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International C u i s i n e International C u i s i n e Jeremy MacVeigh Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States International Cuisine, First Edition Jeremy MacVeigh Vice President, Career and Professional Editorial: Dave Garza Director of Learning Solutions: Sandy Clark Acquisitions Editor: James Gish Managing Editor: Larry Main © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher Product Manager: Nicole Calisi Editorial Assistant: Sarah Timm Vice President, Career and Professional Marketing: Jennifer McAvey Marketing Director: Wendy Mapstone Marketing Manager: Kristin McNary For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Professional & Career Group Customer Support, 1-800-648-7450 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com Marketing Coordinator: Scott Chrysler Production Director: Wendy Troeger Library of Congress Control Number: 2008924153 Production Manager: Stacy Masucci ISBN-13: 978-1418049652 Senior Content Project Manager: Glenn Castle ISBN-10: 1418049654 Art Director: Bethany Casey Technology Project Manager: Christopher Catalina Production Technology Analyst: Thomas Stover Delmar Maxwell Drive Clifton Park, NY 12065-2919 USA Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd For your lifelong learning solutions, visit www.delmar.cengage.com Visit our corporate website at www.cengage.com Notice to the Reader Publisher does not warrant or guarantee any of the products described herein or perform any independent analysis in connection with any of the product information contained herein Publisher does not assume, and expressly disclaims, any obligation to obtain and include information other than that provided to it by the manufacturer The reader is expressly warned to consider and adopt all safety precautions that might be indicated by the activities described herein and to avoid all potential hazards By following the instructions contained herein, the reader willingly assumes all risks in connection with such instructions The publisher makes no representations or warranties of any kind, including but not limited to, the warranties of fitness for particular purpose or merchantability, nor are any such representations implied with respect to the material set forth herein, and the publisher takes no responsibility with respect to such material The publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material Printed in the United States of America X X 10 09 08 CONTENTS Preface Introduction / viii Why I Wrote This Book / viii Organization / viii Ancillary Materials / ix Conceptual Approach / ix The Recipes / ix About the Author / x Acknowledgments / xi SECTION Cuisines of Europe and the Middle East chapter Cuisines of the Middle East Objectives / Introduction / Historic Culinary Influences / Unique Components / Significant Subregions / Recipes / 12 Summary / 27 Review Questions / 27 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 27 chapter Greek Cuisine Objectives / 31 Introduction / 31 Historic Culinary Influences / 32 Unique Components / 32 Significant Subregions / 33 Recipes / 34 Summary / 46 Review Questions / 46 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 46 chapter Eastern European Cuisine Objectives / 49 Introduction / 49 Historic Culinary Influences / 50 Unique Components / 52 Significant Subregions / 53 Recipes / 55 Summary / 65 Review Questions / 66 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 66 chapter Italian Cuisine Objectives / 69 Introduction / 69 Historic Culinary Influences / 70 Unique Components / 71 Significant Subregions / 77 Recipes / 81 Summary / 99 Review Questions / 99 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 99 chapter French Cuisine Objectives / 105 Introduction / 105 Historic Culinary Influences / 106 Unique Components / 110 Significant Subregions / 112 Recipes / 117 v vi CONTENTS Summary / 139 Review Questions / 139 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 140 Review Questions / 238 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 238 10 chapter Cuisines of the British Isles Objectives / 145 Introduction / 145 Historic Culinary Influences / 145 Unique Components / 147 Significant Subregions / 149 Recipes / 151 Summary / 162 Review Questions / 162 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 162 chapter German Cuisine Objectives / 165 Introduction / 165 Historic Culinary Influences / 166 Unique Components / 167 Significant Subregions / 169 Recipes / 170 Summary / 188 Review Questions / 188 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 188 chapter Scandinavian Cuisine Objectives / 191 Introduction / 191 Historic Culinary Influences / 192 Unique Components / 193 Significant Subregions / 195 Recipes / 197 Summary / 212 Review Questions / 212 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 212 chapter Russian Cuisine Objectives / 215 Introduction / 215 Historic Culinary Influences / 216 Unique Components / 218 Significant Subregions / 220 Recipes / 222 Summary / 238 chapter Iberian Cuisine Objectives / 241 Introduction / 241 Historic Culinary Influences / 242 Unique Components / 243 Significant Subregions / 244 Recipes / 247 Summary / 261 Review Questions / 261 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 262 Cuisines of Africa SECTION 11 chapter North African Cuisine Objectives / 269 Introduction / 269 Historic Culinary Influences / 270 Unique Components / 272 Significant Subregions / 275 Recipes / 276 Summary / 296 Review Questions / 296 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 296 Cuisines of the Americas 12 SECTION chapter Caribbean Cuisine Objectives / 301 Introduction / 301 Historic Culinary Influences / 301 Unique Components / 304 Significant Subregions / 306 Recipes / 309 Summary / 321 Review Questions / 321 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 322 vii CONTENTS 13 chapter Mexican Cuisine Objectives / 325 Introduction / 325 Historic Culinary Influences / 326 Unique Components / 327 Significant Subregions / 329 Recipes / 331 Summary / 348 Review Questions / 348 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 349 14 chapter South American Cuisine Objectives / 353 Introduction / 353 Historic Culinary Influences / 354 Unique Components / 355 Significant Subregions / 358 Recipes / 360 Summary / 371 Review Questions / 371 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 371 SECTION chapter 15 Cuisines of Asia Cuisines of the Indian Subcontinent Objectives / 379 Introduction / 379 Historic Culinary Influences / 380 Unique Components / 382 Significant Subregions / 384 Recipes / 386 Summary / 399 Review Questions / 399 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 399 16 chapter Southeast Asian Cuisine Objectives / 403 Introduction / 403 Significant Culinary Influences / 404 Unique Components / 405 Significant Subregions / 407 Recipes / 410 Summary / 423 Review Questions / 423 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 424 17 chapter Chinese Cuisine Objectives / 427 Introduction / 427 Historic Culinary Influences / 428 Unique Components / 429 Significant Subregions / 431 Recipes / 433 Summary / 449 Review Questions / 449 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 450 18 chapter Japanese Cuisine Objectives / 453 Introduction / 453 Historic Culinary Influences / 454 Unique Components / 455 Significant Subregions / 457 Recipes / 459 Summary / 471 Review Questions / 471 Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients / 471 Appendix Measurements, Conversions, and Equivalents / 475 References / 482 Glossary / 485 Recipe Index / 521 Subject Index / 529 PREFACE INTRODUCTION International