linux 361 Chapter 13: Running Gentoo Linux 381 Chapter 14: Running Slackware Linux 401 Chapter 15: Running Linspire and Freespire 417 Chapter 16: Running Mandriva 433 Chapter 17: Running Ubuntu Linux 447 Chapter 18: Running a Linux Firewall/Router 467 Chapter 19: Running Bootable Linux Distributions 493 vi Part IV: Running Applications 513 Chapter 20: Playing Music and Video 515 Chapter 21: Working with Words and Images 553 Chapter 22: E-Mailing and Web Browsing 591 Chapter 23: Gaming with Linux 625 Part V: Running Servers 653 Chapter 24: Running a Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP) Server 655 Chapter 25: Running a Mail Server 679 Chapter 26: Running a Print Server 695 Chapter 27: Running a File Server 719 Part VI: Programming in Linux 753 Chapter 28: Programming Environments and Interfaces 755 Chapter 29: Programming Tools and Utilities 785 Appendix A: Media 817 Appendix B: Entering the Linux Community 827 Index 833 GNU General Public License 849 vii Index files 87-89 hidden 88 new 90-91 searching 89-90 folders, new 90-91 icon view 89 image gallery 94 MIME types 87 network desktop 87 options 92-93 Web browser 91 Web browser interface 87 konsole 35 Korn shell 33 KPaint 589 KPresentor 558 KsCD player, 522 ksh shell 38 KSpread 558 Kubuntu 452 kudzu 276 L labeling CDs, cdlabelgen, 538-539 LAMP server Apache 656 Access Forbidden error 672 configuration errors 669-671 configuration files, editing 662-664 installation 658 Server Internal error 672 SSL/TLS configuration 675-676 Coppermine Photo Gallery 666-669 MySQL 656, 660-661 PHP 657-659 languages, configuration 271 LaTeX 561-562, 573 creating documents 574-575 formatting documents 574-575 LyX LaTeX editor 575-576 printing files 576 lawsuits 22-23 ldconfig command 799 ldd command 798 letters, Groff 567-570 libraries shared 795 static 795 LILO (Linux LOader) 266-270 Slackware 414 links Web browser 613, 624 Linmodems 172 Linspire installation 424-431 overview 417-418 security 431-432 support 423-424 versions 419 Linux bootable 243 features 16-17 history of Bell Labs 9-11 BSD 14 commercialized UNIX 11-13 GNU 13-14 Linus Torvalds and 14-15 Microsoft and 25-26 money making with 27 OSI (Open Source Initiative) 17-19 Linux Gamers’ FAQ 628 Linux Help Web site 246 Linux Toys, 534 Linuxgamepublishing.com 627 Linuxgames.com 627 live CDs 493-494 customizing 508-510 Damn Small Linux 504-505 demonstration 500 multimedia 501-503 Puppy Linux 505-506 selecting 494-499 special purpose 506-508 livelocks 762 loadable modules 152 listing 153-154 loading 154 removing 155 Local MDAs 680 local printers, Fedora 701-704 location block, configuration files 663 log files 139, 203-204 messages 208 redirecting logs 206-207 Syslogd 206 login administrative, sudo and 139-142 root 131-132 logs Exim 688-689 Samba 740 Loki Entertainment Software 627 Loki Software 648-651 lpc command 712 lpr command 582, 711-712 lprm command 712-713 LUGS (Linux User Groups) 19 lynx Web browser 613, 624 lyx command 575-576 LyX LaTeX editor 575-576 841 L M Index M Mac-on-Linux 377 Macintosh 249 mail e-mail reader 612 mail server ClamAV installation 685-687 Courer, SSL/TLS encryption 693-694 Courier installation 684-685 login failures 690-691 direct delivery, DNS configuration 682-683 Exim 681 installation 684-685 messages not delivered 690 rejected messages 689-690 SSL/TLS encryption 693-694 retrieval from mail host, configuration 683 SpamAssassin installation 685-687 MAIL variable 59 mailbombing 216 make utility 792-795 man pages Groff and 565-566 shell 36 Mandriva DrakX 436-437 features 433-435 firewalls 470-472 forums 440 hardware requirements 441-442 installation DrakX 442-445 limited edition 441-445 Mandrivaclub 440 MLCC (Mandriva Linux Control Center) 439 overview 436 RPMDrake 437-438 