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 CYAN   MAGENTA  YELLOW   BLACK  PANTONE 123 C Books for professionals by professionals ® Companion eBook Available Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Third Edition Dear Reader, Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Second Edition Beginning SUSE Linux, Second Edition Beginning Fedora Linux Jaime Sicam Since its release just a few years ago, Ubuntu has become the world’s most popular Linux distribution It has now come out in the second Long Term Support (LTS) edition, which will not change for the next three years Canonical, the company backing Ubuntu Linux, has committed to supporting this version So you don’t need to change your Ubuntu Linux, and no one will ask you to download another Ubuntu version It’s one of the most user-friendly versions of Linux yet, and now it’s going to be the rock on which to build your online life, use office applications, and/or administer your home or office network This third edition of Beginning Ubuntu Linux has been thoroughly revised and updated for the 8.04 LTS release of Ubuntu The accompanying DVDROM contains the complete Ubuntu 8.04 LTS release, as well as the Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Edubuntu, and PowerPC (Macintosh) releases The book begins with an introduction to Linux fundamentals, before providing an illustrated, completely new, step-by-step installation guide for Ubuntu 8.04 This is followed by a troubleshooting chapter for any problems that may arise Next, you’ll learn how to configure common hardware components under Ubuntu, such as printers, network cards, and digital cameras Following this, we spend time explaining how to secure your new Ubuntu setup To help you quickly begin using Ubuntu as an all-purpose desktop, we will show you how to configure your system for listening to audio CDs and MP3s, watching movies, and editing images You’ll learn how to create text documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and databases using OpenOffice.org, Ubuntu’s powerful office solution We also introduce Evolution, the enterprise-grade e-mail client Finally, we delve into the heart of Linux: the powerful command-line interface You’ll learn how to take complete control of your system: managing processes, installing software, adding and removing users, backing up data, optimizing your system, and much, much more Keir Thomas and Jaime Sicam Companion eBook THE APRESS ROADMAP Beginning Ubuntu Linux See last page for details on $10 eBook version www.apress.com Fully Fully revised revised and and updated updated for for Beginning Beginning Ubuntu Server Administration Beginning Portable Shell Scripting Beginning Fedora The complete guide to Ubuntu—includes everything you need to take advantage of the world’s favorite Linux operating system Third Edition Automating UNIX and Linux Administration Hardening Linux Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy Heron LTS) and above! Ubuntu Linux Third Edition DVD INCLUDED Beginning GIMP ISBN-13: 978-1-59059-991-4 ISBN-10: 1-59059-991-8 53999 US $39.99 Shelve in Linux User level: Beginner–Intermediate Beginning Ubuntu Linux Keir Thomas, author of The EXPERT’s VOIce ® in Open Source 781590 599914 this print for content only—size & color not accurate Thomas, Sicam Keir Thomas and Jaime Sicam Accompanying DVD includes full versions of Ubuntu 8.04 LTS, as well as Kubuntu, Edubuntu, Xubuntu, and PPC releases! spine = 1.443" 768 page count Thomas_991-8FRONT.fm Page i Friday, May 23, 2008 4:13 PM Beginning Ubuntu Linux Third Edition ■■■ Keir Thomas and Jaime Sicam Thomas_991-8FRONT.fm Page ii Friday, May 23, 2008 4:13 PM Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Third Edition Copyright © 2008 by Keir Thomas, Jaime Sicam All rights reserved No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner and the publisher ISBN-13 (pbk): 978-1-59059-991-4 ISBN-10 (pbk): 1-59059-991-8 ISBN-13 (electronic): 978-1-4302-0650-7 Printed and bound in the United States of America Trademarked names may appear in this book Rather than use a trademark symbol with every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use the names only in an editorial fashion and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark Java™ and all Java-based marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc., in the US and other countries Apress, Inc., is not affiliated with Sun Microsystems, Inc., and this book was written without endorsement from Sun Microsystems, Inc Lead Editor: Frank Pohlmann Technical Reviewers: Daniel James, Keir Thomas, Eric Hewitt Editorial Board: Clay Andres, Steve Anglin, Ewan Buckingham, Tony Campbell, Gary Cornell, Jonathan Gennick, Matthew Moodie, Joseph Ottinger, Jeffrey Pepper, Frank Pohlmann, Ben Renow-Clarke, Dominic Shakeshaft, Matt Wade, Tom Welsh Project Manager: Beth Christmas Copy Editor: Marilyn Smith Associate Production Director: Kari Brooks-Copony Production Editor: Laura Esterman Compositor: Susan Glinert Stevens Proofreader: Linda