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Ubuntu Linux Secrets ® ® Ubuntu Linux Secrets ® Richard Blum ® Ubuntu® Linux® Secrets Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2009 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-39508-0 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Blum, Richard, 1962– Ubuntu Linux secrets / Richard Blum p cm Includes index ISBN 978-0-470-39508-0 (paper/website) Ubuntu (Electronic resource) Linux Operating systems (Computers) I Title QA76.76.O63B5984 2009 005.4'32—dc22 2009005635 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600 Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 7486008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation, warranties of fitness for a particular purpose No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom The fact that an organization or web site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or web site may provide or recommendations it may make Further, readers should be aware that Internet web sites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (877) 762-2974 or outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002 Trademarks: Wiley and the Wiley logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission Ubuntu is a registered trademark of Canonical Limited Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners Wiley Publishing, Inc is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books To my family “By wisdom a house is built, and through ­understanding it is established; through knowledge its rooms are filled with rare and beautiful treasures.” —Proverbs 24:3–4 (NIV) About the Author Richard Blum has worked in the IT industry for over 20 years as both a systems and network administrator During that time he has administered UNIX, Linux, Novell, and Microsoft servers, as well as helped manage desktop workstations on a 3,500-user network He has used Linux since the days of loading the system from floppy disks and has utilized Ubuntu workstations and servers in his environment Rich has a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering and a master of science degree in management, specializing in management information systems, from Purdue University He is the author of several Linux books, including Linux Command Line and Shell Script Bible, Professional Assembly Language Programming, Network Performance Open Source Toolkit, sendmail for Linux, Running qmail, Postfix, and Open Source E‑mail Security He’s also a coauthor of Professional Linux Programming, and Linux for Dummies, 8th Edition When he’s not being a computer nerd, Rich plays bass guitar for his church worship band and enjoys spending time with his wife, Barbara, and their two daughters, Katie Jane and Jessica Credits Acquisitions Editor Jenny Watson Senior Development Editor Tom Dinse Technical Editor Warren Wyrostek Production Editor Rebecca Coleman Copy Editor Publication Services, Inc Editorial Manager Mary Beth Wakefield Production Manager Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher Richard Swadley Vice President and Executive Publisher Barry Pruett Associate Publisher Jim Minatel Project Coordinator, Cover Lynsey Stanford Compositor Maureen Forys, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Proofreader Word One Indexer Robert Swanson Cover Designer Ryan Sneed Acknowledgments First, all glory and praise go to God, who through His Son makes all things possible and gives us the gift of eternal life Many thanks go to the great team of people at Wiley Publishing for their outstanding work on this project Thanks to Jenny Watson, the acquisitions editor, for offering me the opportunity to work on this book Also, thanks to Tom Dinse, the development editor, for keeping things on track and making this book more presentable The technical editor, Warren Wyrostek, did an amazing job of double-checking all the work in this book, plus making suggestions to improve the content Thanks, Warren, for your hard work and diligence I would also like to thank Carole McClendon at Waterside Productions, Inc for arranging this opportunity for me and for helping out in my writing career Finally, I would like to thank my parents, Mike and Joyce Blum, for their dedication and support while raising me, and my wife, Barbara and