Cuisine was written to supply culinary arts students and enthusiasts with a reference and resource to the cuisines of the world Chefs today are bombarded with information about foods that come from all over the world, and their understanding of where food products come from and how to use them has never been more important or more challenging One of the most difficult things for a culinarian, future chef, or food lover to grasp is a sense of the place that a food comes from All foods can be unraveled into a story that enlightens us about why they are made the way they are or perhaps why certain ingredients must be used for them to taste authentic The understanding of this story is the biggest hurdle an aspiring chef in today’s food industry must undertake After learning the techniques of how to be a good cook in the kitchen, a chef must acquire the ability to write a themed menu or to pair ingredients when developing new recipes; these tasks are intrinsically linked to the past and to the people and places that created the ingredients This text is a step in making the link To the students reading this text as part of your education, my advice would be to immerse yourself in the culture of that which you strive to inhabit If the culture you strive to inhabit is the culinary arts, then immerse yourself in it fully by tasting everything you can, absorbing every bit of advice, watching every aspect of what your instructors and how they act, and being focused on this moment and nothing else Our trade is one in which success comes from sacrifice You will be tired, you will feel broken, and you will think that you have pushed yourself too far; but in the end, you will grow, you will be proud, you will earn the respect and admiration of others, and you will realize that you would not have reached the level that you have if you had decided—years earlier—that it was too much or it wasn’t coming fast enough or it wasn’t fair By becoming engrossed in what you want to do, your senses will expand and enable you to things you didn’t know you could I wish each of you the kind of daily satisfaction I have been afforded as part of our proud profession ORGANIZATION WHY I WROTE THIS BOOK The text was written because of a lack of resources currently available in this specific discipline I took a position teaching international cuisine; when I looked for textbooks to use to support the learning objectives of the class, I discovered that what was available lacked information about how cuisines differ and how they developed, or the texts just covered a few cuisines or simply provided recipes I began to write my own outlines because of this lack of information and eventually took on the project of creating this book This text answers the questions that I had—and does so for 18 different cuisines that span the globe viii The text is organized by geographical region (Europe, Asia, etc.) Within each section are chapters that cover how each cuisine developed, what it is that makes each cuisine different from the rest, important culinary subregions found within each cuisine, recipes common to that cuisine, and terms that are commonly used In creating this text, we found—from having industry experts review the material—that there was a strong desire to have a text like this published, but that the experts wanted a section on what made each cuisine different from the others As a result, a section in each chapter discusses the unique components of the cuisine being covered, and I believe PREFACE the experts were just that—experts—in making this suggestion, as this helps to clarify how and why each cuisine is original Each chapter includes the following sections: Introduction Historic Culinary Influences Unique Components Significant Subregions Recipes Summary Review Questions ix through Europe, North Africa, and the Americas, Section IV focuses on Asian cuisines A number of countries are not represented in this text, including all of the sub-Saharan African countries, Australia, and many more Although it would be great to include these, and others, creating a book that covers the cuisines students are most likely to deal with in the United States was the priority The hope is that, by opening the door to this subject, students (and others) will be encouraged to step inside the world of global cuisine (and culture) and discover more on their own The subject is complex and vast, but this book is designed to make it approachable and usable for culinary programs Common Terms, Foods, and Ingredients ANCILLARY MATERIALS For Instructors Instructor’s Manual to Accompany International Cuisine Each chapter is further supported by an Instructor’s Manual For Instructors and Students Online Companion to Accompany International Cuisine An Online Companion is provided to supply additional resources for the instructor and the students; it includes test bank questions, PowerPoint slides, and additional recipes CONCEPTUAL APPROACH The chapters begin with the Middle East because many of the characteristics of civilization that led to our ability to have distinct cuisines began here The rest of the chapters in Section I move mainly from east to west across southern Europe, then north through Europe, and end with the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula provides an appropriate transition to northern Africa in Section II, and then to the Americas in Section III, because all of these regions are linked in both history and cuisine After traveling THE RECIPES The recipes chosen for the text are representative of the cuisine of each region and are mostly made using either common ingredients or those that can be obtained by a culinary arts school or at specialty markets Many of the recipes include accompanying photos of the completed dish, and photos for some of the steps of the more complicated or unique preparations can also be found in the text The recipes are in no way a complete representation of the cuisine of the region covered, as each region that has a chapter dedicated to it in this text could easily fill many volumes on its own The recipes are meant to provide a glimpse into the cuisines by introducing some of the more common, practical, or unique recipes that will help students and others gain an entry into this vast subject Additional recipes are available from the companion site, and surely many instructors will want to supplement the material presented in this text with recipes that they are more familiar with All recipes include details about the cooking methods employed in creating them and the expected yield As with any other recipe, remember that these are guides; variation in products will always necessitate occasional adjustments to compensate for moisture contents, degree of flavor, palate differences, and so forth One should always use one’s senses when cooking GLOSSARY uruchi mai Non-glutinous short-grain rice variety that is most commonly used in Japanese cuisine (Japan) utskho suneli Spice used in Georgian cuisine that is similar to fenugreek (Russia) uvas Grapes (Italy/Iberian Peninsula/Mexico/South America) v vainilla Vanilla (Mexico) val dal Split and skinned lablab bean (Indian subcontinent) vareniki Ukrainian stuffed noodles filled with various mixtures that include sauerkraut, cheese, and potatoes, or sweet fillings such as cherries Savory versions are typically served with sour cream, and sweet versions are served with confectioners’ sugar or crème frche (Russia) Västerbottenost Highly prized hard aged cow’s milk cheese from Västerbotten with a granular texture; aged for a minimum of one year (Sweden) vatapá Seafood served with manioc sauce (or sometimes bread), nuts, dried shrimp, coconut, and