Seifert Indexer: Broccoli Information Management Artist: April Milne Cover Designer: Kurt Krames Manufacturing Director: Tom Debolski Distributed to the book trade worldwide by Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 233 Spring Street, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10013 Phone 1-800-SPRINGER, fax 201-348-4505, e-mail orders-ny@springer-sbm.com, or visit http://www.springeronline.com For information on translations, please contact Apress directly at 2855 Telegraph Avenue, Suite 600, Berkeley, CA 94705 Phone 510-549-5930, fax 510-549-5939, e-mail info@apress.com, or visit http:// www.apress.com Apress and friends of ED books may be purchased in bulk for academic, corporate, or promotional use eBook versions and licenses are also available for most titles For more information, reference our Special Bulk Sales–eBook Licensing web page at http://www.apress.com/info/bulksales The information in this book is distributed on an “as is” basis, without warranty Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this work, neither the author(s) nor Apress shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the information contained in this work The source code for this book is available to readers at http://www.apress.com Thomas_991-8FRONT.fm Page iii Friday, May 23, 2008 4:13 PM Dedicated to you, now that you have a choice —Jaime Sicam Thomas_991-8FRONT.fm Page iv Friday, May 23, 2008 4:13 PM Contents at a Glance About the Authors xxiii About the Technical Reviewers xxv Acknowledgments xxvii Preface xxix Introduction xxxi PART Introducing the World of Linux ■CHAPTER Welcome! ■CHAPTER A History and Politics Lesson 13 ■CHAPTER The Realities of Running Linux 23 PART ■■■ Installing Ubuntu ■CHAPTER Preinstallation Steps 31 ■CHAPTER Installing Ubuntu ■CHAPTER Solving Installation Problems 75 PART iv ■■■ ■■■ The No-Nonsense Getting Started Guide ■CHAPTER Booting Ubuntu for the First Time 97 ■CHAPTER Getting Everything Up and Running 117 ■CHAPTER How to Secure Your Computer 175 ■CHAPTER 10 Personalizing Ubuntu: Getting Everything Just Right 213 ■CHAPTER 11 Ubuntu Replacements for Windows Programs 257 ■CHAPTER 12 Managing Your Files 279 Thomas_991-8FRONT.fm Page v Friday, May 23, 2008 4:13 PM PART The Shell and Beyond ■CHAPTER 13 Introducing the BASH Shell 303 ■CHAPTER 14 Understanding Linux Files and Users 321 ■CHAPTER 15 Working with Text Files 347 ■CHAPTER 16 Taking Control of the System 365 ■CHAPTER 17 Cool Shell Tricks 377 PART ■■■ Multimedia ■CHAPTER 18 Digital Audio 391 ■CHAPTER 19 Movies and Multimedia 413 ■CHAPTER 20 Digital Photos 429 PART v ■■■ ■■■ Office Tasks ■CHAPTER 21 Making the Move to OpenOffice.org 453 ■CHAPTER 22 OpenOffice.org Overview 463 ■CHAPTER 23 In Depth: Writer 479 ■CHAPTER 24 In Depth: Calc 491 ■CHAPTER 25 In Depth: Impress 501 ■CHAPTER 26 In Depth: Base 511 ■CHAPTER 27 In Depth: Evolution 521 Thomas_991-8FRONT.fm Page vi Friday, May 23, 2008 4:13 PM PART ■■■ Keeping Your System Running ■CHAPTER 28 Installing and Removing Software 545 ■CHAPTER 29 Managing Users 575 ■CHAPTER 30 Optimizing Your System 585 ■CHAPTER 31 Backing Up Data 599 ■CHAPTER 32 Scheduling Tasks 613 ■CHAPTER 33 Accessing Computers Remotely 619 PART ■■■ Appendixes ■APPENDIX A Glossary of Linux Terms 635 ■APPENDIX B BASH Command Index 657 ■APPENDIX C Getting Further Help 671 ■APPENDIX D Exploring the DVD-ROM and Other Ubuntu Versions 681 ■INDEX 695 Thomas_991-8FRONT.fm Page vii Friday, May 23, 2008 4:13 PM Contents About the Authors xxiii About the Technical Reviewers xxv Acknowledgments xxvii Preface xxix Introduction xxxi PART ■■■ ■CHAPTER Introducing the World of Linux Welcome! What Is Linux? The Age of Linux The Problems with Windows The Benefits of Linux Fewer Crashes Security Free and Shareable No Annoying Copy Protection or Usage Restrictions The Linux Community Summary 11 ■CHAPTER A History and Politics Lesson 13 In the Beginning 13 The GNU Project 16 Proprietary Software and the GPL 17 GNU and Linux Together 18 Different Flavors of Linux 19 Linux Today 20 Modern Linux Development 20 Summary 21 vii Thomas_991-8FRONT.fm Page viii Friday, May 23, 2008 4:13 PM viii ■C O N T E N T S ■CHAPTER The Realities of Running Linux 23 Learning to Use Linux 23 Who Uses Linux? 24 Getting Hold of Linux 25 Using Ubuntu 26 Summary 27 PART ■■■ ■CHAPTER Installing Ubuntu Preinstallation Steps 31 Understanding Partitioning 31 Freeing Up Space 33 Reclaiming Space 34 Removing Windows 35 Using Another Hard Disk 35 Backing Up Your Data 37 Backing Up E-Mail Files 38 Making Notes 39 Summary 41 ■CHAPTER Installing Ubuntu 43 An Overview of the Installation Process 43 Step-by-Step Guide 46 Stage 1: Prepare the Windows Partition for Resizing 46 Stage 2: Boot from the DVD-ROM 48 Stage 3: Choose Language Settings 50 Stage 4: Select from the Boot Menu 50 Stage 5: Choose a Language for Ubuntu 52 Stage 6: Select Your Country and Time Zone 53 Stage 7: Confirm Your Keyboard Layout 54 Stage 8: Repartition Your Hard Disk 55 Stage 9: Enter a Username 66 Stage 10: Import Documents and Settings 68 Stage 11: Confirm Installation Choices 69 Stage 12: Wait During Installation 70 Stage 13: Reboot and Enjoy Ubuntu! 