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Red Hat System Administration 111 Student Workbook RH254-RHEL7-en-1-20140711 MAN-RH254SKE-R2 Comprehensive, hands-on training that solves real world problems Red Hat System Administration 111 Student Workbook © 2014 Red H a t , I n c R H 54-R H E L 7-en-1 -201 40711 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - RED HAT SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION Ill - R H254 - Red Hat Enterprise Linux RH254 Red Hat System Administration Ill - Edition - Authors: Wander Boessenkool, Chen Chang, Will Dinyes, George Hacker, Editor: Steven Bonneville Rudolf Kastl, Scott McBrien, Douglas Silva, Philip Sweany Copyright© 2014 Red Hat, Inc - - The contents of this course and all its modules and related materials, including handouts to audience members, are Copyright© - 2014 Red Hat, Inc No part of this publication may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or reproduced in any way, including, but not limited to, photocopy, photograph, magnetic, electronic or other record, without the prior written permission of Red Hat, Inc This instructional program, including all material provided herein, is supplied without any guarantees from Red Hat, Inc Red Hat, Inc assumes no liability for damages or legal action arising from the use or misuse of contents or details contained herein If you believe Red Hat training materials are being used, copied, or otherwise improperly distributed please e-mail training@redhat.com or phone toll-free (USA) or +1(919)754-3700 +1 (866) 626-2994 Red Hat Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, Hibernate, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat Inc., registered in the United States and other countries Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates - - - - - XFS® is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries - The OpenStack® Word Mark and OpenStack Logo are either registered trademarks/service marks or trademarks/service marks of the OpenStack Foundation, in the United States and other countries and are used with the OpenStack Foundation's permission We are not affiliated with, endorsed or sponsored by the OpenStack Foundation, or the OpenStack community - - All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners Contri butors a n d Reviewe rs: C h r i s N e g u s, B r u c e W o l fe, Rob Locke, Bowe S t r i ck l a n d , E l l e n Fre e m a n , C o n n i e Pet l itzer, B nd o n N o lta, N i raj N i g a m , D i rk Davidis, Fo r rest Tay l o r, J i m R i g s bee, R i c a rdo Ta n i g u c h i - - - - - - - D o c u m e nt C o nve n t i o n s xi N otes a n d Wa r n i n g s x i I nt rod uction Red H a t Syste m A d m i n istra t i o n I l l O r i e ntation to t h e C l assroom Enviro n m e n t I nternati o n a l i z a t i o n - - - - - - - - - - xiii xiii xiv xv Contro l l i n g Services and D a e m o n s Contro l l i n g S e rvices w i t h syste mctl P ctice: U s i n g systemct l to M a nage S e rvices Contro l l i n g t h e Boot P rocess 11 Practice: S e l e c t i n g a Boot Ta rget L a b : Contro l l i n g S e rvices a n d D a e m o n s 17 M a n a g i n g Pv6 N etworki n g Review of Pv4 Netwo r k i n g Confi g u t i o n Practice: Config u r i n g Pv4 N etwork i n g Pv6 N etwo r k i n g Concepts Practice: I nt e r p ret i n g Pv Add resses Pv6 N etwo r k i n g Confi g u t i o n Practice: Confi g u ri n g Pv N etwo r k i n g L a b : M a na g i n g Pv N etwo r k i n g 23 24 31 35 41 43 49 54 Confi g u r i n g Li n k A g g re g a t i o n and B ri d g i n g 59 Config u r i n g N etwork Tea m i n g 60 Pra ctice: Config u r i n g N etwork Tea m i n g 63 M a n a g i n g N etwork Tea m i n g 67 Practice: M a n