daughters, Katie Jane and Jessica, for their love, patience, and understanding, especially while I was writing this book 794 P Pilot Applet, 93 Pinch and Whirl effect, 267 Ping program, 351–352 pipes, 558, 618–620 Places entry, 120 Places feature, 118 Places menu, 82–84 plug-ins See also extensions; specific plug-ins Firefox and, 210–211, 303–306 gedit and, 140–141 Totem, 299–300 PNG, 383 PNM, 260, 383 podcasts, 288 Pointer Capture, 93 pointer (PTR) records, 474, 476, 492 policies, 361 Policies group, 373 POP Receiving Options dialog box, 234 POP/POP3 (post office protocol), 229, 231, 232, 233, 234 port scan, 355 port setting, 582 portable music players See music players ports See TCP post office protocol See POP/POP3 postalias, 561 postcat, 561 postconf, 561 postdrop, 558 Postfix, 73, 74, 551, 557–574 block diagram, 557 configuration, 566–574 files, 561–562 modifying, 573–574 window, 74 core programs, 558–559 installing, 563–566 Internet site option, 563–564 Internet with SmartHost option, 564–565 local-only option, 566 lookup tables, 562–563 message queues, 559–560 reliability of, 570 satellite system option, 565–566 setup, 557–559 utility programs, 560–561 wizard windows, 567–572 postfix, 561 postgres administrative account, 596 postgres program, 591 PostgreSQL configuration files, 592 database cluster folders, 592 databases and, 599–603 programs (list), 594 psql commands, 594–599 server, 72, 75, 590–604 configuring, 592–593 files for, 591 interacting with, 593–594 managing, 591–592 users in, 602 postgresql.conf file, 592 postkick, 561 postlock, 561 postlog, 561 postmap, 561 postmaster program, 591 PostScript, 383, 540 PostScript printer description (PPD) files, 371, 372, 373, 374 postsuper, 561 Power Manager applet, 86 PowerPoint documents, 113 See also Impress package PPD (PostScript printer description) files, 371, 372, 373, 374 PPP, GNOME, 343–345 ppt format, 180 Preferences (menu option), 84 Preferences dialog box gedit, 138–141 keyboard, 104 mouse, 104–105 Nautilus, 121–125 Behavior tab, 122 Display tab, 122–123 List Columns tab, 123–124 Media tab, 124–125 Preview tab, 124 Views tab, 121–122 Pidgin, 215–216 Tomboy, 157–158 Preferences window Firefox, 203–212 Kino, 310–311 Remote Desktop, 217–218 RhythmBox, 285–286 Synaptic Package Manager, 329 Totem, 301–302 Preferred Applications dialog box, 102 presentations See Impress package presentation formats, 180, 189 Presentation wizard, 174–176 Preview pane, 242 Preview tab, 124 Preview window (XSane), 381–382 primary domain controller (PDC), 523 print server, 72, 75 See also CUPS Printer Configuration tool, 368–369 Access Control group, 373–374 adding new printer with, 370–372 CUPS settings and, 369 Job Options tab, 375–376 modifying printer properties in, 372– 376 Policies group, 373 Printer Options group, 374 Settings group, 372–373 Printer Options group, 374 printers, 368–376 See also CUPS adding, 370–372 connection types, 371 Samba and, 528–529 Ubuntu installation and, 50 printing direct, 539 filtered, 539–540 in Linux, 539–540 printing flowchart, on Linux, 540 Printing Support (add-in), 159 Privacy section (Firefox preferences), 208– 209 private (visibility keyword), 761 private key, 246 P 795 proc, 11 /proc, 112 process, process IDs See PIDs Processes tab, 427–429 procmail, 553, 572, 574–578 action line special characters, 576 recipe flags, 574–575 special conditions, 575–576 using, 576–578 procmailrc file, 574 Product class, 761, 762, 763, 764, 765, 766, 767, 768 profile file, 449 program code See code programming languages, 605 See also object-oriented programming; specific programming languages C, 661–685 Java, 687–712 Perl, 638–652, 659 PHP, 741–769 Python, 652–659 Ruby, 713–739 shell scripts, 607–636 properties (class), 730, 760 Properties dialog box Nautilus, 128–133 Vista, 28 Properties option, 97 Proprietary Devices Manager applet, 86 proprietary drivers, 318 protected (visibility keyword), 761 protocols See also DHCP; FTP; POP/POP3; SSH protocol; TCP DNS, 478 Finger, 357 gFTP, 222–224 ICA, 218 ICMP, 351, 352, 354, 364 IPP, 371 LDAP, 245, 512, 746 RDP, 218 SMB, 11, 522 UDP, 361, 478, 481, 483 VNC, 218 796 P–R WEP, 343 Whois, 357–358 WINS, 522, 524, 525, 526 WPA, 343 WPA2, 343 XDMCP, 218 proxy server, 67, 716 ps command, PS1, 448 PS2, 448 psql, 594–599 commands, 594–599 