71 Summary 74 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 715 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM ■I N D E X presentation, 263–264 Move tool, GIMP, 437 running, 110, 289–291 Movie/DVD player, 258 spreadsheet, 261–262 movies web browsing, 266–268 editing software, 425 word processing, 260–261 overview, 422 Minix, 13 watching, 420–422 Mist theme, 214 moving files, BASH shell, 316–317 MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, 17 Mozilla Firefox Bookmarks, 38 mkdir command, 319 Mozilla Foundation, 38, 546 mkdir command, sftp, 625 Mozilla Plug-in option, OpenOffice.org, 473 mkisofs command, 674 Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail client, 38 /mnt directory, 335, 339 mozilla-plugin-vlc, 555 /mnt/windows directory, 340 MP3 audio file format, 407 Modem Monitor_ applet, 254 MP3 playback, 391 modems, 141–143 MP3 player, 258 Modify category, OpenOffice.org, 467 modulename, 138 MP3-ripping support, adding to Sound Juicer, 407 Monitor model option, Screens and Graphics Utility, 86 MPAA (Motion Picture Association of America), 423 more command, 348 MS-DOS prompt, 258 Motion path option, Add button dialog box, 505 Multics, multimedia See also digital audio; movies Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), 423 DVDs, 423 mount command, 322 installing playback software flash animations, 425 mount points, 59, 64 adding Flash support, 417–419 mounting, 280 adding Java support, 419–420 drive, manually, 338–340 installing codecs, 414–416 mount command, 337–338 installing RealPlayer, 416–417 overview, 337 removing mounted system, 340 mouse, 113 overview, 413–414 overview, 413 TV, 426 Bluetooth, 166 multiple virtual desktops, 213 options, 233–234 multiple-speaker surround sound, 168 pointer Multiverse section, 553 controlling with keyboard, 239 MusE sequencer, 409 customizing, 217 music See digital audio mouse (KVM) switch, 76 music stores, online See online music stores Mouse Orientation option, 234 mutt e-mail program, 555 Mouse Preferences dialog box, 233 mv command, 316 715 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 716 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM 716 ■I N D E X My Computer/Computer icon, Windows, 108 NetworkManager, 124–125 My Documents/Documents folder, Windows, 108 newbie status, 10 My Network Places, 108, 294 myprogram program, /home/keir directory, 310 New Panel option, 248 NI column, top program, 367 Noise filters, GIMP, 446 Norton's Partition Magic, 33 NoScript tool, 212 ■N Notes heading, man page, 673 n command, 349, 352 Notification Area, 148, 254 N command, 352 Notification area, Ubuntu desktop, 106 Name heading, man page, 673 Novell GroupWise, 169 names of files, 280 Numbering category, OpenOffice.org, 467 nano text editor, GNU, 614 nVidia GeForce 6600 graphics card, 162 Nautilus program, 259, 270–271 nyy command, vim command mode, 353 file and folder icons, 288 overview, 283–286 searching for files, 286 special windows, 288–289 Navigate category, OpenOffice.org, 467 ndd command, vim command mode, 352 NdisWrapper, using to install Windows wireless network drivers ■O O command, vim command mode, 353 o command, vim command mode, 353 o option, 674 OASIS OpenDocument Format (ODF), 457 object modes, Nautilus, 288 obtaining Linux, 25–26 blacklisting existing drivers, 138–139 ODF (OpenDocument Format), 457, 476 extracting driver components, 137–138 Office file format, 456 installing configuration tools, 133 Office, Microsoft See Microsoft Office installing Windows XP drivers, 133–134 official sites, 678 installing wireless networking hardware, 134–136 Ogg media format, 392 overview, 131–133, 139–140 Ogg Vorbis audio file format, 406 removing drivers, 140–141 On AC Power tab, 146–147 Ogg Theora, 422 NeoOffice, 456 On Battery Power tab, 147–148 network address of printer, 153 Network button, Finder, 109 one-off tasks, using at command to schedule, 618 Network Manager program, 590 online help Network Monitor applet, 254 forums, 676–677 network name, 295 mailing lists, 678 Network Neighborhood, 294 other official sites, 678 network printers, configuring, 152–156 overview, 676 networked files, accessing, 294–296 third-party sites, 679 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 717 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM ■I N D E X online music stores Options category, OpenOffice.org, 466 Jamendo, 400–401 Options configuration dialog box, Writer, 489 Magnatune, 400 Options heading, man page, 673–674 overview, 399–400 outbound traffic, 202 online radio stations, 401–402 outgoing connections, 205 online updates, 197–198 Outlook, Microsoft, 169, 527 open source drivers, 82, 118–119 ■P OpenDocument Format (ODF), 457, 476 OpenOffice.org See also Base program; Calc program; Impress program; Writer program configuration options, 470 p command, vim command mode, 353 package files, cache of, emptying, 597 package management