mascot 28-29 mcedit text editor 74 MDAs, local/remote 680 /media directory 65 memory swap space memos, Groff 567-570 messages log file 208 metacharacters 43, 68 file-matching 68 file-redirection 69 Metacity 100-103 Microsoft 25-26 MIDI audio players, 531 mkdir command 727 mkfs command 164-165 MLCC (Mandriva Linux Control Center) 439 /mnt directory 65 842 modems cable 173 USB 177 Linmodems 172 Winmodens 172 modules 142 iptables 478-479 loadable 152 listing 153-154 loading 154 removing 155 money making with Linux 27 Motif 779 mount command 158-164, 727 mounting disk images 163 file systems, options 729-730 removable media 162-163 mounting file systems 158-164 mounting NFS system automatically 728-729 manually 727-728 moving windows 95 Mozilla Mail 594, 611 Mozilla Navigator 613 MP3 players XE 151 MTA (mail transfer agent) 680 multitasking 41 multiusers 762 Multiverse, Ubuntu 462 music audio cards, 519-521 audio CD players, 521-530 MIDI audio players, 531 mutt e-mail reader 612 mv command 72 MySQL LAMP server 656 installation 660-661 Myth II: Soulblighter 650 N nano text editor 73 NAT masquerading 174 Nautilus 108-110 shared directories, Samba 748 ncurses 773 nedit text editor 74 networking configuration 270-271 Debian, connection configuration 307-310 networks KNOPPIX and 353 settings, Ubuntu 182-184 Neverwinter Nights 651 Index NFS (Network File System) acquiring 722 autofs facility 731-732 Debian and 722 directories, sharing 733 Fedora Core and 722 Gentoo and 722 mounting automatically 728-729 manually 727-728 setup 720 sharing systems 722-727 unmounting 732 nfs daemons 726 nm command 796-797 nmap 216 noauto file systems, mounting 729 nroff command 563 O Ogg Vorbis, 518 oggenc, 534 OLDPWD variable 59 open source video card drivers 629-630 OpenGL 779 OpenOffice.org 554 applications, opening 555 Calc 554 Draw 554 Impress 554 Writer 554 openSUSE installation 327-333 Opera 613 operators 68 OSI (Open Source Initiative) 17-19 OSTYPE variable 59 P package management 310 packages Debian configuration, debconf 317 dpkg 313-315 sets, Taskel 315 finding and installing 311 panels, GNOME 103 adding 106 applets 105 application launcher 106-107 Applications 104 drawer 107 Panel menu 104 properties 107-108 partitions 156, 253-261 Disk Druid 254-257 fdisk 258-260 mount points 157 reasons for 157, 255 passwd command 200 passwords 200 encrypted breaking 201 overview 199 security 196 selecting 200-201 shadow password file 201-203 PATH variable 59 PDF (Portable Document Format), Adobe Acrobat Reader and 585-586 penguin mascot 28-29 performance monitoring 170 permissions 70 execute 196 read 196 Samba 747 write 196 photos, downloading (Gtkam), 550-551 PHP, LAMP server 657-659 physical access, security and 196 pictures, Groff 571-573 pine e-mail reader 612 pinning windows 96 pipe character 42 piping commands 51-52 Plain Text format 560 PlanetPenguin Racer 642 PLIP (Parallel Line Internet Protocol) 177 pop-up blocking, Firefox 624 port forwarding, iptables and 479-480 portable music players 151 Portage, Gentoo Linux 386 PostScript files 561 pound sign prompt 34 PPID variable 59 PPP connections, Internet dial-up 187 checking 192 Debian 308 launching 190-191 setup 188 PPPoE connections, Debian 310 preemptive multitasking, development environment 761-762 printers CUPS, shared 713-714 local, Fedora 701-704 remote CUPS 705 Fedora 705 UNIX 706 SMB, shared 715-716 Windows (Samba) 706-707 843 P P Index printing CUPS See CUPS 696 to default printer 582 IPP (Internet Printing Protocol) 696 LaTeX files 576 lpc command 712 lpr command 711-712 lprm command 712-713 print queues and 583 printer status 584 removing jobs 583 from shell 582-583 /proc directory 65 processes 41 processor Procmail 216 programming environments introduction 756 