dendé oil (Brazil) venado Venison (deer meat) (Mexico) ventricina Pork salami from the Puglia region flavored with peperoncino, fennel, and orange zest (Italy) verdure vegetables (Italy) verjuice Juice of unripened grapes (Middle East) vetchina Smoked pork, ham, or other cut (Russia) vinagre Vinegar; the process of making this was introduced to South America by the Spanish (South America) vincigrassi Liguria baked pasta with prosciutto, mushrooms, and sweetbreads (Italy) vindaloo masala This type of spice mixture is a wet blend and is heavily influenced by the Portuguese, who once colonized the area of Goa in southwestern India This paste would typically contain vinegar, garlic, chiles, and various additional spices (Indian subcontinent) vinegret Salad of potatoes, pickled cucumbers, beets, carrots, and onions, dressed with an oil and vinegar dressing (Russia) vitello Veal (Italy) vitellone Beef slaughtered between 14 and 16 months of age (Italy) vongola Clam (Italy) w wakame Variety of seaweed used commonly in soups and as a salad (Japan) wammerl Pickled pork belly (Germany) wanko soba Soba noodles served cold (Japan) warka (or ourka) Thin sheets of dough created by slapping soft dough onto a greased pan made especially for this preparation (North Africa) 519 wasabi Pungent root that is ground and served with sushi; fresh wasabi is very rare and expensive in both the United States and Japan ( Japan) washoku Translates as “harmony of food,” a philosophy and way of cooking in Japan that recognized the relationship between nourishment and all aspects of food in attaining it (Japan) Welsh rarebit A dish of cheese sauce served over or with toast; also called Welsh rabbit (Wales) wienerbrød (Denmark) Vienna bread; the name given to Danish pastries and the method of layering butter between sheets of dough This food came to Denmark from Viennese pastry chefs/bakers who worked in the country during a bakers’ strike in the 1800s This product was much loved, and Danish bakers are said to have improved on the Viennese techniques over the years (Germany) Literal translation is Vienna bread, but these are known as Danish pastries in the United States Wiener schnitzel Breaded and panfried veal cutlet (Germany) wildbret Venison (Germany) wor tip Pot stickers in the style of Shanghai (said to be their place of origin) (China) wurst Sausage (Germany) x xiaolongbao Steamed dumpling from the southern region, filled with a gelatinous seasoned pork mixture that becomes soup-like when cooked, resulting in a steamed bun with liquid filling (China) xi dau Soy sauce (Vietnam) y yagada Berry (Russia) yakitori Skewered chicken that is grilled and often served in specialty shops dedicated to grilled foods (Japan) yakni Mutton (Indian subcontinent) yang Forces of light; associated with the exterior of the body, the gallbladder, stomach, intestines, and bladder Symptoms of problems within these areas are thought to be caused by an excess of yang, and relief may be sought by including more yin foods in one’s diet Also a term used to describe a part of Chinese philosophy that separates foods based on their inherent effect on the human body; effects are described either as hot and warming, with associations with energy and fire, or as cold and cooling, with associations with calming and ice (China) yin Forces of dark; associated with the heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lungs Symptoms of problems within these areas are thought to be caused by an excess of yin, and relief may be sought through an increase in yang foods (China) Yorkshire pudding Savory pudding made from a batter and cooked in the drippings of a roast beef, for which it is the traditional accompaniment (England) 520 GLOSSARY yuba Dried soya bean skin made from the film that forms on the surface of soya milk during tofu production (Japan) yuca Another name for manioc or cassava, a type of tuber (South America) z zaalouk Moroccan eggplant and tomato purée (North Africa) za’atar Spice blend commonly eaten with Arab bread and olive oil; made from sumac, sesame seeds, oregano, and thyme (Arabic-speaking countries) zabaglione Rich dessert sauce made from whipping egg yolks, sugar, and Marsala wine together over a double boiler until it gets thick and frothy (Italy) zacusca˘ Spreads made from eggplant, roasted peppers, and spices; served with bread (sometimes made with beans instead of eggplant, and may include other ingredients such as tomato and onion) (Romania) zakuski Small bites; appetizers set out to be eaten prior to the beginning of a meal (Russia) zalivnoe Jellied meats, poultry, or fish (Russia) zanahorias Carrots (Mexico) zapallo Large squash with green skin and orangecolored flesh that is common in northern South America (South America) zarzuela de marisco Fisherman’s stew made from local shellfish cooked in a flavorful tomato and pepper broth; this dish, from the Catalonia region of Spain, borrows its name from a type of opera (Iberian Peninsula) zayats Hare (Russia) zhao li Wire mesh strainer with a bamboo handle (China) zharkoe Stew made from slow-simmered roasted meats with potatoes and other vegetables (Russia) zheng Steaming (China) zheng long Steamer (China) zhug Spiced relish used for seasoning; made with garlic, cumin, fenugreek, chiles, and coriander (Israel) zhu shua Wok brush made of bamboo bristles (China) zitun Olive (North Africa) zoupes Wrinkled, black, salt-cured olives found on the Dodecanese Islands (Greece) zucca Gourd squash (Italy) zupa Soup (Poland) zuppa di pane Bread soup flavored with meat broth and garlic, and often topped with cheese (Italy) zwiebels Onions (Germany) RECIPE INDEX a African cuisine See North African cuisine Anchovy garlic oil dip (bagna caôda), 89 Argentine parsley sauce (chimichurri), 366 Artichoke bottoms cooked to remain white (artichauts de blanc), 135–136 Asparagus, Parma style (asparagi alla Parmigiana), 97 Avgolemono (lemon sauce), 37 b Baba ghanoush (eggplant purée), 17 Baklava (layered crisp dough with nuts and honey), 44–45 Banana fritters (beignets de banane), 320–321 Basmati rice, steamed, 390 Basque-style salt cod (bacalão al Viscaina), 259–260 Bavarian cream (Bayerische crème), 187 Beef raw ground (rindsfleisch tartare), 171 raw shaved (carpaccio), 87 roast, marinated, with sweetand-sour sauce (Rheinischer sauerbraten), 185–186 roast rib of, 157 rolled, stuffed with pickles and bacon (rindsrouladen), 183–184 seasoned ground (kefta), 294–295 skewered, with onion salsa (anticuchos salsa criolla), 361–362 steak stuffed with seasoned vegetable and eggs (matambre), 367–368 stew (bográs gulyás), 60–61 stewed, with squash and pears (carbonada), 366 stewed, with tomato, olives, and capers (picadillo), 315–316 Stroganoff (bef Stroganov), 235–236 Beets pickled (syltede rødbeder), 204 soup (borscht), 230–231 Blueberry clafouti custard (clafouti aux myrtille), 137–138 Borscht (beet soup), 230–231 Boxty bread (bacstai gridille), 151 Brandy snaps, 159–160 Bread Cuban (pan Cubano), 309–311 pita bread, 38 rye spice bread (rågsiktlimpör), 198–199 with tomato and olive oil (pa amb tomàquet), 248 See also Flatbread Breakfast, English, 148, 167 British Isles, cuisines of, 151–161 bacstai gridille (boxty bread; Northern Ireland), 151 brandy snaps (England), 159–160 brotchán foltchep (leek and oatmeal soup; Ireland), 154 drop scones (Scotland), 152 Dundee marmalade (Scotland), 153 grabhar biabhóg (rhubarb crumble; Ireland), 161 horseradish sauce (England), 159 mint sauce (England), 157 oatcakes (Ireland), 153–154 potted shrimp and haddock (Scotland), 156 roast rib of beef (England), 157 Welsh rarebit (toast with cheese/ beer sauce; England and Wales), 155 Yorkshire pudding (England), 