from command prompt creating macros, 475–476 overview, 558 customizing interface using APT tools, 561–565 adding functions to toolbars, 465–467 using dpkg, 558–561 adding new toolbar, 467–468 dependency management, 548–549 configuring options, 469–473 overview, 547–548 customizing menus, 468 package repositories overview, 465 categories of, 551 file compatibility, 455–457 overview, 550 fonts repository components, 552–553 copying Windows fonts, 458 package-manipulation command, 558 installing TrueType Core Fonts, 459–460 Paintbrush tool, GIMP, 438 overview, 458 pairing, 163 getting help, 474 Panel entry, GIMP, 434 inserting objects with Object Linking and Embedding, 474–475 panel items, moving, 251 interface, 463–464 Paragraph dialog box, Writer, 480 key features, 454–455 parent directory, 319 overview, 453, 463 parent processes, 369 saving files, 476–477 partitioning, 31–33 similarities with Microsoft Office, 453–454 passphrase, 130 using wizards, 474 passwd command, 582–583 openoffice.org-base package, 264 open-source software, 457 Opera browser, 259 panels, personalizing, 248–249 passwords, 196 adding and changing, 583–584 displaying/hiding, 241 operating systems, 3–4 pasting text, 114 opt directory, 335 patented software, 391 Optimal Page Wrap, Writer, 484 Path creation tool, GIMP, 437 Options button, 99 PATH variable, 309 717 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 718 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM 718 ■I N D E X paths, GIMP, 440 Perspective Clone tool, GIMP, 439 Paths option, OpenOffice.org, 470 Perspective tool, GIMP, 438 Paths tab, 603 phone over Internet, 411–412 pax command, 606 photo editing See GIMP program PCI ID numbering system, 134 pictures, inserting in Writer, 483–484 PCMCIA card, 141 PID column, top program, 366 PDF (Portable Document Format) files, 290, 454, 476 PID number, 370 PDKSH (Public Domain Korn SHell), 304 Pilot Applet, 254 Pencil tool, GIMP, 438 PIN (personal ID number), 163 period (.), 599 pipe symbol (|), 362, 383 permissive policy, 202 piping and directing output Pidgin program, 169, 172, 275 personal ID number (PIN), 163 of commands, 383–385 personal information management program See Evolution program overview, 383 personalization desktop items applets, 251–252 menus, 249–251 overview, 246 personalizing panels, 248–249 shortcuts, adding, 246–248 desktop visual effects, 225–233 font preferences, 222–224 general interface, 224–225 input devices keyboard settings, 237–240 mouse options, 233–234 overview, 233 keyboard shortcuts, 240 login options, 241–245 redirecting output, 385–386 Places menu, 102 Places pane, Nautilus window, 286 plain text (passphrase), 130 playback software, installing adding Flash support, 417–419 adding Java support, 419–420 installing codecs, 414–416 installing RealPlayer, 416–417 overview, 413–414 player application, 394 pls file, 401 plugdev system group, 582 podcasts, 402 Pointer Capture applet, 254 port numbers, of printers, 153 accessibility settings, 243 Portable Document Format (PDF) files, 290, 454, 476 general settings, 241–242 Ports tab, Properties, 156 local settings, 242–243 postinstallation problems, 81–83 overview, 240–241 overview, 83 remote settings, 243 Windows Vista, 83–84 security settings, 243–244 user settings, 244–245 Windows XP, 84 pound sterling symbol (£ ), 54 login picture, 246 Power Manager program, 590 moving panel items, 251 PowerPC processor, 73 overview, 213–214 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 719 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM ■I N D E X PowerPoint (PPT), 263, 264 power-saving features, configuring processes controlling overview, 145 killing processes, 369–370 power-management preferences overview, 368–369 On AC Power, 146–147 using other commands for, 371–372 On Battery Power, 147–148 Zombie processes, 370–371 General tab, 148 overview, 145–146 spinning down hard disk, 149–150 viewing, 365–368 process-killing command, 372 profiling application, 199 PPT (PowerPoint), 263, 264 program window, Evolution, 521 PR column, top program, 367 programs See names of specific programs precompiled kernels, 595 Properties dialog box, 46 preinstallation problems, 75–79 Properties option, context menu, 286 prelink command, 594 Proposed Updates repository, 552 prelinking proprietary drivers, 81, 118–119, 129 configuring, 594 proprietary software, and GPL, 17–18 deactivating, 594–595 Proxy option, OpenOffice.org, 473 overview, 593–594 proxy servers, 144 Presentation file types, 290 ps command, 371 presentation program See Impress program Public Domain Korn SHell (PDKSH), 304 Presentation Wizard, 263, 502 public key primary key, Base, 518 exporting, 185–186 Print option, OpenOffice.org, 470–472 importing and signing, 188, 190 Print Queue applet, 590 publishing, 186–187 Print Scr button, 39 put command, sftp, 625 print server module, 152 pwd command, 341 printers pwd command, sftp, 625 administering, 156 configuring local printer, 150–152 configuring network printer, 152–156 configuring Windows/SMB shared printer, 