list of, 597–599 parameters, 594–596 using, 597–599 PTR (pointer) records, 474, 476, 492 public (visibility keyword), 761 Public FTP, 83 public key, 246 public schema, 600 PulseAudio Sound Server, 281 Puppy Linux, 20, 21 purge (apt-get command), 334 put command, 224, 535 puts command, 720 pwd command, 535 Python, 652–659 command-line arguments, 657–658 modules, 658–659 OOP and, 657 variables, 654–656 Python Console plug-in, 141, 300 Python-Fu, 267 Q q command, 535 qmail, 550–551 qmgr, 559 queries, 184 Question dialog box, 216 Quick Zoom tool, 272 quick-launch icon area (GNOME), 85 QuickTime, 296, 303 Quit (applet), 93 quit command, 535 Quit menu, 84–85 R r char command, 145 R text command, 145 radio sites, Internet, 288 RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks), 54 formats, 54 software v hardware, 54 Rails See Ruby on Rails rails, 715, 716, 717, 733 rake, 715, 716, 735 RAS, 260 rd command, 535 RDP (remote desktop protocol), 218 Real Phone-to-Softphone, 199 RealNetworks, 296 RealOne video player, 296 Receiving Email dialog box, 231–233 Recent Documents (menu option), 83 recipe flags, procmail, 574–575 Recorder, Sound, 291–292 records See database records recursive initialism, 742 Red Hat, 19 redundant array of inexpensive disks See RAID reget command, 535 regular expressions, 648–650 Rehabilitation Act, section 508 of, 101 reiserFS, 11, 62 relative filepaths, 452 relative pathnames, 758 Relay Host wizard window, 568–569 release upgrade, 319 releases (Ubuntu), 23, 75, 76, 319 Remote Control, Infrared, 300 remote desktop protocol (RDP), 218 Remote Desktop Viewer, 216–218 Preferences window, 217–218 Question dialog box, 216 remote share See Windows share remove (apt-get command), 334 Remove from Panel option, 89 Remove/Add Applications tool, 322–327 Remove/Add submenu, 82 Remove/Install Extensions dialog box, 212 removing packages, 333 removing/adding applications, 322–327 rename command, 535 Rename option, 97 reports, 184 repositories See software repositories representational state (REST), 733 reput command, 535 require() statement, 759 resource records (RRs), 473 See also database records Resources tab, 429–430 REST (representational state), 733 Restart (menu option), 85 Restore from Backup dialog box, 230 Restore Icon’s Original Size option, 97 restricted hardware drivers, 403, 404 reverse-engineered Microsoft audio codecs, 279 video codecs, 296 Revert button, 92 review options, Ubuntu installation process and, 66–67 Rhythmbox, 284–289, 385–386 Rich Text (.rtf) format, 168 Right Margin option, 138 ripping, 285, 289 See also burning RM, 296 rm command, 462–464, 465, 535 rmdir command, 465, 535 /root (root home directory), 112 / (virtual directory root), 62, 110, 112 root drive, 111 root node, 470 root password, MySQL and, 507–508 root user window (MySQL), 73 RRs (resource records), 473 See also database records rtf (Rich Text) format, 168 Ruby, 713–739 classes in, 730–731 code, 719–722 comparator symbols, 726 embedded Ruby, 714–715, 716, 721–722 expressions, 722–723 installing, 715–719 R–S 797 interactive, 715, 716, 719–720 OOP and, 714, 730–732 Perl v., 714, 726 PHP and, 745 programs, 715 scripting with, 720–721 structured commands and, 725–730 Web and, 714–715 ruby, 715, 716, 719, 720–721 Ruby on Rails, 715, 732–739, 742 library file, MySQL, 734 project creation, 733–736 testing, 736–739 REST and, 733 ruby-full, 717 ruby-x.y, 717 ruler feature Draw, 189 Writer, 166–167 Run Application (applet), 93 run levels, Run or View dialog box, 132 runlevels, 435 S Safari, 201, 224 See also Firefox Samba, 72, 75, 522–538 authentication and, 527–528 client, 533–536 configuration files, 524–531 global section, 525–529 managing, 533 passwords, 532 printers and, 528–529 programs, 523–524 server, 531–533 as Windows network server, 537–538 Windows printer via, 371 Samba web administration tool (SWAT), 533 SATA (serial advanced technology attachment) controller, 52 satellite system option, Postfix, 565–566 /sbin, 112 scaffolding, 715, 734 798 S scalar variables, 641–642, 654, 751–752 scanners, 376–383 detecting, 376–378 document scanning with, 379–380 types of, 378 scheduler, 540 scheduling appointments, 253 schemas, 600 scratch area, 152 screen magnifiers GNOME, 102 Orca, 102–103 Screen Resolution utility, 390, 394–396 Screens and