programming interface 756 programming tools prompts bash, characters 55 dollar sign 34 pound sign 34 shell 34-35 setting 55 PROMPT_COMMAND variable 59 protocol analyzers 228 proxies, transparent, iptables and 479 ps command 41 Q Quake III Arena 645 R races 762 RCS (Revision Control System) 800-803 read permissions 70, 196 Real Networks, 518 RealPlayer, 547-548 recording audio, 535-536 recording CDs, cdrecord, 535-536 Red Hat config tools 128-130 desktop look and feel 277 gaming 628 system configuration 277 Remote MDAs 680 remote printers CUPS 705 Fedora 705 UNIX 706 removable drives auto run 150 auto-open 150 844 browsing 150 mounting 150 removable hardware 149-152 removable media, mounting 162-163 repositories, package repositories 310 rerunning commands 46-51 resizing windows 96 restarting KNOPPIX 357-358 Return to Castle Wolfenstein 646 Rhythmbox, 522-527 Rich Text Format documents 559 ripping audio, 536-537 ripping CDs, Grip, 536-537 rm command 72 /root directory 65 root from shell 132-133 login 131-132 password configuration 271 security 196 su command 132-133 rootkit 238-239 routing broadband connections 175 RPM (RPM Package Management) 276 RPMDrake 437-438 RPM Package Management, SUSE 325-326 S S-Lang 776-778 Samba 126 configuration, SWAT 735-744 directories, mounting 748 file server setup 733-734 installation 735 permissions 747 shared directories Nautilus file manager 748 status 747 smb.conf file 744-746 troubleshooting server 748-751 users, adding 746 SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy) 589-590 /sbin directory 65 scalability 24 scanimage 590 scanners, SANE and 589-590 scp command 209-210 passwords 211-212 Screen Capture program 588 screen savers GNOME 100 KDE 97 searches e-mail 593 files, Konqueror 89-90 vi text editor 76 Index security attacks DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service) 215, 219-223 DOS (Denial of Service) 215 intrusion 223 -226 intrustion 216 CDs, live 238 certificates and 227-237 checklist 196-198 Debian 198 development environment 760-761 distribution-specific resources 198 e-mail 593 encryption and 227-237 Firefox 620-621 firewalls 197 Freespire 431-432 Gentoo 198 Linspire 431-432 mailbombing 216 passwords 196, 200 overview 199 selecting 200-201 permissions execute 196 read 196 write 196 physical access 196 Procmail 216 resources 199 root 196 rootkit 238-239 Samba 738 sendmail 217 servers SeLinux and 226 TCP wrappers 212-215 Slackware 198 smurfing 218-219 software updates 197 spam relaying 218 SUSE 199 trusted software 196 Ubuntu 198 users 196 sed command 561 SELinux, server security and 226 sendmail 217 sequential commands 52 Server Internal error 672 servers CUPS configuration 708-709 starting 709-710 Internet connection 176 security SELinux and 226 TCP wrappers 212-215 Ubuntu as 451-452 services, access 212-215 Setup Agent, Fedora Core 293 sftp command 209-210 passwords 211-212 SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) 578 shadow password file 201-203 shared libraries 795 shared printers CUPS 713-714 SMB 715-716 shell 33 ash 37 bash 37 bash shell 33 C shell 33 command-line editing 46-48 commands arguments 42 environment variables 42 locating 43-46 metacharacters 43 options 42 configuration 54-58 csh 37 e-mail 592 environment variables 58-61 exiting 42 Help 44 Korn shell 33 ksh 38 man page 36 printing from 582-583 prompt 34-35 setting 55 selecting 36-38 starting 34-36 tcsh 37 tcsh shell 33 terminal window 35-36 zsh 38 shell history 46 Slackware acquiring 407 challenges 406 as development platform 406-407 gaming 628 hardware requirements 408 history of 403-404 installation 407-413 Internet sites 405 introduction 401-403 LILO Boot menu 414 845 S S Index Slackware (continued) new features 408 security 198 users 405 SMB