154 overview, 150 sharing, 151 privacy, when web browsing, 212 private key, 180 proc directory, 335 ■Q :q command, vim command-line mode, 355 :q! command, vim command-line mode, 355 QEMU virtualization software, 36 queries, Database pane, Base, 513 querying packages, 560–561 question mark (?), 348 queue name, of printer, 153 quick desktop guides, 107–109 Quick Launch toolbar function, Windows, 108 719 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 720 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM 720 ■I N D E X QuickTime format, 414 removing Quit applet, 254 applications, 557–558 ■R NdisWrapper drivers, 140–141 r command option, 316, 358 r switch, 583 radio stations See online radio stations RAM subsystem, 145 RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol), 629 README files, 348, 675–676 Ready To Install screen, 69 Real Simple Syndication (RSS), 402 Real Video format, 414 RealPlayer, installing, 416–417 reboot command, 341 rebooting Ubuntu, 71–73 receiving e-mail, 524 Recommended backup mode, Simple Backup, 602 Recommended Updates repository, 551 packages, 548 unused software, 597 Windows, 35 Render filters, GIMP, 447 renice value, 368 renicing, 368 repartitioning hard disks, 37 manually editing partitioning table, 59–65 overview, 55–56 resizing main partition, 56–57 using entire disk, 57 using largest contiguous free space, 58 Reply button, Evolution, 265 Reply To All button, Evolution, 265 reports, Database pane, Base, 513 repositories, 145, 549–550 recording macros, OpenOffice.org, 475 Backports, 552 Rectangle Select tool, GIMP, 436 gutsy, 551 Recurrence tab, Evolution, 539 hardy, 551 Recycle Bin, 102, 108 Main Distribution, 551 redirecting output, 385–386 Proposed Updates, 552 Reduce Backlight Brightness option, 147 Recommended Updates, 551 rEFlt software, 73 Security Updates, 551 refresh rate option, Screens and Graphics Utility, 87 Skype, 568–569 RES column, top program, 367 Regex tab, 603 Rescue Mode entry, boot menu, 197 regexes, 359 resizing windows, 113 reiserfs file system, 336 resolution, 105 Reload button, 123, 289, 553 Remember Password box, Evolution, 524 Resolution option, Screens and Graphics Utility, 87 remote access to computers, 626–629 Restart option, 104 Remote Desktop, accessing Ubuntu via, 627–629 Restore As button, 605 Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), 629 restrictive policy, 202 remote shell session, 622 Resume − Resume normal boot option, 98 removable storage, 157, 298–300 reverse dependencies, 548–549, 560 restoring data, 605–606 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 721 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM ■I N D E X adding podcast, 403 Save Background Image box, Theme Preferences window, 217 listening to audio CDs, 404–405 saving backup file to CD-R/RW, 609–611 ripping tracks with, 408 sbin directory, 335 Rhythmbox program, 268–269, 393, 397, 399 Rich Text Format (RTF) files, 347, 456 Scale tool, GIMP, 438 right angle bracket (>), 361, 385 scaled option, Style drop-down list, 221 ripping music from CDs scanner system group, 582 adding MP3-ripping support to Sound Juicer, 407 scanners, configuring, 158–160 scheduling tasks choosing format, 406–407 with anacron, 616–617 overview, 405–406 with crontab, 613–615 process, 408–409 overview, 613 rm command, 318, 625 rmdir command, 625 using at command to schedule one-off tasks, 618 roaming mode, NetworkManager, 125 SchoolTool Calendar, 688 root and ordinary users, 177–178 Scissors Select tool, GIMP, 437 root directory, 335, 378 scp, transferring files between remote computers using, 623–624 Root − Drop to root shell prompt option, 98 root file system, 59 root password, 577 root user, 177, 576–577 Rosegarden sequencer, 409 Rotate tool, GIMP, 438 RSS (Real Simple Syndication), 402 Screen arrangement option, Screens and Graphics Utility, 87 screen program, 623 screenlets, difference from applets, 252 Screenreader, 245 Screens and Graphics Utility, 86–90, 92 RTF (Rich Text Format) files, 347, 456 Search button, Synaptic Package Manager toolbar, 553 Ruler, OpenOffice.org, 464 search folders, in Evolution, 533–534 Run Application applet, 255 Search for Files applet, 255 run level, 312 Search option, OpenOffice.org, 473 Run Xclient Script option, 241 searching for files, 342–344 running programs, 110, 289–291 secondary channels, 59 rw- file permissions, 328 Secure Remote Connection option, 241 ■S Secure Shell (SSH) tool, 202 S (status) column, 370 secure shell, remote access to computers using S column, top program, 367 -s command option, 332 S command option, 344 s command option, 344 Sanskrit, 306 Save As drop-down list, OpenOffice.org, 476 logging in to remote computer, 620–623 overview, 619–620 transferring files between remote computers, 623–625 Secure Socket Layer (SSL), 141 721 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 722 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM 722 ■I N D E X security, 8–9 Sharpen filter, GIMP, 445 common-sense security, 196–197 sharpening, in GIMP, 445 encryption