Graphics utility, 401, 402, 403 screenshots, GIMP, 264 Script-Fu, 267, 268 scripting languages client-side, 494, 495, 496 interpreted, 638, 653 server-side, 496–498 See also PHP Java servlets as, 72, 73, 494, 497–498 JSP as, 73, 494, 497, 688 web, 494–498 scripts, GIMP, 267–268 scrub bar, 309 SCSI (small computer system interface) controller, 49, 54 sda (StarDraw 3.0–5.0 ) format, 180, 189 sdc (StarCalc) format, 174 sdd format StarDraw 3.0, 189 StarImpress 4.0/5.0, 180 SDSL (symmetric digital subscriber line), 340 sdw (StarWriter) format, 168 search feature Nautilus, 116 vim editor, 146 Search for Files applet, 93 menu option, 83 Search tool (Evolution), 240 search utility (Deskbar applet), 92, 94–95 search window (Tomboy Notes), 154 second-level Partition Disks window, 69–70 section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, 101 secure FTP (SFTP), 225 secure shell protocol See SSH protocol secure sockets layer See SSL Security section (Firefox preferences), 209–210 SELECT statement, 600, 601, 603, 760 semicolons, 751 Send Mail dialog box, 236–237 Send to (option), 97 sendmail, 236, 549–550, 559 Separator (applet), 93 Serial Port #1, 371 server message block (SMB) protocol, 11, 522 See also Samba server side includes, 756–759 servers See also workstations; specific servers Citrix, 218 corporate email, 232 CUPS, 75, 539–546 database, 579–604 DNS, 72, 469–492 email, 72, 73–74, 547–578 Hula, 231 IMAP, 229, 231, 232, 234–235 LAMP, 72–73 LDAP, 245, 512, 746 local delivery, 231 maildir-format mail directories, 232 mh-format mail directories, 232 Microsoft Exchange, 231 MySQL, 72, 73, 580–590, 599–604 Novell Groupwise, 231 OpenSSH, 72, 74–75 POP, 229, 231, 232, 233, 234 Postfix See Postfix PostgreSQL, 72, 75, 590–604 print, 72, 75 Samba, 72, 75, 522–538 SIP, 200 software repositories, 316–319 Tomcat, 72, 73, 499, 515, 691 Ubuntu distribution for, 22, 23, 27 Ubuntu LiveCD installation, 70–75 UNIX mbox spool directory, 232 UNIX mbox spool file, 232 Usenet news, 231 virtual, 51 web, 493–520 server-side scripting language, 496–498 See also PHP Java servlets as, 72, 73, 494, 497–498 JSP as, 73, 494, 497, 688 Service Properties dialog box, 435–436 services list of, 434 properties, 435 starting/stopping, 433–436 Services Settings dialog box, 433 servlet container, 514 servlets, Java, 72, 73, 494, 497–498 session tabs (GNOME Terminal), 442 Sessions Preferences dialog box, 436 Settings group, 372–373 SFTP (secure FTP), 225 SHA1 hash algorithm, 32, 33, 45 shadow passwords, 418 share See Windows share share ratio, 32 shared memory pages, 6, shares definition section, 529–530 Sharing Options, 97 shell scripts, 607–636 backtick and, 615–616 creating, 608–610 displaying output and, 610–612 exiting, 626–629 input redirection, 617–618 mathematical operations in, 620–626 multiple commands and, 608 output redirection and, 616–617 pipes and, 618–620 structured commands and, 629–636 test command, 631–632 file comparisons and, 634–636 numeric comparisons and, 632– 633 string comparisons and, 633–634 variables and, 612–614 shells, 12–13 Shockwave Flash, 304, 305 short open tags, 748 S 799 shortcut keys accessibility, 164 External Tools plug-in and, 140 GNOME, 100 Writer, 167 shortcut menus formatting Calc, 172 Writer, 167 Math, 192, 193 shortcuts (KDE), 16 See also application launchers Show Desktop, 93 Show Hidden Files feature, 88, 121 Show Icons in Menus, 100 showconnect command, 535 showq, 559 Shut Down (menu option), 84, 85 sidebar Evolution, 242 F-Spot, 272 Totem, 301 Sign (option), 97 SimplyMEPIS, 20, 21 Simulated Secondary Click, 104, 105 single dot, 452 single quote, 615 See also backticks Single User mode, SIP servers, 200 64-bit computing platforms, 27, 28, 48, 682 skip-innodb setting, 582 Slackware, 19 slashes See backward slash; forward slash slave/master configuration, 53 Slax, 21 Slide Master, 179 Slide Sorter view, 179 Slides view, 176 slk (SYLK) format, 174 Slow Keys feature, 104 small computer system interface controller See SCSI controller SmartHost option, 564–565 smb, 11 SMB (server message block) protocol, 11, 522 See also Samba 800 S smbcacls, 524 smbclient, 524, 533–534 commands, 535 Windows share and, 534 smb.conf file editing, 531–532 parts of, 525–531 smbcontrol, 524 smbcquotas, 524 smbget, 524 smbmount, 524 smbpasswd, 524 smbspool, 