printers, shared 715-716 smb.comf file 744-746 smbstatus command 747 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) 680 smurfing 218-219 SNAT (Source Network Address Translation) 477-478 sniffers 228 software Gentoo Linux 386 installation, KNOPPIX 353-354 trusted 196 Ubuntu 461-464 software projects 19-20 software repositories 247 sort command 51 source code control CVS (Concurrent Version System) 803-807 RCS (Revision Control System) 800-803 SoX, 531-534 spam relaying 218 SpamAssassin installation 685-687 ssh command 209-210 passwords 211-212 ssh tools (Secure Shell tools) 208 scp command 209-210 passwords 211-212 sftp command 209-210 passwords 211-212 ssh command 209-210 passwords 211-212 starting service 209 SSL (secure socket layer) 229-674 Apache configuration 675-676 certificates creating 229-231 CSR 233-234 self-signed 236 third-party signers 231-233 troubleshooting 237 Courier 693-694 keys 674-675 StarOffice 556 Base 557 Calc 556 Draw 557 Impress 556 Writer 556 static libraries 795 stdin, reading/writing to 771 stdout, reading/writing to 771 su command 132-133 sudo 139-142 846 superuser 125 support 26 SUSE introduction 319 openSUSE installation 327-333 overview 321 RPM Package Management 325-326 security 199 support 327 system requirements 328 updates, automated 326 YaST tools 130 configuration 322-325 installation 322-325 SUSE KDE desktop, removable media 151 swap space SWAT Samba configuration 735-744 base options 738 browse options 741 logging 740 performance 740 printing 741 security 738 shared directories 743-744 WINS options 742 symmetric crypography 228 /sys directory 65 Syslogd 206 system activity, checking 41-42 system administrator 125 system performance 170 system space, checking df 168 du 168-169 T tabbed browsing, Firefox 624 tables, Groff 571-573 Taskel, package sets (Debian) 315 TCP wrappers 212-215 tcsh shell 33, 37 terminal window 35-36 gnome-terminal 35 konsole 35 xterm 35 testparm command 747 TeX 561, 573 text editors 562 gedit 73 jed 74 joe 74 kate 74 kedit 74 mcedit 74 nano 73 Index nedit 74 vi 73 commands 76 commands with numbers 76 file navigation 76 opening files 74 text searches 76 text prompt, booting to 81 text-based e-mail readers 611 mail 612 mutt 612 pine 612 text-based Web browsers 624 text-mode user interfaces ncurses and 773 S-Lang and 776-778 The Linux Game Tome 627 Thunderbird 594 composing messages 605-606 filtering messages 606-607 incoming mail 604 sending messages 605-606 server, connecting to 604 spam 606-607 TLS (Transport Layer Security) 673-674 Apache configuration 675-676 Courier 693-694 /tmp directory 65 toggling windows 95 token ring networks 177 Totem 100 Totem player 151 TransGaming Technologies 627, 646-648 transparent proxies, iptables and 479 troff command 563 trusted software 196 tvtime, 539-541 TuxRacer 642 U Ubuntu CDs 448 Debian and 453 as desktop 449-450 Edubuntu 452 gaming 628 GNOME desktop 459-460 installation 454-458 installer 449 Kubuntu 452 Multiverse 462 network settings 182-184 releases 448 resources 464-465 security 198 as server 451-452 software, adding 461-464 Universe 462 Xubuntu 452 umount command 164, 732 uncluttering windows 95 Universe, Ubuntu 462 UNIX commercialized 11-13 remote printers 706 updates SUSE, automatic 326 Yellow Dog Linux 376-377 upgrades 251 Fedora Core 284-285 USB cable modem 177 user accounts adding, useradd 143-146 defaults, useradd 146-148 user groups 19 useradd 143-148 users multiusers 762 Samba, adding 746 security 196 /usr directory 65 utilities administrative dpkg 313-315 make 792-795 V /var directory 65 variables, environment 54, 799 vi text editor 73 commands 76 numbers and 76 file navigation 76 opening files 74 text searches 76 video Ekiga, 541-542 Helix Player, 547-548 RealPlayer, 547-548 WMV, 