158 Buckwheat groats (kasha), 229–230 Buckwheat noodles, chilled (naganegi no soba), 465 Bulgur and herb salad (tabbouleh), 20 Butter aged and salted (smen), 279 clarified and caramelized (ghee), 389–390 c Cabbage braised (gedünstetes kraut), 56–57 braised, with apples (rotkohl mit äpfeln), 182 potato and cabbage soup (caldo verde), 254 salad, spicy (picklese), 312 soured/pickled (sauerkraut), 178–179 stuffed (töltött káposzta), 59–60 Cactus leaf salad (ensalata nopalitos), 342–343 Caribbean cuisine, 309–321 alcapurrias (fried plantain and taro dough stuffed with picadillo; Cuba and Puerto Rico), 316–317 beignets de banane (fried banana fritters; Martinique), 320–321 callaloo (callalloo leaf soup with crab; Caribbean Islands), 313–314 cassava chips (fried cassava chips; Jamaica), 318 coocoo (cornmeal and okra mash; Barbados), 313 dunkanoo (sweet corn and coconut dumplings; Jamaica), 319–320 jerk marinade (Jamaica), 319 jerk rub (Jamaican seasoning; Jamaica), 318 521 522 Caribbean cuisine (continued) mojo (citrus and garlic marinade and sauce; Cuba and other islands), 315 pan Cubano (Cuban bread; Cuba), 309–311 picadillo (stewed beef or pork with tomato, olives, and capers; Cuba), 315–316 picklese (spicy cabbage salad; Haiti), 312 sofrito (Puerto Rican seasoning paste; Puerto Rico), 311–312 Cassava chips (fried cassava chips), 318 Celery root purée (purée de céleri-rave), 135 Cèpe-infused oil (huiles de cèpes), 117 Chapatis (Indian flatbread), 394–395 Chicken with bang bang sauce (bang bang ji si), 436–437 and cabbage salad (goi ga), 421 and snails in saffron rice (paella Valenciana), 258–259 cutlet, breaded (chicken Kiev; kotlety po Kievski), 232–233 cutlet, breaded (kotlety pozharsky), 233–234 enchiladas (enchiladas verde pollo), 339–340 marinated braised, in spiced tomato/yogurt sauce (masala murgh), 393–394 poached (escalfar pollo), 339 sautée (poulet sautée la Normande), 132 Chili paste, yellow Peruvian (pasta de aji amarillo), 360 Chili rellenos (poblano chili stuffed with cheese), 337–338 Chili sauce, hot (piri-piri), 252 Chinese cuisine, 433–449 bang bang ji si (chicken with bang bang sauce; Western China), 436–437 char sui (roasted pork in Cantonese style; Southern China/Canton), 444 char sui bao (roasted pork buns; Southern China/Canton), 445–446 chun chuan p’i (spring roll wrappers; Northeastern region), 441 fan (plain cooked rice; China), 434 RECIPE INDEX far jiu fun (Sichuan peppercorn paste; Western China/ Sichuan), 439 gan bian si ji dou (spicy stir-fried green beans; Western China/ Sichuan), 440 har cheung fun (shrimp-filled steamed rice rolls; Southern China), 446–448 har yeun (shrimp balls: Southern China), 448–449 hong shao roa (pork belly in red cooked style; Eastern China), 442–443 qiang huang qua (spicy cucumber; Western China), 436 wor tip (pot stickers; Eastern China/Shanghai), 437–439 Yangzhou chau fan (stir-fried rice in the style of Yangzhou; Eastern China), 435 Citrus and garlic marinade and sauce (mojo), 315 Clotted/fermented cream (crème frâiche), 118 Coconut chicken soup, Thai (tom kha gai), 414 Coconut sambol (pol sambol), 388 Corn and coconut dumplings (dunkanoo), 319–320 flatbread (tortillas), 333 grilled fresh corn with sweet onion oil (poat dot), 423 preparing for tortillas, tamales, or sopes (nixtamal; maíz para masa), 332 tamales poblano y queso, 333–334 Cornbread dough (masa de arepa), 364 stuffed with meat (arepas rellenas carne), 364–365 Cornmeal boiled (polenta al burro), 83 and okra mash (coocoo), 313 porridge (ma˘ma˘liga˘), 65 Couscous, 289–290 salad in the style of Tangier (salatat Tangiers), 284–285 Cuban bread (pan Cubano), 309–311 Cucumbers brine-pickled (ogórki kiszone), 55–56 quick pickled (smörgåsgurka), 208 spicy (qiang huang qua), 436 spicy/sweet relish (nam jim tua), 415 d Drop scones, 152 Duck legs (confit de canard), 125 Dumplings filled (Russian Federation), 222 meat-filled (pel’meni), 226–227 pastry (gnocchi la Parisienne), 133–134 potato (gnocchi), 81–82 potato (kartoffelknödel), 181–182 stuffed (manti), 225–226 sweet corn and coconut (dunkanoo), 319–320 tiny (spätzle), 179–180 Dundee marmalade, 153 e Eastern European cuisine, 55–65 bográs gulyás (kettle beef stew; Hungary), 60–61 gedünstetes kraut (braised cabbage; Poland and Czech Republic), 56–57 guiveciu de ciuperci (braised mushrooms in sour cream sauce; Romania), 64 lescó (stewed peppers and tomatoes; Hungary), 58 ma˘ma˘liga˘ (cornmeal porridge; Romania), 65 ogórki kiszone (brine-pickled cucumbers; Poland), 55–56 töltött káposzta (stuffed cabbage; Hungary), 59–60 wiener schnitzel (breaded veal cutlet; Vienna), 51, 62–63 Eggplant casserole with lamb (moussaka), 42–43 purée (baba ghanoush), 17 stuffed with tomato (imam bayildy), 23–24 and tomato purée (zaalouk), 292–293 Endive and potato salad (salade de chicorée et pomme de terre), 119–120 f Falafel (fava bean fritter), 19 Fish soup (soupe de poissons), 122–123 Flatbread corn (tortillas), 333 harsha, 288 Indian (chapatis), 394–395 pocketed (pita bread), 38 523 RECIPE INDEX potato-filled (aloo paratha), 395–397 potato (lefse), 197–198 with spinach and pine nuts (coca d’spinacs), 249–250 wheat flour (tortillas de harina), 335 French cuisine, 117–139 artichauts de blanc (artichoke bottoms cooked to remain white; Northwest), 135–136 clafouti aux myrtille (blueberry clafouti custard; Central France, Limousin), 137–138 confit de canard (cured duck legs cooked and preserved in duck fat; Southwest), 125 crème frâiche (clotted/fermented cream; Normandy), 118 duxelles (ground seasoned mushroom and shallot paste; Central Eastern Region), 127 galettes au jambon, au fromage et l’oeuf (buckwheat pancakes with ham, cheese, and egg; Brittany), 121–122 gnocchi la Parisienne (dumpling made from pastry; Ỵle de France), 133–134 huiles de cèpes (cèpe-infused oil; Southwest France), 117 mousseline de saumon aux poireau (salmon mousseline; Ỵle de France), 123–124 poulet sautée la Normande (sautéed chicken breast with Camembert and calvados cream sauce; Normandy), 132 purée de céleri-rave (celery root purée; The North), 135 raffalait (preserved and caramelized milk: The North), 139 salade de chicorée et pomme de terre (Belgian endive and potato salad; The North), 119–120 sauce mignonette (shallot and pepper-infused vinegar; Brittany), 118 sauté de ris de veau (sautéed veal sweetbreads; Central Eastern Region), 126–127 soupe de poissons (fish soup; Provence), 122–123 terrine de ris de veau aux champignon (veal mousseline with mushroom purée and sweetbreads), 128–131 g Garlic olive oil emulsion (alioli), 250–251 Garlic tomato sauce, spiced (salbitxada), 253 Gazpacho (cold tomato soup), 255 German cuisine, 170–187 Bayerische crème (Bavarian cream; Bavaria, Southeastern Germany), 187 frankfurter grüne sosse (green sauce in the style of Frankfurt; Frankfurt, Central Germany), 174 heringsstippe (herring and apple salad; Northern Germany), 172 kartoffelknödel (potato dumpling; Southern Germany), 181–182 kartoffelpfannkuchen (potato pancake; The Rhineland, Southwestern Germany), 173 kartoffelsalat mit speck (warm potato salad with bacon; Northern Germany), 176–177 lebkuchen (gingerbread; Bavaria, Southeastern Germany), 186 linsensuppe (lentil soup; Northern Germany), 177 pichelsteiner eintopf (meat and vegetable stew), 183 Rheinischer sauerbraten (marinated beef roast with sweet-and-sour sauce; The Rhineland, Southwestern Germany), 185–186 rindsfleisch tartare (raw ground beef with garnishes; Eastern and Southern Germany), 171 rindsrouladen (rolled beef stuffed with pickles and bacon), 183–184 rotkohl mit äpfeln (braised red cabbage with apples; Thuringia, Central Germany), 182 sauerkraut (soured/pickled cabbage), 178–179 schwäbischer kartoffelsalat (Swabian style potato salad; Swabia, Southeastern Germany), 175–176 spätzle (tiny dumplings; Swabia, Southeastern Germany), 179–180 Ghee (clarified and caramelized butter), 389–390 Gingerbread (lebkuchen), 186 Greek cuisine, 34–45 avgolemono (lemon sauce), 37 baklava (layered crisp dough with nuts and honey), 44–45 briami (summer vegetable casserole), 40 fava santorinis (yellow split pea purée), 39 horta (wild greens), 37 hummus bi tahini (chickpea and sesame spread/dip), 36 keftedes (lamb meatballs), 40 moussaka (eggplant casserole with lamb), 42–43 mullet, panfried, with citrus sauce, 44 patates psties (lemon potatoes), 39 pita bread (pocketed flatbread), 38 souvlakia (skewered and grilled lamb), 41 tzatziki (yogurt, cucumber, and mint), 35 yogurt (cultured milk), 34–35 Green beans, spicy stir-fried (gan bian si ji dou), 440 Green curry paste (gaeng kiew wahn), 412–413 Green peppers, stuffed (etli biber dolmasi), 22 Green sauce salsa verde, 96 in the style of Frankfurt (frankfurter grüne sosse), 174 Greens, wild (horta), 37 Guacamole, 336 h Herring and apple salad (heringsstippe), 172 pickled (inlagd sill), 203 Honey walnut cake (medivnik), 237 Horseradish sauce, 159 Hummus, 36 524 i Iberian cuisine, 247261 aỗorda de mariscos (shellfish and bread soup; Lisbon/Southern Portugal), 256–257 ajotomate (spiced tomato salad; Levante), 253 alioli (garlic olive oil emulsion; Catalonia), 250–251 bacalão al Viscaina (Basquestyle salt cod; North Atlantic Spain), 259–260 bolinhos de bacalão (salt cod fritters; Portugal), 251 calcotada (grilled white stocked onions; Catalonia), 252 caldo verde (potato and cabbage soup; Northern Portugal), 254 coca d’spinacs (flatbread with spinach and pine nuts; Balearic Islands), 249–250 gazpacho Andaluz (cold tomato soup; Andalusia), 255 pa amb tomàquet (bread with tomato and olive oil; Catalonia), 248 paella Valenciana (chicken and snails in saffron rice; Valencia), 258–259 piri-piri (hot chili sauce; Portugal), 252 salbitxada (spiced garlic tomato sauce; Catalonia), 253 salsa romesco (spiced garlic tomato sauce; Catalonia), 261 tortilla Espanola (Spanish potato omelet; Central Spain), 247–248 Indian spice blends dry spice blend (garam masala), 386 multiuse spice blend, Southern India (bafat), 387 South Indian spice blend (sambar masal), 387–388 Indian Subcontinent, cuisines of, 386–399 aloo paratha (potato-filled flatbread; Western India), 395–397 am kulfi (mango ice cream; Northern India), 398–399 bafat (multiuse spice blend; Southern India), 387 basmati (steamed basmati rice; Northern India), 390 RECIPE INDEX chane ki dal laukiwali (yellow split peas with spiced tomato and zucchini; Western India), 392 chapatis (Indian flatbread; all of subcontinent), 394–395 garam masala (Indian dry spice blend; Northern India), 386 ghee (clarified and caramelized butter; Northern India/ Pakistan), 389–390 gosht pulao (spiced stewed lamb and basmati; Pakistan/ Northwestern India), 397–398 masala murgh (marinated braised chicken in spiced tomato/ yogurt sauce; Northern India), 393–394 pol sambol (coconut sambol; Sri Lanka), 388 raita (yogurt relish; Indian subcontinent), 389 sambar masal (South Indian spice blend; Southern India), 387–388 tok dal (red lentil with tamarind and lime; Eastern India/ Bangladesh), 391 Iran/Persia See Middle Eastern cuisines Iraq See Middle Eastern cuisines Ireland See British Isles, cuisines of Italian cuisine, 81–98 asparagi alla Parmigiana (asparagus, Parma style; Emilia-Romagna), 97 bagna caôda (hot anchovy garlic oil dip; Piedmont), 89 bollito misto (mixed boiled meats: Piedmont), 95–96 cacciucco (fisherman’s seafood stew; Tuscany), 89–90 carpaccio (raw shaved beef), 87 crema limoncina (lemon cream; Sicily), 97–98 gnocchi (potato dumpling; Veneto), 81–82 gremolata (parsley, garlic, and lemon seasoning; Lombardy), 81 insalata di arance (orange and fennel salad with rosemary; Sicily), 88 lombo di maiale ripieno (salumi stuffed pork loin; Tuscany), 92–94 osso bucco alla Milanese (braised veal shank; Lombardy), 91 pasta fresca (fresh egg pasta; Northern Italy), 84 pesto (basil, garlic, and olive oil paste; Liguria), 83 pizza Margherita (pizza with tomato, basil, and mozzarella; Campagna), 85–86 polenta al burro (boiled cornmeal with butter; Friuli/Venezia Giulia), 83 ragu alla Bolognese (tomato and meat sauce; EmiliaRomagna), 85 risotto alla Milanese (stewed short-grain rice; Lombardy), 90 salsa per carpaccio (carpaccio sauce), 88 salsa verde (green sauce; Lombardy), 96 scaloppine al limone (sautéed veal with lemon sauce; Lombardy), 95 tiramisu (mascarpone and coffee trifle; Veneto), 98 j Jamaican seasonings (jerk rub and jerk marinade), 318–319 Jansson’s temptation, 200–201 Japanese cuisine, 459–470 ichiban dashi (stronger seaweed stock: Japan), 459 ichigo daifuku (rice flour pastry with sweet beans and strawberry; Honshu), 469–470 maki-mono (vinegared rice and fillings rolled in roasted seaweed; Tokyo), 463–464 miso shiru (seaweed broth with fermented soybean paste; Japan), 467 naganegi no soba (chilled buckwheat noodles with leeks and dipping sauce; Honshu and Hokkaido Islands), 465 niban dashi (lighter seaweed stock: Japan), 460 nigiri (hand-formed vinegared rice with toppings; Tokyo), 462–463 ponzu sauce (citrus soy sauce; Southern Islands), 460 sake no miso (salmon marinated with miso; Hokkaido Island), 468 RECIPE INDEX su-meshi (vinegared short-grain rice; Japan/Tokyo), 461–462 tempura (battered and fried fish and vegetables; Kyushu), 466–467 teriyaki sauce (sweetened soy/rice wine sauce; Japan), 461 Jerk marinade (Jamaica), 319 Jerk rub (Jamaican seasoning), 318 k Kaffir lime leaves, 406 Karelian stew (karjalanpaisti), 208–209 Kasha (buckwheat groats), 229–230 Kebabs, 24 l Lamb fat, preserved (qawrama), 14 meatballs (keftedes), 40 sausage, spiced/dried (mirqaz/ merguez), 293–294 skewered and grilled lamb (souvlakia), 41 skewered grilled (sis kebabi), 24 spiced stewed, with basmati (gosht pulao), 397–398 tagine with olives and preserved lemon (lham bil zitun wa l’hamd mrakad), 291 and wheat (kibbeh), 20–21 Leek and oatmeal soup (brotchán foltchep), 154 Lemon cream (crema limoncina), 97–98 Lemon potatoes (patates psties), 39 Lemon sauce (avgolemono), 37 Lemons, salt-preserved (l’hamd mrakad), 280 fava bean salad with (salatat fool), 283 salt-cured olives and (beldi wa l’hamd mrakad), 281 Lentil, red, with tamarind and lime (tok dal), 391 Lentil soup (linsensuppe), 177 Lescó (stewed peppers and tomatoes), 58 Lettuce snack with spiced fi lling (miang kham), 422 Limes pickled (torshi limu), 15–16 soup with chicken and tortillas (sopa de lima), 343–344 Liver sausage (niederrheinische leberwurst), 174–175 m Mango ice cream (am kulfi), 398–399 Marmalade, Dundee, 153 Matambre (matambre steak stuffed with seasoned vegetable and eggs), 367–368 Meat and vegetable stew (pichelsteiner eintopf), 183 Meatballs, Swedish (köttbullar), 206–207 Mexican cuisine, 331–348 arroz la Mexicana (rice in the style of Mexico; many regions), 341–342 chili rellenos (poblano chili stuffed with cheese; Central Highlands), 337–338 enchiladas verde pollo (corn tortillas stuffed with chicken in green sauce; Central Highlands), 339–340 ensalata nopalitos (cactus leaf salad; Norte Mexico), 342–343 escalfar pollo (poached chicken; Central Highlands), 339 frijoles de la olla (black beans/pot beans; Southern States), 341 guacamole (spiced avocado and cilantro condiment; Central and Southern Mexico), 336 huachinango a la Veracruzana (red snapper in the style of Veracruz; Veracruz), 347–348 mole poblano (turkey with chili, onion, chocolate, and ground seasonings; Puebla and Oaxaca), 346–347 nixtamal (maíz para masa; preparing corn for tortillas, tamales, or sopes; Central and