524 smbstatus, 524 smbtar, 524 smbtree, 524 smbumount, 524 Smiley Themes, 216 SMTP, 229, 236, 237 smtp (program), 559 smtpd, 559 Snippets plug-in, 141 SOA (start of authority) records, 473, 474– 475 socket setting, 582 Softphone-to-Real Phone, 200 Softphone-to-Softphone, 200 software applications See applications software installs/updates See updates/ installs software management, 316–319 software packages, 316 See also applications; specific packages applications and, 316 installing, 327–333 repositories v., 316, 317 Synaptic Package Manager and, 237, 250, 327–333 types, 318 Ubuntu and, 316 software program management (Linux kernel), 8–9 software RAID, 54 software repositories, 316–319 configuring, 317–319 DVDs, 317 LiveCDs/alternate CDs v., 316, 317 types, 318 Software Sources window, 317 Solaris mode, 428 Sort plug-in, 141 Sound applet, 282–283, 294 sound cards See also audio files drivers and, 49–50, 279, 280 issues, 279 sound generation, in Ubuntu, 281 sound juicer, 15 Sound Preferences dialog box, 280 utility, 280–282 Devices tab, 281 Sound tab, 281–282 Sound Recorder package, 291–292 Sounds tab, 281–282 Sound/Video submenu, 82 source (apt-get command), 334 source code (OSS), 318 SourceForge web site, 36 spam See also email filtering, 249–250 HTML and, 245 SpamAssassin, 250 Spatial mode (Nautilus), 119–120, 134 See also Browser mode specialized distributions (Linux), 20–21 Speex audio, 285 Spell Checker plug-in, 141 spooling, 540 spreadsheet formats, 173–174 spreadsheets, 113, 168 See also Calc SQLite3 database system, 734 See also MySQL; PostgreSQL /srv, 112 ssh program, 74 SSH (secure shell) protocol, 72, 74, 83 See also OpenSSH server gFTP program and, 222 IMAP servers and, 235 Sync Service, 159 sshd program, 74 SSL (secure sockets layer), 233, 237, 502 SSL module, Apache, 505 ssl-cert, 415 standard toolbar Base, 183–184 Calc, 170–171 Draw, 187–189 Impress, 177–178 Math, 191–192 Writer, 164–166 StarCalc 3.0–5.0 (.sdc) format, 174 StarDraw 3.0 (.sdd) format, 189 StarDraw 3.0–5.0 (.sda) format, 180, 189 StarImpress 4.0 and 5.0 (.sdd) format, 180 StarOffice, 168, 174, 194 StarOffice format (.sxm), 194 Start Here note, 154 start of authority (SOA) records, 473, 474– 475 start.conf file, 592 Startup Programs list, 437 StarWriter (.sdw) format, 168 status bar Browser mode, 119 F-Spot, 272 Image Viewer, 260 Spatial mode, 119, 120 Sticky Keys, 104 Sticky Notes, 93 Sticky Notes Importer (add-in), 159 storage engines, 506 storyboard (Kino), 309 Stretch Icon, 97 string comparisons, test command and, 633–634 string values, 752 structured commands indentation in, 656–657 PHP and, 754–756 shell scripts and, 629–636 subdomains (zones), 471 submenus, 82 See also menu area; specific submenus subscribing, 288 substitute command (vim editor), 147 sudo command, 334 SUM function, 172 Sun VirtualBox, 51 S 801 Sun’s StarOffice, 168, 174, 194 Suspend mode, 85 SVG, 260 swap area, 5, 6, 62 swapping out, SWAT (Samba web administration tool), 533 Switch User (menu option), 85 Switcher, 242 sxd (OpenOffice.org 1.0 Drawing) format, 180, 189 sxm (StarOffice format), 194 sxw (OpenOffice.org 1.0) format, 167 SYLK (.slk) format, 174 symbols Character Map application and, 141– 142 math, 190, 191, 192, 193 symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL), 340 Synaptic Package Manager, 237, 250, 327– 333 category list, 330–331 installing packages with, 331–333 layout, 328–331 menu bar, 328–330 package list, 331 removing packages with, 333 toolbar, 330 synchronization feature (Tomboy notes), 157, 158 synchronous updates, 570–571 /sys, 112 syslogd, 431, 432 system administration, 425–440 System Mail Name wizard window, 567– 568 System Mail Redirection wizard window, 569 System menu, 84–85 System Monitor, 6, applet, 93 File Systems tab, 430–431 Processes tab, 427–429 Resources tab, 429–430 System tab, 426 System Properties dialog box, 27, 28 802 S–T System tab, 426 System V, 539 sysv, 11 T tabs See specific tabs Tab Stops option, 139 tabbed browsing, 203, 205 tabbed windows, Firestarter, 361–362 tables See also databases building, 602–603 working with, 184–186 Table Design View dialog box, 184 Table Wizard (Base), 184 tablespace, 581 Tabs section (Firefox preferences), 205 Tag List plug-in, 141 tags, 747–748 taskbar area (GNOME), 87 tasks (Evolution), 