a g i n g N etwork Tea m i n g 71 Config u r i n g Software B r i d g es Practice: Config u r i n g S oftwa re B r i d g es 80 Lab: Confi g u ri n g L i n k A g g regation and B r i d g i n g 83 N etwork Port S e c u rity 89 M a n a g i n g Fi rewa l l d 90 Practice: Confi g u r i n g a Fi rewa l l 94 M a n a g i n g R i c h R u l es 97 Practice: Writ i n g C u stom R u l es 01 M a s q u e rad i n g a n d Port Fo rwa rd i n g 03 Practice: Fo rwa rd i n g a Port M a n a g i n g S E L i n u x Port L a b e l i n g 07 Practice: M a n a g i n g S E L i n u x Port L a be l i n g 1 L a b : N etwo r k P o r t S e c u rity 1 119 M a n a g i n g D N S for S e rvers D N S Concepts 120 P ractice: D N S Reso u rce Record Config u ri n g a C a c h i n g N a m ese rver 31 Practice: Config u r i n g u n bo u n d as a C a c h i n g N a m eserver D N S Tro u b l es h o ot i n g 139 Practice: Tro u b l es h o o t i n g DNS 44 L a b : M a n a g i n g D N S fo r S e rve rs 47 - - - - - Confi g u ri n g E m a i l Tra n s m i ss i o n 155 Config u ri n g S e n d - o n l y E m a i l S e rvice RH254- R H E L 7-en-1 -201 40711 vii - - R H 254 Practice: Confi g u r i n g Sen d-o n l y E m a i l S e rvice 63 L a b : Confi g u ri n g E m a i l Tra n s m i s s i o n 6 173 Provi d i n g R e m ote B l o c k Stora g e i S C S I Concepts 174 Practice: i S C S I C o n ce pts 178 Provid i n g i S C S I Ta rgets Practice: P rovi d i n g i S C S I Ta rgets Access i n g i S C S I Stora g e Practice: Acces s i n g i S C S I Stora g e 91 L a b : P rov i d i n g B l oc k-based Stora g e - - 201 Provi d i n g F i l e -based Stora g e Exp o rt i n g N FS F i l e Systems 202 Practice: E x p o rt i n g N FS File Syst e m s 206 Protect i n g NFS E x p o rts 209 Practice: P rotect i n g N FS Exports 214 Prov i d i n g S M B F i l e S h a res 219 Practice: P rov i d i n g S M B File S h a res 226 Perfo r m i n g a M u l ti user SMB M o u n t 231 Practice: Perfo r m i n g a M u lt i u s e r S M B M o u n t 233 L a b : P rovi d i n g F i l e-based Stora g e 236 Confi g u ri n g M aria D B Databases I n sta l l i n g M a r i a D B Practice: I n sta l l i n g M a r i a D B Wo r k i n g with M a r i a D B Databases Practice: M a r i a D B C o m m a n d s M a n a g i n g Database Users a n d Access R i g hts Practice: M a n a g i n g U se rs Creat i n g a n d Resto r i n g M a r i a D B B a c k u p s Practice: Restor i n g a M a ria D B Data base from Backup Lab: C o n fi g u r i n g M a r i a D B Databases 10 11 12 viii 247 248 254 258 64 67 272 275 280 282 289 Prov i d i n g Apache HTTPD We b S e rvice Confi g u r i n g A p a c h e HTTPD 290 Practice: Config u r i n g a Web S e rver 296 Confi g u r i n g a n d Tro u b l eshoot i n g V i rtu a l H osts 298 Practice: Confi g u ri n g a V i rt u a l H ost 01 Config u r i n g HTTPS 304 Practice: Confi g u ri n g a TLS-e n a b l e d V i rt u a l H ost 310 I nteg t i n g Dynamic Web Content Practice: Config u r i n g a Web A p p l ication L a b : Prov i d i n g A p a c h e HTTPD W e b S e r v i c e Writ i n g B a s h Scripts Bash S h e l l S c r i pt i n g Basics Practice: Writ i n g Bash Scr i pts L a b : Writ i n g B a s h Scri pts B a s h C o n d it i o n a l s a n d Control S t r u c t u res E n h a n c i n g Bash S h e l l Scri pts w i t h C o n d i t i o n a l s a n d Control Struct u res Practice: E n h a n c i n g Bash S h e l l S c r i pts w i t h C o n d i t i o n a l s a n d Control Struct u res Lab: Bash C o n d i t i o n a l s and Contro l S t r u c t u res - - - - - - - - - - - 327 328 341 345 351 352 362 368 R H254- R H E L 7-en-1-20140711 - - - - - - - 13 - - 14 Confi g u ri n g t h e S h e l l Enviro n ment C h a n g i n g t h e S h e l l Enviro