Southern Mexico), 332 pozole (pork and hominy soup; Jalisco), 345 salsa Mexicana (pico de gallo), 337 salsa verde (tomatillo sauce; Central Highlands), 335–336 sopa de lima (chicken and lime soup with tortillas; Yucatán), 343–344 tamales poblano y queso (steamed corn dough in corn husks with chili and cheese; Central Highland Region), 333–334 525 tortillas (corn flatbread; all regions), 333 tortillas de harina (wheat flour flatbread; Norte Mexico), 335 Middle Eastern cuisines, 12–27 baba ghanoush (eggplant purée; Arab countries), 17 baharat (spice blend; Middle East), 12 chelou (crusted rice; Persia/Iran), 26–27 dibs rim’an (pomegranate molasses; Lebanon/ Syria), 15 etli biber dolmasi (stuffed green peppers; Turkey), 22 fool mudammas (mashed and spiced fava beans; Egypt), 17–18 imam bayildy (eggplant stuffed with tomato; Turkey), 23–24 kibbeh (lamb and wheat; Lebanon and Syria), 20–21 pilav (rice pilaf with currants and pine nuts; Turkey), 25 qawrama (preserved lamb fat; Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq), 14 sis kebabi (skewered grilled lamb; Turkey), 24 ta’amia/falafel (fava bean fritter; Egypt), 19 tabbouleh (bulgur and herb salad; Lebanon/Palestine), 20 taratoor (sesame sauce; Middle East), 16 torshi limu (pickled limes; Iran/ Persia), 15–16 za’atar (spice blends; Middle East), 13–14 Milk, preserved and caramelized (raffalait), 139 Mint sauce, 157 Moussaka (eggplant casserole with lamb), 42–43 Mullet, panfried, with citrus sauce, 44 Mushrooms braised, in sour cream sauce (guiveciu de ciuperci), 64 marinated (marinovannye griby), 229 and shallot paste (duxelles), 127 sour cream sauce for kotlety pozharsky, 235 Mussels, Thai (gaeng ped hoi mang phu), 413 526 n Noodles fried, Thai (phat thai), 415–416 stuffed (vareniki), 223–224 North African cuisine, 276–295 beghrir (North African pancake; North Africa), 282 beldi wa l’hamd mrakad (saltcured olives and preserved lemons; Morocco), 281 bisteeya bil hout (individual seafood pastries/pies; Morocco), 286–287 charmoula (spiced marinade for fish and poultry; North Africa), 289 couscous (steamed semolina grains: North Africa), 289–290 harissa (Tunisian spice paste; Tunisia), 277 harsha (flatbread; Morocco), 288 kefta (seasoned ground beef; North Africa), 294–295 l’hamd mrakad (preserved lemons; Morocco), 280 mirqaz/merguez (spiced/dried lamb sausage; Tunisia), 293–294 ras-el-hanout (spice blend; Morocco), 278 salatat fool (fava bean salad with preserved lemon; Tunisia), 283 salatat Tangiers (couscous salad in the style of Tangier; Morocco), 284–285 smen (aged and salted butter; Morocco), 279 tabil (Tunisian spice mix; Tunisia), 278 tagine lham bil zitun wa l’hamd mrakad (lamb tagine with olives and preserved lemon), 291 warka (thin pastry; Morocco), 285–286 zaalouk (eggplant and tomato purée; Morocco), 292–293 o Oatcakes, 153–154 Oil cèpe-infused (huiles de cèpes), 117 garlic olive oil emulsion (alioli), 250–251 Okra and cornmeal mash (coocoo), 313 RECIPE INDEX Olives, salt-cured, 281 Onions, grilled (calcotada), 252 Orange salad with fennel and rosemary (insalata di arance), 88 p Pancakes buckwheat (bliny), 227–228 buckwheat, with ham, cheese, and egg (galettes au jambon, au fromage et l’oeuf), 121–122 North African (beghrir), 282 Papaya salad (som thum), 416–417 Parsley sauce, Argentine (chimichurri), 366 Parsley seasoning (gremolata), 81 Peppers, stewed, with tomatoes and paprika (lescó), 58 Peruvian chili paste (pasta de aji amarillo), 360 Pesto (basil, garlic, and olive oil paste), 83 Pita bread, 38 Plantain fried and stuffed with picadillo (alcapurrias), 316–317 milkshake (chucula), 371 Pomegranate molasses (dibs rim’an), 15 Pork belly in red cooked style (hong shao roa), 442–443 and hominy soup (pozole), 345 loin, salumi stuffed (lombo di maiale ripieno), 92–94 loin, stuffed with prunes and apples (mørbrad med svedsker og aebler), 209–210 roasted in Cantonese style (char sui), 444 roasted pork buns (char sui bao), 445–446 Pot beans (frijoles de la olla), 341 Pot stickers (wor tip), 437–439 Potato-filled flatbread (aloo paratha), 395–397 Potatoes and cabbage soup (caldo verde), 254 dumpling (gnocchi), 81–82 dumpling (kartoffelknödel), 181–182 endive and potato salad (salade de chicorée et pomme de terre), 119–120 flatbread (lefse), 197–198 layered potato “cake” with shrimp (causa de camarones), 362–363 lemon (patates psties), 39 new, butter-steamed (smørdampete nypoteter), 211 pancake (kartoffelpfannkuchen), 173 salad (schwäbischer kartoffelsalat), 175–176 salmon and potato salad (lax med potatis), 205–206 Spanish potato omelet (tortilla Espanola), 247–248 warm salad with bacon (kartoffelsalat mit speck), 176–177 Potted shrimp and haddock, 156 Puerto Rican seasoning paste (sofrito), 311–312 r Red curry paste (gaeng peht), 412 Red snapper in the style of Veracruz (huachinango la Veracruzana), 347–348 Rhubarb crumble (grabhar biabhóg), 161 Rice basmati, 390 crusted (chelou), 26–27 Mexican style (arroz la Mexicana), 341–342 pilav (pilaf), 25 plain cooked (fan), 434 stewed (risotto alla Milanese), 90 stir-fried (Yangzhou chau fan), 435 vinegared, in sushi, 461–464 Rice flour pastry (ichigo daifuku), 469–470 Rice noodles (pho bo), 418–419 Rice pastry (piirakka), 201–202 Rice rolls, shrimp-filled (har cheung fun), 446–448 Rice wrap with shrimp (goi cuon), 420 Russian cuisine, 222–237 bef Stroganov (beef Stroganoff), 235–236 bliny (thin buckwheat pancakes), 227–228 borscht (beet soup), 230–231 filled dumplings (Russian Federation), 222 kasha (buckwheat groats), 229–230 RECIPE INDEX kotlety po Kievski (chicken Kiev; breaded chicken cutlet with butter stuffing), 232–233 kotlety pozharsky (breaded chicken cutlet), 233–234 manti (stuffed dumplings, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan), 225–226 marinovannye griby (marinated mushrooms), 229 medivnik (honey walnut cake; European Russia), 237 mushroom sour cream sauce for kotlety pozharsky, 235 pel’meni (meat-filled dumplings; Siberia), 226–227 vareniki (stuffed noodles; Ukraine), 223–224 Rye spice bread (rågsiktlimpör), 198–199 s Salmon cured fillet of (gravlax), 199–200 marinated with miso (sake no miso), 468 mousseline (mousseline de saumon aux poireau), 123–124 and potato salad (lax med potatis), 205–206 Salt cod Basque-style (bacalão al Viscaina), 259–260 fritters (bolinhos de bacalão), 251 Salt-preserved lemons and olives, 281 Salumi, pork loin stuffed with (lombo di maiale ripieno), 92–94 Sauerkraut (soured/pickled cabbage), 178–179 Scandinavian cuisine, 197–211 gravlax (cured salmon fillet; Sweden), 199–200 gravlaxsås (mustard/dill sauce for gravlax; Sweden), 200 inlagd sill (pickled herring; Sweden and other countries), 203 Janssons frestelse (Jansson’s temptation; Sweden), 200–201 karjalanpaisti (Karelian stew; Finland), 208–209 köttbullar (Swedish meatballs; Sweden), 206–207 lax med potatis (dilled salmon and potato salad; Norway/ Sweden), 205–206 lefse (potato flatbread; Norway), 197–198 mørbrad med svedsker og aebler (pork loin stuffed with prunes and apples; Denmark), 209–210 piirakka (Karelian rice pastry; Finland), 201–202 rågsiktlimpör (Swedish rye spice bread; Sweden), 198–199 smørdampete nypoteter (buttersteamed new potatoes; Norway), 211 smörgåsgurka (quick pickled cucumbers; Sweden), 208 syltede rødbeder (pickled beets; Denmark and other countries), 204 Scones, drop, 152 Scotland See British Isles Seafood pastries/pies, individual (bisteeya bil hout), 286–287 Seafood stew (cacciucco), 89–90 Seaweed broth with fermented soybean paste (miso shiru), 467 Seaweed stock (dashi), 459, 460 Sesame sauce (taratoor), 16 Shallot and pepper-infused vinegar (sauce mignonette), 118 Shellfish and bread soup (aỗorda de mariscos), 256–257 Shrimp balls (har yeun), 448–449 and coconut stew (vatapá), 369 and haddock, potted, 156 layered potato “cake” with (causa de camarones), 362–363 Shrimp-filled steamed rice rolls (har cheung fun), 446–448 Snails and chicken in saffron rice (paella Valenciana), 258–259 South American cuisine, 360–371 anticuchos salsa criolla (skewered marinated beef with onion salsa; Peru), 361–362 arepas rellenas carne (corn dough stuffed with meat; Venezuela), 364–365 carbonada (stewed beef with squash and pears; Uruguay), 366 causa de camarones (layered potato “cake” with shrimp; Peru), 362–363 chimichurri (Argentine parsley sauce; Argentina), 366 527 chucula (plantain milkshake; Ecuador), 371 cuscuz de tapioca (tapioca and coconut cake; Brazil), 370 masa de arepa (cornbread dough; Colombia and Venezuela), 364 matambre (matambre steak stuffed with seasoned vegetable and eggs; Argentina), 367–368 pasta de aji amarillo (yellow Peruvian chili paste; Peru), 360 vatapá (spiced shrimp and coconut stew; Brazil), 369 Southeast Asian cuisine, 410–423 gaeng kiew wahn (green curry paste; Thailand), 412–413 gaeng leuang (yellow curry paste; Thailand), 411 gaeng ped hoi mang phu (Thai mussels with coconut red curry sauce; Thailand), 413 gaeng peht (red curry paste; Thailand), 412 goi cuon (rice wrap with shrimp; Vietnam and Cambodia), 420 goi ga (chicken and cabbage salad; Vietnam), 421 miang kham (lettuce snack with spiced filling; Laos and Northern Thailand), 422 nam jim tua (spicy/sweet cucumber relish; Thailand), 415 nuoc cham (table sauce; Vietnam), 419 phat thai (Thai fried noodle with shrimp), 415–416 bo (rice noodles in broth with garnishes; Vietnam), 418–419 poat dot (grilled fresh corn with sweet onion oil; Cambodia), 423 som thum (green papaya salad; Thailand), 416–417 tom kha gai (Thai coconut chicken soup; Thailand), 414 Soy sauce, 460, 461 Spanish potato omelet (tortilla Espanola), 247–248 Spice blends Indian dry spice blend (garam masala), 386 Indian, multiuse spice blend, Southern India (bafat), 387 528 Spice blends (continued) Indian, South Indian spice blend (sambar masal), 387–388 jerk rub (Jamaican seasoning), 318 Middle Eastern (baharat), 12 Middle Eastern (za’atar), 13–14 Moroccan (ras-el-hanout), 278 Puerto Rican seasoning paste (sofrito), 311–312 Tunisian spice mix (tabil), 278 Tunisian spice paste (harissa), 277 Spiced garlic tomato sauce (salbitxada), 253 Spiced marinade for fish and poultry (charmoula), 289 Spiced tomato salad (ajotomate), 253 Spinach and pine nuts, flatbread with (coca d’spinacs), 249–250 Spring roll wrappers (chun chuan p’i), 441 Sushi, 461–464 Sweetbreads veal mousseline with mushroom purée and sweetbreads (terrine de ris de veau aux champignon), 128–131 veal (sauté de ris de veau), 126–127 RECIPE INDEX t Tabbouleh (bulgur and herb salad), 20 Tapioca and coconut cake (cuscuz de tapioca), 370 Tempura (battered and fried fish and vegetables), 466–467 Teriyaki sauce (sweetened soy/rice wine sauce), 461 Tomatillo sauce (salsa verde), 335–336 Tomato salad, spiced (ajotomate), 253 Tomato sauce spiced garlic (salbitxada), 253 spiced garlic (salsa romesco), 261 Tomato soup, cold (gazpacho Andaluz), 255 Tortillas corn flatbread, 333 tortilla Espanola (Spanish potato omelet), 247–248 wheat flour flatbread, 335 v Veal braised (osso bucco alla Milanese), 91 cutlet, breaded (wiener schnitzel), 51, 62–63 mousseline with mushroom purée and sweetbreads (terrine de ris de veau aux champignon), 128–131 sautéed with lemon sauce (scaloppine al limone), 95 sweetbreads (sauté de ris de veau), 126–127 Vinegar, shallot and pepper-infused (sauce mignonette), 118 w Welsh rarebit (toast with cheese/beer sauce), 155 Wiener schnitzel (breaded veal cutlet), 51, 62–63 y Yellow curry paste (gaeng leuang), 411 Yogurt condiment (tzatziki), 35 relish (raita), 389 cultured milk, 34–35 Yorkshire pudding, 158 SUBJECT INDEX a African cuisines, 267 See also North African cuisine African influence on other cuisines, 303–304 Alexander the Great, 32 Algeria, 275–276 See also North African cuisine Alsace and Lorraine, 115 See also French cuisine Americas, cuisine of, 299 See also specific cuisines Arab influence on other cuisines, 270, 381 Argentina, 359–360, 373 See also South American cuisine Asia, cuisines of, 377 See also specific cuisines Austria, Habsburg Empire’s influence, 51–52 b Bahamas, 307 See also Caribbean cuisine Balearic Islands, 245 See also Iberian cuisine Balkan peninsula, 54–55, 66 See also Eastern European cuisine Bangladesh, 385 See also Indian subcontinent, cuisines of Barbeque, 306 Basques people, 117, 244–245 See also French cuisine; Iberian cuisine Bavaria, 170 See also German cuisine Brazil, 359 See also South American cuisine Bread in Greek cuisine, 33 in Middle Eastern cuisines, 12 in North African cuisine, 273 Breakfast, English, 148, 167 British colonies, influence on British cuisines, 146–147, 148–149 British Iles, cuisines of, 144–163 breakfast, 148 historic culinary influences, 145–147 recipes, 151–161 subregions, 149–151 terms, foods, and ingredients, 162–163 unique components, 147–149 Brittany, 113–114 See also French cuisine Buddhism, 379, 381 Bulgur, 55 Burma (Myanmar), 407–408 See also Southeast Asian cuisine c Cambodia, 410 See also Southeast Asian cuisine Carême, Marie-Antoine, 108, 110 Caribbean cuisine, 300–323 historic culinary influences, 300–304 recipes, 309–321 subregions, 306–309 terms, foods, and ingredients, 322–323 unique components, 304–306 Cheeses in Greek cuisine, 33 in Italian cuisine, 75–76 Chile, 359, 373 See also South American cuisine Chiles in Mexican cuisine, 327–328 in South American cuisine, 355, 356 Chinese cuisine, 426–451 cooking methods and equipment, 430–431, 450–451 fan, 431 historic culinary influences, 428–429 recipes, 433–439 subregions, 431–433 terms, foods, and ingredients, 450–451 unique components, 429–431 Yin, Yang, and neutral foods, 429–431 Chinese influence on other cuisines, 404, 410, 429, 454 Christian religion dietary edicts and, Indian subcontinent, cuisines and, 279 Orthodoxy and Russian cuisine and, 218–219 Coconuts, in Southeast Asian cuisine, 406 Columbus, Christopher, 299, 301, 303 Corn in Mexican cuisine, 327–328 in South American cuisine, 355–356 Cuba, 207 See also Caribbean cuisine d Denmark, 196–197, 213 See also Scandinavian cuisine Dominican Republic, 308 See also Caribbean cuisine e Eastern European cuisine, 48–67 area covered, 50, 52–53 diversity, ethnic and culinary, 52 historic culinary influences, 50–52 recipes, 55–65 529 530 Eastern European cuisine (continued) subregions, 53–55 terms, foods, and ingredients, 66–67 unique components, 52–53 Egypt, 12 See also Middle Eastern cuisines England, 149–150 See also British Iles, cuisines of Escoffier, Georges Auguste, 108–109, 110 European cuisines, See also specific cuisines European influence on other cuisines, 272, 381, 428–429, 454–455 f Fertile Crescent, 11–12 See also Middle Eastern cuisines Finland, 195, 212 See also Scandinavian cuisine Frederick the Great, 166–167, 193 French cuisine, 104–143 bread, cheese, and charcuterie, 112 French restaurant, 107–108, 112 French Revolution and, 107–108, 112 historic culinary influences, 106–110 kitchen organization, 109, 111–112 recipes, 117–139 subregions, 112–117 terms, foods, and ingredients, 140–143 unique components, 110–112 French influence on other cuisines, 71, 167, 193, 218, 327, 405 g German cuisine, 164–189 historic culinary influences, 166–167 recipes, 170–187 subregions, 169–170 terms, foods, and ingredients, 188–189 unique components, 167–169 German influence on British cuisine, 146 Greek cuisine, 30–47 historic culinary influences, 32 island cuisine, 32–33, 34 recipes, 34–45 SUBJECT INDEX subregions, 33–34 terms, foods, and