253–254 Tasks pane, 184 Tasks view, 176 tasksel utility, 514, 743–745 TCP (transmission control protocol) ports, 214 # 25, 353 # 53, 478 # 80, 353 alternative, 229, 233, 568 Apache and, 499 CUPS and, 542 DNS protocol and, 478, 481 Firestarter and, 361 MySQL and, 582, 587 port=value and, 483 Tomcat and, 499, 515 virtual hosts and, 502 WEBrick server and, 736 properties, 216 states, 353 TCP/IP, 350 tcsh, 13 templates creating, 96 note, 155, 156 Templates folder, 96, 126 Terminal Editing Profile dialog box, 444 Terminal program (GNOME), 442–446 See also command line command-line parameters, 446–447 menu bar, 443–446 session tabs, 442–443 Terminal Server Client, 218–220 Terminal Server Client Applet, 93 test command, 631–632 file comparisons and, 634–636 numeric comparisons and, 632–633 string comparisons and, 633–634 testparm, 524 Text CSV (.csv) format, 174 Text Encryption plug-in, 141 Text format (.txt), 168 text handling, applications for, 135–160 See also Character Map application; emacs editor; gedit text editor; Notes application; vim editor text location bar, 117 text messaging (Ekiga), 200 Text Wrapping option, 138 TGA, 260 themes (GNOME), 98 32-bit computing platforms, 27, 28, 48 Thread view, 239 3-D accelerator video cards, 50, 388, 403– 404 thumb drives See USB memory sticks Thumbnail (plug-in), 300 TIFF, 260, 383 tim toady, 638 Time applet, 86 time zone configuration window, 58, 59 Time Zone dialog box, 237 times loops, 728–729 time-to-live (TTL) value, 472 TLS, 233, 237 /tmp, 63, 112 Toggle button, 117 Tomboy add-ins, 159 Tomboy Notes application See Notes application Tomcat, 72, 73, 514–519, 691 configuration, 515 managing, 518–519 platform, 498–499 TCP ports and, 499, 515 testing, 515–517 toolbar Base, 183–184 bookmark (Firefox), 202–203 Calc, 170–171 Draw, 187–189 Evolution, 239–240 Filestarter, 363–364 F-Spot, 271–272 Image Viewer, 258 Impress, 177–178 Kino, 309 line and filling Draw, 189 Impress, 178 Math, 191–192 Nautilus Browser mode, 115–116 navigation (Firefox), 202 Synaptic Package Manager, 330 Totem, 301–302 Writer, 164–166 Toolbar Button Labels, 100 top menu bar (Nautilus Browser mode), 114–115 top panel (GNOME), 81–87, 106 applet area, 86–87 customizing, 89–97 menu area, 81–85 adding to, 89–94 quick-launch icon area, 85 torrent files, 30, 222 See also BitTorrent Torrent client package, 30, 31 Torvalds, Linus, 4, 5, 11, 12 totem command, 297 Totem movie player, 15, 22, 293, 294, 297– 302 audio files and, 293 DVDs and, 302 menu bar, 298–300 plug-ins, 299–300 Preferences window, 301–302 sidebar, 301 toolbar, 301–302 T–U 803 Totem Web Browser plug-in, 303 touch command, 458–459 touchpad, 49 traceroute, 354 Transmission (Open Source software package), 30, 220–222 transmission control protocol See TCP transport controls, 309 Trash applet, 93 Trash icon (GNOME), 88, 89 treemap, 118, 438, 439, 472 Tridgell, Andrew, 522 trivial-rewrite, 559 TTL (time-to-live) value, 472 tuples variables, 655–656 TXT, 383 txt (Text format), 168 typing tools, 103 U Ubuntu, 20, 21, 22–24 boot menu keys, 38–39 command line See command line cousins, 24 Disk Partition window, 60 distributions See distributions as DNS client, 478–486 as DNS server, 486–492 dual-boot scenario, 52–57 filesystems See filesystems Firefox and See Firefox installation process See installation process Internet software suite See Internet software suite Java and, 688, 690–691 LiveCDs See LiveCDs Manual Partition utility, 61 named files, 486–487 partition types See partitions programming in See programming languages release schedule, 23 releases, 23, 75, 76, 319 runlevels, 435 running, in Windows, 42–45 804 U–V servers See servers software packages and, 316 sound generation in, 281 updates See updates/installs upgrading, 75–76, 319 versions, 22–23, 27, 319, 769 web site, 26 workstations See workstations Wubi project and See Wubi project ubuntu (home folder), 40 UDP (user datagram protocol), 361, 478, 481, 483 See also TCP ufs, 11 umsdos, 11 unallocated, 56 uniform resource identifier See URI UNIX mbox spool directory, 232 UNIX mbox spool file, 232 UNIX operating system See also CUPS; GNU GNU utilities See coreutils Linux filesystems and, 11, 111 Linux kernel and, updates/installs (Ubuntu), 315–336 See also installation process update (apt-get command), 334 Update Download