Shear tool, GIMP, 438 decrypting files, 193 shell commands, 341, 383 of files, 190–192 shell scripting, 386 overview, 179–180 ShipIt page, of Ubuntu website, setting up for, 180–188, 190 Firestarter, 201–207 shortcuts, 332–333 See keyboard, shortcuts adding online updates, 197–198 creating launchers, 247 overview, 175–176 creating links, 248 root and ordinary users, 177–178 overview, 246 signing and encrypting e-mail, 194–196 Show Desktop applet, 255 Ubuntu firewall, 200 See also Firestarter Show Hide Buttons, 249 virus scanning, 207 SHR column, top program, 367 for web browsing, 212 shred command, 341 Windows security vs Linux security, 176–177, 179 shriek, 382 Shut Down option, 104 Security option, OpenOffice.org, 470 Shutdown/Reboot button, Windows, 108 Security tab, Login Windows Preferences dialog box, 243 Shuttleworth, Mark, 681 Security Updates repository, 551 Select by tool, GIMP, 437 self-installing binaries, 547 self-installing package, Windows, 631 Sensitivity setting, 235 Separator applet, 255 signatures, e-mail, 529–530 signing e-mail, 194–196 public key, 188, 190 Simple Backup changing backup file destination, 604 serial port, 141 changing time period between backups, 605 Serpentine program, 270–271 excluding files and folders, 603 Service Set Identifier (SSID), 129 including files and folders, 603 Sessions program, 589 overview, 601–603 setting up for See also firewalls restoring data via, 605–606 settings of user accounts, importing, 68 Skype setup.exe program, 44 installing, 411–412 sftp repository, 568–569 commands, 625 slash (/), 348 transferring files between remote computers using, 624–625 sleep (standby) mode, 146, 148 Shading option, 3D effect, 508 shared folder, accessing, 295–296 sharing printers, 151 sliders, GIMP, 443 slides, animating, 504–506 Slides pane, 503 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 723 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM ■I N D E X slow keys, 239 standard error, 386 Smudge tool, GIMP, 439 standard input (stdin), 383, 386, 674 software standard output (stdout), 383, 386, 674 installing, 122–124, 196 Standard toolbar, OpenOffice.org, 463 patents, 391 standby (sleep) mode, 146, 148 removing, 597 Star Office, 453 setting up online software repositories, 145 Start menu function, Windows, 108 Start or install Ubuntu option, Boot menu, 51 Software Update Notifier, 109 starting up, 97–99 Software Updates tool, 591 static addresses, 39, 592 Sophos antivirus labs, 177 Statistics tab, 567 Sort By drop-down list, Calc, 495 status (S) column, 370 sort command, 385 Status bar, OpenOffice.org, 464 Sort Lists option, OpenOffice.org Calc, 472 stdin (standard input), 383, 386, 674 sorting stdout (standard output), 383, 386, 674 data, in Calc, 495–496 sticky keys, 238 e-mail messages, 532–535 Sticky Notes applet, 255 sound cards, configuring, 168–169 storage devices, removable Sound Juicer program, 268, 393, 404, 407, 408 ejecting media from drives, 299–300 source code, 14, 546 overview, 298 Spaces function, 110 storage, file, 281–282 speed command option, 674 storing Speex audio format, 406 backup data, 609 spell-checking, in Writer, 481–482 files, 281–283 spinning down hard disk, 149–150 Style and Formatting palette, in Writer, 481 Spotlight function, 110 subdirectories, 282 Spreadsheet file types, 290 submenus, GIMP, 446 spreadsheet program See Calc program sudo apt-get build-essential command, 569 spyware, 203 square brackets, 360 sudo apt-get dist-upgrade command-line, 564 srv directory, 335 sudo apt-get update command, 564 SSH (Secure Shell) tool, 202 sudo apt-get upgrade command-line, 564 ssh remote shell session, 620 sudo command, 331, 577, 580 ssh server program, 620 sudo passwd root command, 576 ssh suite, 619 sudo system, 325 ssh-keygen program, 622 suid bit, 328 SSID (Service Set Identifier), 129 Sum icon SSL (Secure Socket Layer), 141 Calc, 494 Stallman, Richard, 16–17 Writer, 485 723 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 724 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM 724 ■I N D E X Summary field, Evolution, 538 System Restore, 35 Sun Microsystems, 20, 453 system variable, 309 superusers, 177, 324 ■T supplementary groups, 581 support, hardware overview, 117–118 proprietary vs open source drivers, 118–119 Suspend option, 103 swap partition, 59, 61 Sweep audio editing software, 409 SWF, 264, 509 Switch User option, 103, 109 switches command-line, 314 symbolic links, 248, 332 symbols in file names, 280 Synaptic Package Manager, 25, 120, 122, 394, 426, 460, 549–550, 594, 601, 620 installing software, 555–557 overview, 553 removing software, 557 searching for software, 553–555 Synopsis heading, man page, 673–674 sys directory, 335 sys files, 132, 137 system control, keyboard shortcuts for, 380–381 system, controlling t command option, 340 t option, 608 Tab key, and BASH, 377 Table category, OpenOffice.org, 467 Table option, OpenOffice.org Writer/Web, 472 Table tool, Writer, 484 Table toolbar, Writer, 485 Table Wizard, Base, 514 tables adding to databases, 514–515 