ingredients, 46–47 unique components, 32–33 Greek influence on other cuisines, 6, 32, 50, 70 h Habsburg Empire, influences of, 51–52 Haiti, 307–308 See also Caribbean cuisine Halal foods, Haram foods, Hinduism, 379, 381, 382–383 Hungary, 54, 66–67 See also Eastern European cuisine i Iberian cuisine, 240–265 historic culinary influences, 242–243 recipes, 247–261 subregions, 244–247 tapas, 243 terms, foods, and ingredients, 262–265 unique components, 243–244 India, 384–386 influence on other cuisines, 404, 428 See also Indian subcontinent, cuisines of Indian subcontinent, cuisines of, 378–401 historic culinary influences, 380–382 legumes in, 383 recipes, 386–388 religion and, 379, 381, 382–383 sattvic, rajasic, and tamasic foods, 383 spices in, 383–384 subregions, 384–386 terms, foods, and ingredients, 399–401 unique components, 382–384 Iran, 9–10, 29 See also Middle Eastern cuisines Ireland, 150 See also British Iles, cuisines of Islam, 6–7 food edicts of, 7–8, 273 See also Halal foods Indian subcontinental cuisines and, 378, 381 Malaysian cuisine and, 410 North African cuisine and, 273 Israel, 8, 11, 28 See also Jews; Middle Eastern cuisines Italian cuisine, 68–103 artisan culture, 72 historic culinary influences, 70–71 pasta, 72–74 recipes, 81–98 regional autonomy, 71–72 salumi and cheeses, 75–77 subregions, 77–81 terms, foods, and ingredients, 99–103 unique components, 71–77 Italian influence on other cuisines, 32, 51, 106–107 j Jainism, 379, 381 Jamaica, 308–309 See also Caribbean cuisine Japanese cuisine, 452–474 historic culinary influences, 454–455 recipes, 459–470 rice in, 453, 456 seaweed in, 456, 472 subregions, 457–459 tea ceremony, 455–456 terms, foods, and ingredients, 471–474 unique components, 455–457 Jews Ashkenazi and Sephardi, 11, 49 dietary edicts of, 7, 8, 28, 271 See also Kashruth, laws of North African cuisine and, 271 k Kashruth, laws of, Korean influence on other cuisines, 218, 454 l La Varenne, Franỗois Pierre de, 107 Laos, 408 foods and ingredients, 424 See also Southeast Asian cuisine Lesser Antilles, 309 See also Caribbean cuisine m Maghreb, 269–270 See also North African cuisine 531 SUBJECT INDEX Magyars, 30 See also Eastern European cuisine Malaysia, 410, 424 See also Southeast Asian cuisine Medici, Catherine de’, 106–107 Mexican cuisine, 321–351 chiles in, 327–328 comal, 328 corn in, 329 historic culinary influences, 326–327 Mestizo culture, 328–329 recipes, 331–348 subregions, 329–331 terms, foods, and ingredients, 349–351 unique components, 327–329 Middle Eastern cuisines, 3, 4–29 cooking methods, 8–9 historic culinary influences, 6–7, recipes, 12–27 religion and, 5, 6–8, 28 spices in, subregions, 9–12 sweet and sour in, terms, foods, and ingredients, 27–29 unique components, 7–9 wheat and rice in, 9, 11, 12 Moghul Empire, 381–382 Mongolian influence on other cuisines, 166, 217, 428 Moorish influence on other cuisines, 70–71, 242, 244, 271 Morocco, 276 See also North African cuisine Muslims See Islam Myanmar See Burma (Myanmar) n Nepal, 385 See also Indian subcontinent, cuisines of Noodles, Chinese origin of, 429 Normandy, 113–114 influence on other cuisines, 71, 146 See also French cuisine North African cuisine, 268–297 historic culinary influences, 270–272 recipes, 276–295 subregions, 275–276 terms, foods, and ingredients, 296–297 unique components, 272–275 Norway, 196, 213 See also Scandinavian cuisine o Okinawa, 459 See also Japanese cuisine Olives, 33, 272 Ottoman Empire, 7, 10 influence on other cuisines, 32, 33, 50–51, 54–55, 271–272 p Pakistan, 384 See also Indian subcontinent, cuisines of Pasta, 72–74 Persia/Iran, 9–10 influence on other cuisines, 381, 428 ingredients and foods, 29 Persian Empire, 6, 217 See also Middle Eastern cuisines Peter the Great, 217–218 Point, Fernand, 109–110, 110 Poland, 49–50, 53 ingredients and foods, 66 See also Eastern European cuisine Portugal, 245–246 See also Iberian cuisine Portuguese influence on other cuisines, 355, 404–405, 428–429, 454–455 Potatoes Irish, 147 in Scandinavian cuisine, 193 in South American cuisine, 356–357 Preservation in German cuisine, 167 in North African cuisine, 274 in Scandinavian cuisine, 194 techniques originating in China, 429 Prussian influence on German cuisine, 166–167 Pyrenees and Pays Basque, 116–117 See also French cuisine r Religion edicts, dietary, 7–8 See also Halal, Kashrut Indian subcontinental cuisines and, 379, 381, 382–383 Middle Eastern cuisines and, 5, 6–8, 28 Southeast Asian cuisine and, 410 See also specific religions Rice irrigation and cultivation in China, 429 in Japanese cuisine, 452, 456 in Middle Eastern cuisines, in Southeast Asian cuisine, 405, 407–409 Roman Empire, influence on other cuisines, 32, 50, 70, 106, 146, 166, 270 Romania, 49, 53–54 ingredients and foods, 66 See also Eastern European cuisine Russian cuisine, 214–239 historic culinary influences, 216–218 recipes, 222–237 subregions, 220–222 terms, foods, and ingredients, 238–239 unique components, 218–220 Russian influence on Scandinavian cuisine, 193 s Sardinia, 80–81 See also Italian cuisine Sattvic, rajasic, and tamasic foods, 383 Scandinavian cuisine, 190–213 historic culinary influences, 192–193 recipes, 197–211 subregions, 195–197 terms, foods, and ingredients, 212–213 unique components, 193–195 Scandinavian influence on other cuisines, 166, 217 Scotland, 149 See also British Iles, cuisines of Seasonings See Spices Seaweed, in Japanese cuisine, 456, 472 Sicily, 81 See also Italian cuisine Slavic influence on Russian cuisine, 216–217 See also Eastern European cuisine South American cuisine, 352–375 historic culinary influences, 354–355 Mestizo culture, 357 recipes, 360–371 subregions, 358–360 terms, foods, and ingredients, 371–375 unique components, 355–358 South Indian spice blend (sambar masal), 387–388 532 Southeast Asian cuisine, 402–425 curry pastes in, 406–407 historic culinary influences, 404–405 ingredients in, 405–406 recipes, 410–423 rice in, 405, 407–409 significant culinary influences, 404–405 subregions, 407–410 terms, foods, and ingredients, 424–425 unique components, 405–407 Soy products, 429, 472 Spanish cuisine See Iberian cuisine Spanish influence on other cuisines, 71, 326–327, 354–355 Spices European spice traders, 381 in Indian subcontinental cuisines, 381, 383–384 SUBJECT INDEX in Middle Eastern cuisines, 9, 12–14 in North African cuisine, 274 in Persian Empire, Sri Lanka, 385–386 See also Indian subcontinent, cuisines of Stir frying, 431 Sweden, 195–196, 212–213 See also Scandinavian cuisine t Tea ceremony, 455–456 Thailand, 409–410, 424–425 See also Southeast Asian cuisine Tunisia, 275 See also North African cuisine Turkey, 10–11 ingredients and foods, 28–29 See also Middle Eastern cuisines; Ottoman Empire Tuscany, 79 See also Italian cuisine v Vegetarianism, 379, 382–383 Vietnam, 408–409, 425 See also Southeast Asian cuisine Vikings, 146, 192 See also Scandinavian cuisine w Wales, 150–151 See also British Iles, cuisines of Wheat importance of, in Middle Eastern cuisines, 9, 11, 12 in North African cuisine, 272 y Yin, yang, and neutral foods, 429–431 ... overstated in either the context of its historical events or the development of its cuisines Currently, the dominant religion in the area is Islam, and this faith has much to with the similarities found... INTRODUCTION International Cuisine was written to supply culinary arts students and enthusiasts with a reference and resource to the cuisines of the world Chefs today are bombarded with information.. .International C u i s i n e International C u i s i n e Jeremy MacVeigh Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States International Cuisine,
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