Progress dialog box, 321 Update Manager applet, 76, 82, 86, 319– 322, 336 Updates tab, 318, 319 upgrade (apt-get command), 334 upgrading Ubuntu, 75–76, 319 URI (uniform resource identifier), 84, 137, 262, 371, 372 us, 471 USB memory sticks, 22 F-Spot and, 269 LiveCD and, 41 Usenet news, 231 user accounts See also groups adding, 408–411 deleting, 413–414 /etc/passwd file, 418–419 /etc/shadow file, 419 modifying, 412–413 in MySQL, 600–602 in PostgreSQL, 602 User Administration tool, 408–413 user commands, 420–421 user datagram protocol (UDP), 361, 478, 481, 483 user files, 418–419 User Name plug-in, 141 user setting, 582 User Switcher applet, 86, 93 user variables, 613–614 user.log, 431 /usr, 63, 112 /usr/local, 63 V V4L2 (Video4Linux), 199 van den Berg, Stephen, 553 van Rossum, Guido, 652 /var, 63, 112 variables array, 642, 753 dictionary, 656 environment, 448, 612–613 global, 683 hash, 642–643, 724–725, 753 list, 655 local, 683 Perl and, 641–644 PHP, 751–754 Python, 654–656 scalar, 641–642, 654, 751–752 shell scripts and, 612–614 tuples, 655–656 user, 612–614 versions (Ubuntu), 22–23, 27, 319, 769 vfat, 11 VFS (virtual file system), 11 video cards monitors and, 388, 401–403 3-D, 50, 388, 403–404 Ubuntu installation and, 14, 50 X Windows and, 388–389 video clips, web, 302–307 video codecs, 296, 297, 298 video display, 387–405 Compiz Fusion features and, 396–401 configuration, 394–403 X Windows and, 388–394 video files editing, 307–311 Firefox and, 302–307 formats, 296 support, 295–312 Totem movie player and, 15, 22, 293, 294, 297–302 Video4Linux (V4L2), 199 video-editing (Kino), 308–311 Videos (menu option), 83 Video/Sound submenu, 82 View or Run dialog box, 132 View pane Browser mode, 114, 117 Spatial mode, 119, 120 View tab (gedit), 138–139 View-as drop-down list, 117 Viewer window (XSane), 382–383 viewing area, F-Spot, 272, 273 Views tab (Nautilus), 121–122 vim editor, 143–147 virtual directory, 110, 111 virtual file system See VFS virtual hosts, 502–503 virtual memory, 5, virtual network computing (VNC) protocol, 218 virtual private network (VPN), 349 virtual server systems, 51 VirtualBox, 51 visibility keywords, 761 Vista See Windows Vista Visual Effects tab, 101 visual tools, 102–103 VMWare, 51 VNC (virtual network computing) protocol, 218 VOB, 296 Volume Control applet, 93 VPN (virtual private network), 349 W Wall, Larry, 638 V–W 805 wallpaper, 99 WAMP, 498 See also LAMP WAR (web archive) file, 518 Warty Warthog, 23 wav (Waveform audio format), 278, 285 Waveform audio format (.wav), 278, 285 WBMP, 260 wdel command, 535 Weather Report applet, 93 Weave Script-Fu effect, 268 web archive (WAR) file, 518 web browsers See Apple Safari; Firefox; Internet Explorer web pages, dynamic, 494, 714 web scripting languages, 494–498 web servers, 493–520 See also Apache web server; LAMP; Tomcat web video clips, 302–307 WebDAV folder, 158 HTTP and, 84 Sync Service, 159 WEBrick, 715, 716, 736 WEP (wired equivalent privacy protocol), 343 while loops, 645, 729–730, 756 Whirl and Pinch effect, 267 Whois protocol, 357–358 Wi-Fi protected access protocol (WPA), 343 wiki words feature, 158 Window List (applet), 93 Window Selector, 93 windows See specific windows Windows (Microsoft) Computer Management tool, 55, 56 dual-boot scenario, 52–57 partitions, LiveCD and, 40–41 running Ubuntu in, 42–45 Ubuntu Installer project See Wubi project Windows Explorer, List view v., 117, 118 Windows Internet naming service (WINS) protocol, 522, 524, 525, 526 Windows media audio (.wma), 278 Windows Media Player plug-in, 303 Windows Media Video (WMV), 296 806 W–X Windows network server, Samba server as, 537–538 Windows printer via Samba, 371 Windows share, 83, 97 Samba utility programs and, 524 smbclient program and, 533, 534–536 Windows Vista Computer Management tool, 55, 56 disk defragmenting and, 57 Disk Management tool, 55 dual-boot scenario See dual-boot scenario NTFS format and, 40 Properties dialog box, 28 Torrent client package and, 30, 31 workstations shared network drive and, 538 System Properties dialog box and, 27, 28 Wubi and See Wubi project Windows XP Computer Management tool, 55, 56 disk defragmenter utility, 57 Disk Management tool and, 55 dual-boot scenario See dual-boot scenario NTFS format and, 40 Torrent client package and, 30, 31 workstations server