Database pane, Base, 513 editing database table, 518 Writer, 472 in Writer, 484–485 tagging images, 433 tail command, 348–350 tail mytextfile command, 349 Tanenbaum, Andrew, 14 tape system group, 582 tar archives compressing, 607–608 extracting files from, 608 viewing information, 608 controlling jobs, 373–374 tar command, 606, 614, 617 controlling processes tar files, 606 controlling Zombie processes, 370–371 tarballs, 547, 570–571 killing processes, 369–370 tar.gz archive, 219 overview, 368–369 Task Details dialog box, 541 using other commands for, 371–372 task field, 617 overview, 365 Tasks, Evolution, 266, 523, 540–541 viewing processes, 365–368 Tasks pane, Base, 513 system fonts, 222 tasks, scheduling See scheduling tasks System menu, 102 telephone over Internet, 411–412 System Monitor applet, 255 television, 426 System Preferences icon, 110 templates, 501 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 725 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM ■I N D E X Templates category, OpenOffice.org, 466 tilde (~), 615 terminal emulator program, 307 tiled option, Style drop-down list, 221 terminal programs, 303 Time bar, Totem Movie Player, 269, 421 Terminal Server Client Applet, 255 time zone, selecting, 53–54 Terminal Server Client program, 630 TIME+ column, top program, 367 terminal window, 122, 682 /tmp folder, 335, 596, 613 Texinfo system, 674 Tomboy Notes applet, 255 Text editor/viewer, 259 toolbars text files adding functions to, 465–467 comparing, 361–362 adding new toolbar, 467–468 overview, 347 text in buttons, 225 searching through top program, 365 overview, 358 Torvalds, Linus, 10, 13, 15 using grep, 358–359 Totem Movie Player, 269, 307, 393 using regular expressions, 359–361 totem-xine package, 424–425 types, 290 touch command, 341 viewing touchpad settings, 236 overview, 347 Tracker Applet, 590 using cat command, 347 Tracker process, 590 using head and tail commands, 348–350 transferring files using less command, 348 Text Formatting toolbar, 263 between Bluetooth devices, 164–165 between remote computers, 623–625 text in toolbar buttons, 225 Trash, 102, 108, 110, 251, 255, 526 Text tool, GIMP, 438 TrueType Core Fonts, 458–460 text-based shell, 304 Tux Paint, 688 Textures option, 508 TV (television), 426 Theme Preferences dialog box, 214 TWAIN modules, Windows, 430 themes Typing Break tab, Keyboard Preferences dialog box, 240 changing individual components, 215–217 installing additional components, 217–219 overview, 214–215 ■U u command, vim command mode, 353 Third Party tab, 566 UAC (User Account Control) dialog boxes, Windows Vista, 176 third-party sites, 679 Ubuntu blog, 679 Third-Party Software tab, 566 Ubuntu Document Storage Facility, 678 three dashes ( -), 329 Ubuntu firewall, 200 See also Firestarter Thunderbird e-mail client, 38 Ubuntu forums, 123, 142 Thurderbird e-mail client, 527 Ubuntu Guide, 124, 679 TightVNC system service, 631 Ubuntu root file system, 334 725 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 726 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM 726 ■I N D E X Ubuntu Server, 682 userdel command, 583 Ubuntu Software tab, 566 Username box, 295 ufw tool, 200 users and file permissions UIDs, 577 altering permissions, 330–331 umount command, 340 overview, 324–325 underscore (_) character, 280 viewing permissions undo command option, 594 overview, 325–328 Unique Udev ID (UUID) number of Windows partition, 292 permissions on directory owned by root, 329–330 United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team, permissions on user's directory, 329 Universe section, 552 typical data file permissions, 328–329 users, managing Unix operating system, 13, 20 adding and changing passwords, 583–584 Unlock button, 576, 578, 580 Unmatched Search Folder, 534 adding and deleting groups at command line, 580–583 Unmount Volume, 299, 430 adding and deleting users unused software, removing, 597 at command line, 580–583 unzip command, 373 via GUI, 578–579 Update Manager, 198 creating and deleting groups via GUI, 580 updates, online, 197–198 Users tab, Login Windows Preferences dialog box, 244 Updates tab, 566 user-scheduled tasks, 613 uppercase letters, 280 usr directory, 336 uptime command, 341 /usr/share/doc directory, 675 usage restrictions, UUID (Unique Udev ID) number of Windows partition, 292 Update Notifier tool, 591 USB Legacy Support, 76 USB memory sticks, 81, 157–158 ■V USB socket, 321 v option, 608 User Account Control (UAC) dialog boxes, Windows Vista, 176 validating e-mail, 194–195 User Account Editor dialog box, 578 /var/backup directory, 604 user accounts, importing documents and settings, 68 variables, 309 USER column, top program, 366 User Data option, OpenOffice.org, 470 User folders update tool, 591 User Privileges tab, 579 User Switcher applet, 255 useradd command, 580–583 user-defined string, 384 /var directory, 336, 345 VBA (Visual Basic for Applications), 261, 455 vCard, Evolution, 537 vector graphics creation tool, 454 versions of Ubuntu Edubuntu, 687–689 installation of, 684–685 