519 xine, 544-547 video cards gaming binary-only drivers 628-629 open source drivers 629-630 virtual desktop 96 virtual terminals 36 switching between 36 virtualization, Xen Virtualization 281 viruses 21-22 847 V W Index W w3m Web browser 613, 624 Web browsers Firefox 613 plug-ins 618-620 preferences 615, 618 themes 620 Konqueror 87 91, 613 links 613, 624 lynx 613, 624 Mozilla Navigator 613 Opera 613 text-based 624 w3m 613, 624 web-based administration 126-127 Web-based e-mail, configuration 693 Webcams, 541 Webmin administration tool 127 wget command 248 white papers, Groff 567-570 Wikipedia, gaming and 627 window manager, selecting 120, 122 windows cascading 95 converting from 558-560 file systems 155 KNOPPIX 341 moving 95 pinning down 96 resizing 96 toggling 95 uncluttering 95 Windows (Samba), printers 706-707 Windows-based file system 65 Winmodems 172 wireless connections, Debian 307 wireless networks, Internet connection 193-194 WMA (Windows Media Audio), 518 WMV (Windows Media Video), 519 Word 6.0/95 documents 560 848 word processors AbiWord 557-558 KWord 558 write permissions 70, 196 Writer 554, 556 X X Multimedia System, 522 X Multimedia System), 527-530 X Window System 78 configuration 116-120 drivers 118 Xen Virtualization 281 XForms 779 xine, 544-547 Xlib 779 XML (eXtensible Markup Language) 578 xsane 590 Xt Intrinsics 780 xterm terminal emulator 35 Xubuntu 452 Y YaST, SUSE 322, 325 Yellow Dog Linux installation 365-366, 370-375 hardware 366-367 Mac OS and 369 Mac OS X and 368 planning 367-370 overview 362-365 support 378 updating 376-377 yum 376-377 yum (Yellow Dog Updated, Modified) 376-377 Z zsh shell 38 GNU General Public License Version 2, June 1991 Copyright © 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software—to make sure the software is free for all its users 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The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it For an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works These actions are prohibited by law if you not accept this License Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients’ exercise of the rights granted herein You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they not excuse you from the conditions of this License If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns Each version is given a distinguishing version number If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and “any later version”, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation 10 If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally NO WARRANTY 11 BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION 12 IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS Negus knows Linux Now you can, too đ 978-0470-08278-2 Paper 978-0-7645-7995-0 • Paper Available at www.wiley.com/go/negus Wiley and the Wiley logo are trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc and/or its affiilates ExtremeTech is a registered trademark of Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings, Inc Used under license Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners .. .Linux Bible ® 2007 Edition Boot Up Ubuntu®, Fedora™, KNOPPIX, Debian®, SUSE™, and 11 Other Distributions Christopher Negus Linux Bible ® 2007 Edition Boot Up Ubuntu®, Fedora™, KNOPPIX,. .. Debian®, SUSE™, and 11 Other Distributions Christopher Negus Linux Bible 2007 Edition: Boot Up Ubuntu®, Fedora™, KNOPPIX, Debian®, SUSE™, and 11 Other Distributions Published by Wiley Publishing,... Chris, 195 7Linux bible : boot up to Ubuntu, Fedora, KNOPPIX, Debian, SUSE, and 11 other distributions / Christopher Negus 2007 ed p cm Includes index ISBN 978-0-470-08279-9 (paper/dvd) Linux Operating
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