Elijah and, 534 shared network drive and, 537– 538 System Properties dialog box and, 27, 28 Wubi and See Wubi project winmd5sum program, 33, 34, 45 Winmodems, 50, 339 WINS (Windows Internet naming service) protocol, 522, 524, 525, 526 wired equivalent privacy protocol (WEP), 343 wired Ethernet cards, 341, 346–347 wireless Ethernet cards, 341–343, 347–348 wireless modems, 340–341, 348 wizard windows, 567–572 wizards Base Database, 181–182 Base Table, 184 Eclipse new project, 708 Eclipse Run, 711 Evolution, 229–237 Function, 172, 173 New Java Class, 709 New Printer, 370 Presentation, 174–176 wma (Windows media audio), 278 WMV (Windows Media Video), 296 Word documents, 113 word processing See Writer workspace area, 86–88, 106 workspace switcher, 88, 93 workstations See also servers management See also command line external devices, 367–386 networking, 337–366 software installs/updates, 315– 336 system administration, 425–440 users and groups, 407–424 video display, 387–405 Ubuntu distributions, 22, 23, 27 Ubuntu installation process alternate install CD, 67–70 LiveCD, 57–67 WPA (Wi-Fi protected access protocol), 343 Writer (word processing, OpenOffice.org), 162, 163–168 document pane, 167 document types and, 167–168 formatting bar, 166 menu bar, 163–164 ruler feature, 166–167 standard toolbar, 164–166 Wubi (Windows Ubuntu Installer) project, 43–45 X x command, 145 X Windows, 13–14, 388–394 emacs editor and, 147, 153 monitors and, 388–389 system layout, 389 video display and, 388–394 XFree86, 390 X.Org, 390–394 XPM/XBM file types, 260 X Windows display manager protocol (XDMCP), 218 Xandros, 20 XBM, 260 XDG menu specification, 91 XDMCP (X Windows display manager protocol), 218 xfce, 18, 24 XFree86, 390 xfs, 11 xls format, 173, 174 xml format, 168, 174 xor function, 651, 658 X.Org, 390–394 xorg.0.log, 431 x.org.conf configuration file, 390–394 XP See Windows XP XPM, 260 X–Z XSane application, 376 document scan with, 379–380 image file types, 383 scanner detection with, 376–378 work area, 380–383 Xubuntu, 24 Y y command, 146 yanking, 146 YouTube, 302, 304 YouTube browser, 300 Z z shell (zsh), 13, 623 Zend Framework, 742 zone DNS server, 486 zones (subdomains), 471 Zoom buttons, 117, 118 zoom levels, 122–123 zsh (z shell), 13, 623 807 UBUNTU LINUX ® ® Packed with valuable advice and secrets on every aspect of the Ubuntu Linux Distribution, this comprehensive guide delivers in-depth information on the Ubuntu workstation, server, and applications, and provides detailed coverage of Ubuntu Linux as a software development platform The featured tips and tricks delve into the underlying applications and features of the Ubuntu Linux system so that you can get the most out of every application and system feature THE INSIDER’S GUIDE TO: • Handling Files and File Properties (see Chapter 5) • Understanding the OpenOffice Suite (see Chapter 7) • Watching Web Clips and Editing Videos (see Chapter 12) • Connecting to the Network (see Chapter 14) • Working with Ubuntu Web Servers (see Chapter 21) Programming in Pythonđ (see Chapter 26) Working with Ruby Code (see Chapter 29) RICHARD BLUM has worked in the IT industry for nearly two decades as both a systems and network administrator During this time he has administered UNIX, Linux, Novell, and Microsoft servers, and has helped design and maintain a 3,500-user network utilizing Cisco switches and routers He is the author of several Linux books, including Professional Linux Programming, Linux For Dummies, 8th Edition, and Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible ISBN 978-0-470-39508-0 $54.99 USA $65.99 CANADA READER LEVEL Intermediate to Advanced SHELVING CATEGORY Operating Systems Linux ... Ubuntu Linux Secrets ® ® Ubuntu Linux Secrets ® Richard Blum ® Ubuntu Linux Secrets Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 www .wiley. com... completed Ubuntu Linux Secrets you’ll be well on your way to being an Ubuntu Linux guru In the ever-changing world of Linux, it s always a good idea to stay in touch with new developments The Ubuntu Linux. .. 1962– Ubuntu Linux secrets / Richard Blum p cm Includes index ISBN 978-0-470-39508-0 (paper/website) Ubuntu (Electronic resource) Linux Operating systems (Computers) I Title QA76.76.O63B5984 2009
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