n m e nt P ractice: Working with Log i n and N o n- L o g i n S h e l l s Lab: Confi g u r i n g t h e S h e l l E n v i ro n m e nt 375 376 380 382 Linux Conta i n e rs a n d Doc ker 387 I nt ro d u ct i o n to L i n u x Conta i n e rs 8 U s i n g Docker 394 - - 15 C o m p re h e n sive Review 401 Red Hat System A d m i n i stration I l l C o m p re h ensive Review 402 Lab: C o m p re h e n s i ve Review of System A d m i nistrat i o n I l l 405 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - RH254- R H E L - en -1 -20140711 ix - Document Conventions - - N otes a n d Wa r n i n g s - N ote - " N otes" are t i ps, s h o rtcuts or a l te r n a tive a p p ro a c h e s to t h e task at h a n d I g n o r i n g a n ote s h o u l d have n o n e g a t i ve conseq u e n ces, b u t you m i g ht m i s s o u t on a t r i c k t h a t m a kes your l ife e a s i e r - - R - - - ' Refe re n ces " References" d e s c r i b e w h e re to f i n d exte r n a l d o c u m e ntation re l eva nt t o a s u bject Im p o rta nt " I m portant" b o x e s deta i l t h i n g s t h a t a re e a s i l y m issed: config u t i o n c h a n g es t h a t o n l y a p p l y to t h e c u rrent sess i o n , o r services t h a t n e e d resta r t i n g before a n u p d ate w i l l a p p l y I g n o r i n g a box l a be l ed " I m porta n t " w i l l n ot ca u se data l oss, but may ca u se i rrita t i o n a n d f r u st t i o n - - Wa r n i n g " Wa rn i n g s " s h o u l d n ot b e i g n o red I g n o r i n g wa r n i n g s w i l l most l i ke l y cause data l oss - - - - - - - - - - R H254- R H E L 7-en-1 -20140711 xi - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Introduction R e d H a t Syst e m Ad m i n i st t i o n Ill Red Hat System Administration Ill ( R H 254) is d e s i g n e d fo r experi e n ce d L i n u x system a d m i n i st rators with the Red Hat Certified System A d m i n istrator ( R H CSA) certification or e q u i va l e nt s k i l l s This cou rse i s i nt e n d e d to h e l p st u d e n t s broa d e n t h e i r a b i l ity to a d m i n ister L i n u x syst e m s at an enterprise l eve l Red Hat System Administration Ill i s focu s e d o n d e p l oy m e n t a n d m a n a g e m e nt of network se rve rs r u n n i ng c a c h i n g D N S service, M a r i a D B , A p a c h e H TTPD, Postfi x S M T P n u l l c l ients, network f i l e s h a r i n g w i t h N FS a n d S M B, i S C S I i n it i ators a n d ta rgets, a d v a n ced n etwo r k i n g a n d fi rewa l l d confi g u t i o n s , a n d t h e u s e o f B a s h s h e l l scri pt i n g t o h e l p a utomate, confi g u re, a n d t ro u b l es h oot t h e syste m T h ro u g h the lectu res a n d h a n d s- o n l a bs i n t h i s co u rse, stu d e nts who have a l re a d y e a r n e d t h e R H CS A certifica ti o n w i l l b e e x p o s e d to a l l com pete ncies covered by t h e R H C E exa m T h i s cou rse d oes n ot cover a l l R H C S A t a s k s S t u d e nts w h o n e e d a review of R H C S A s k i l l s a re e n c o u g e d to attend RHCSA Rapid Track ( R H1 9) Co u rse O bject ives • • B u i l d s k i l l s n e e d e d to b e a s u ccessf u l s e n i o r R e d Hat E n t e r p rise L i n u x system a d m i n istrato r res p o n s i b l e for m a n a g i n g n etwork services Pre p a re for atte n d a nce i n an R H C E certification exa m Au d i e n ce • E x p e r i e n ced L i n u x a d m i n i st rators w i s h i n g to l e a r n a ut o m a t i o n tech n i q u es t h ro u g h script i n g , d e p l oy m e n t of key network services a n d how t o m a n a g e featu res of R e d Hat E nterp rise L i n u x P re requ i s ites • R H C S A certifi cat i o n o r e q u i va l e nt e x p e r i e n ce - - - - - - - - R H 4- R H EL - e n -1 -20140711 xiii - - C h a pter C o m p re h e nsive Review - Sol ution - I n t h i s l a b , you w i l l confi g u re a syst e m u s i n g t h e s ki l l s t a u g h t i n t h i s cou rse Resou rces: Files: -· • /home/ s t u d e n t /myapp ph p • / home/ s t u d e n t /myd b mysqldump - se rverx a n d d e s k t o pX Machines: - Outcomes: A system confi g u red a ccord i n g to t h e l i sted specifications - Before you begin • Reset yo u r d e s k t opX system • Log i nto and set u p you r deskt opX syste m i- i ! [ s t u d e n t@d e s k t opX - ] $ lab sa3 - review s e t u p • Reset yo u r se rve rX system • Log i nto and set u p you r serverX system ! i ; Specificat i o n s - �- � - · - -· - ·-� - �� - - ��� � - · - Yo u h a v e b e e n taske d with confi g u r i n g a new syste m f o r yo u r company: s e rve rX The system s h o u l d b e confi g u red accord i ng to t h e fo l l owi n g req u i re m e nts: • - - [ s t u d e n t@se rverX - ) $ l a b sa3 - review setup " - - � -� �-�� - - You r se rverX system h a s two i n t e rfaces n a med slavel and slave2 These i nterfaces s h o u l d b e s l aved i n a new tea m i n g device ca l l e d t e aml - - The tea m i n g device s h o u l d use the ac t ivebac k u p r u n n e r, a n d be confi g u re d with t h e fo l l owi n g I P a d d resses: • 192 16 100/24 • fd00 : ba5e : ball : X : : l/64 - When s u ccessfu l l y confi g u red, both 192 16 254 and fd00 : ba5e : ball : X : : fe s h o u l d b e p i n g a b l e • Yo u r se rve rX system s h o u l d p rovide cach i n g D N S services to syst e m s o n t h e 172 25 X / s u b net, u s i n g 172 25 254 as a forwa rd e r D N SS EC va l i d at i o n for t h e example com d o m a i n s h o u l d be bypassed • Yo u r se rverX system s h o u l d accept new e m a i l messages over SMTP from t h e 172 X 0/24 s u b net A l l messages not a d d ressed to @se rve rx example com o r @localhost [ loc aldomain ] s h o u l d be fo rwa rd e d to t h e S M T P s m a rt h ost r u n n i n g o n d e s k t o pX example com 408 R H 254- R H E L 7-en-1 -20140711 - - - - - - - - - - Sol ution • - - • - You r se rverX s h o u l d e x p o r t a n i S C S I d i s k ca l l e d iqn 14 - 06 com example : s e rve rX zoidbe rg T h i s i S C S I d evice s h o u l d be backed by a 512 MiB partition o n t h e seco n d a ry h a rd d rive Access s h o u l d o n l y be a l lowed to c l i e nts w i t h a n I O N of iqn 2014 - 06 com example : des k t o px Yo u r s e rverx system s h o u l d e x p o rt t h e ( n ew) /expo r t s /hypnot oad d i rectory u s i n g N FSv4 T h i s e x p o rt s h o u l d req u i re Ke r b e ros a u t h e ntication a n d f u l l e n c r y p t i o n A l l c l ients o n t h e X / s u b net s h o u l d h a v e read-write access to t h i s e x p o rt File syst e m p e r m i s s i o n s o n the u nd e r l y i n g /expo r t s /hypnot oad d i rectory s h o u l d be 7 Both you r d e s k t opX a n d se rve rX syst e m s h a v e a l re a d y b e e n confi g u red for L D A P a n d Ke r b e ros fo r u s e r i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a u t h e nt i c a t i o n d e s k t opX h a s a l so been confi g u red with a c l i e n t keyta b for Kerberos - - A keyta b for yo u r se rverx syst e m can be obtained from h t t p : / / c l a s s r o o m e x a m p l e c o m/ p u b / k e y t a b s / s e r v e rX k e y t a b - • - T h e n a m e f o r t h e s h a re s h o u l d b e bigbang, a n d t h e S a m ba-o n l y u se r penny s h o u l d be a b l e t o c o n n ect rea d - w rite u s i n g t h e p a ssword I /24 s u b net A l l m essages n ot a d d ressed to @se rve rX example com o r @loc alhost [ localdomain ] s h o u l d b e forwarded