Kubuntu, 685–687 overview, 683 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 727 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM ■I N D E X Ubuntu Server, 682 Visual Assistance utility, 591 Xubuntu, 689 Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), 261, 455 Vertical message window, 535 visually impaired tools, 226 video system group, 582 VMware, 8, 36 videos, 420–422 View As Icons/List, Nautilus window, 285 VNC (Virtual Network Computing) software, 627 View category, OpenOffice.org, 466 VoIP (Voice over IP), 411–412 View menu, Nautilus, 284 Volume Control applet, 255 View option, OpenOffice.org, 470–473 Volume Manager program, 591 vim command mode, 352, 355 vv option, 608 vim text editor ■W creating new text file using, 357–358 w command, vim command mode, 353 modes :w command, vim command-line mode, 355 Command mode, 351–353 :w! command, vim command-line mode, 355 Command-Line mode, 354–355 wallpaper Insert mode, 353–354 overview, 351 changing, 221 personalizing, 219–222 overview, 350–351 WAV audio format, 407 using to edit file, 355–357 Weather Report applet, 255 viewing web browsers, 258, 266–268 creating new text file using, 357–358 Web filters, GIMP, 448 modes, 351–355 web of trust, 189 overview, 350–351 web proxy, 144 using to edit file, 355–357 websites VIRT column, top program, 367 official sites, 678 virtual desktops, 111–113, 213, 227 third-party sites, 679 virtual files, 321–323 WEP encryption, 131 Virtual Network Computing (VNC) software, 627 whatis command, 341 Virtual PC 2004, Microsoft, 36 virtualization software, 36 viruses, 7, 175–176 Clam Antivirus dealing with infections, 210–211 scanning for viruses, 209 updating database, 208 overview, 207 Visible Buttons entry, 465 whereis command, 344 widgets, 215 Wi-Fi networks, 128, 592 Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) system, 131 window borders, 215, 216 Window List applet, 255 Window Selector applet, 255 windows Nautilus, special windows, 288–289 resizing, 113 727 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 728 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM 728 ■I N D E X Windows worms, 176 connecting to Windows computers remotely, 629–632 WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) system, 131 files, accessing Writer program, 260–261 WPA (Windows Product Activation), accessing networked files, 294–296 adding headers and footers, 489–490 overview, 291 formatting text working with files in Windows partitions, 292, 294 context menu, 480–481 Formatting toolbar, 479–480 fonts, copying, 458 overview, 479 installing Ubanu inside, 47–48 partitions, preparing for resizing, 46 printer sharing, 150 problems with, 6–8 removing, 35 security of, vs Linux security, 176–177, 179 Start button, 249 Windows Genuine Advantage, Windows List bar, 106 Style and Formatting palette, 481 inserting pictures, 483–484 mail merging, 486–489 overview, 479 spell-checking, 481–482 working with tables, 484–485 Writing Aids settings, 471 Wubi, 47–48 Windows Media Player format, 414 ■X Windows Product Activation (WPA), X flag, 626 Windows Update program, 109 X graphical subsystem, 626 Windows Vista x option, 608 burning CDs using, 692 X server communications, 626 freeing up space, 33–34 x86_64 driver file, 136 and security, 176 x86-based processors, 565 security in, 281–283 Xen, 36 Windows XP, Xfce environment, 107 burning CDs using, 692 Xfce Desktop Environment, 689 Professional version, 630 Xfix −Try to fix X server option, 99 security in, 281–283 xfs file system, 336 Windows/SMB shared printer, 154 Ximian, 521 WinZip archive tool, 545–546 X.org, 75, 85 wired networks, 125 XSane utility, 158, 430 wireless network cards, 128, 131, 132 Xterm, 259 wireless networks, 128–131 Xubuntu, 44, 107, 689 wizards, 474 XviD file format, 422 wodim command, 609 ■Y word processing program See Writer program y option, 362 Workspace Switcher, 111, 251, 255 yy command, vim command mode, 353 Thomas_991-8INDEX.fm Page 729 Friday, May 23, 2008 4:00 PM ■I N D E X ■Z zip files, 132, 258, 273 z command option, 608 Zombie processes, 370–371 z option, 608 Zoom controls, Nautilus window, 284 Z SHell (ZSH), 304 zoom option, Style drop-down list, 221 zero (0) value, 586 Zoom tool, GIMP, 437, 440 Zeroconf (Zero Configuration Networking) system, 126 ZSH (Z SHell), 304 zero-day exploit, 199 729 ... 2008 4:13 PM Beginning Ubuntu Linux Third Edition ■■■ Keir Thomas and Jaime Sicam Thomas_991-8FRONT.fm Page ii Friday, May 23, 2008 4:13 PM Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Third Edition Copyright © 2008. .. especially as Linux becomes more and more popular and enters homes and workplaces Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Third Edition purely and simply focuses on what you need to know to use Linux It s concise... of Linux and the element that gives Linux most of its power There’s also an entire chapter discussing (and illustrating) how to initially install Ubuntu on your computer Beginning Ubuntu Linux,
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