to t h e S M T P s m a rt h ost r u n n i n g on d e s k t o pX example com r i I - l [ s t u d e n t@ s e r v e r X - ] $ sudo postconf - e ' inet_int e rfaces = all ' [ s t u d e n t@se rverx - ] $ sudo postconf - e ' mynetwo rks = 172 25 X 0/24, 127 0/8 ' Confi g u re post fix to o n l y pe rform l o c a l d e l i ve ry for the serve rX example com, localho s t , a n d localhos t localdomain d o m a i n s 1, - - [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r X - ] $ s u d o postconf - e ' mydestination = serverX example com , localhost localdomain , localhos t ' - Confi g u re post fix to s e n d a l l m a i l not i n c l uded i n myd e s t inat ion to t h e server at d e s k t opX example com - I ! [ s t u de n t@ s e r v e r x - ] $ sudo yum i n s t all post fix Confi g u re post fix to l i st e n o n a l l n etwork i n terfaces, re l a y i n g m a i l from t h e 172 25 X E>/24 (a n d l o c a l h ost) s u b net ! ! - Ve rify t h at t h e postfix package i s i n st a l l e d o n se rverX [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r x - ] $ sudo postconf -e ' relayhost = [ de s k t o pX example com] ' Open a l l re l evant po rts o n the fi rewa l l - [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r X - ] $ sudo firewall - cmd - - permanent - - add - se rvice=sm t p [ s t u d ent@se rverx - ] $ sudo firewall - cmd - - reload - - 41 R H 254- R H E L 7-en-1-20140711 - - - - Sol ution - - - - - - I I C reate a new 512 MiB p a r t i t i o n on y o u r seco n d a ry h a rd d rive on se rve rX, t h e n export that over iSCSI u s i n g t h e n a m e iqn 14 - 06 com example : se rve rx zoid b e r g , but o n l y to c l ients w i t h t h e iqn 14 - 06 com example : d e s k t o pX i n itiator n a m e I n sta l l t h e n ecessary p a c ka g es [ s t u d e n t@s e rve rX - ] $ s u d o y u m i n s t all targetd t a r getcli Sta rt and e n a b l e the t a r g e t d se rvice service I I [ s t ud en t@se rv e r X - ] $ sudo systemctl start target d se rvice [ s t u d e n t@serve rx - ] $ sudo syst emc t l enable targetd se rvice C reate a new 512 MiB p a r t i t i o n on yo u r seco n d a ry h a rd d rive [ s t u d e n t@s e r v e r X - ] $ sudo fdisk /dev/vdb Welcome to f d i s k ( u t i l - l i n u x 23 ) - C h a n g e s will remain in memo r y o n l y , u n t i l y o u d e c i d e t o w r i t e t h em Be c a r e f u l b e f o r e u s i n g t h e w r i t e command - Device d o e s n o t c o n t n a r e c o g n iz ed p a r t i t io n t able Building a new DOS d i s klabel wit h disk i d e n t i f i e r 0x0aee50 - Command ( m f o r h e lp ) : n P a r t i t io n t y p e : p r im a r y ( p r ima r y , e x t e n d e d , f r e e ) p e extended Selec t ( default p ) : p P a r t i t io n n um b e r ( - , d e f a u l t ) : F i r s t s e c t o r { 2048 - 1519 , d e f a u l t 2048 ) : E n t e r U s i n g default val u e L a s t s e c t o r , + sec t o r s o r + s i z e { K , M , G } { 2048 - 1519 , d e f a u l t 20971519 ) : +512M P a r t i t io n of type L i n u x a n d o f s iz e 512 M i B i s s e t - - - Command ( m f o r h e lp ) : w The p a r t i t io n table h a s been al t e r e d ! - - [ s t u d e n t@ s e r v e r X - ] $ sudo syst emc t l restart postfix se rvice [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r x - ] $ sudo systemc t l enable post fix se rvice I - - ( Re)start a n d e n a b l e t h e p o s t fix se rvice service Calli n g i o c t l ( ) t o r e - read p a r t i t io n t able Syncing d i s k s Config u re t a r g e t d for t h e t a rg et, i n c l u d i n g t h e A C L M a ke s u re t h e conf i g u t i o n p e rsists R e m e m b e r to u s e t h e T a b k e y l i bera l l y - - - - - R H 254-R H E L 7-en-1-20140711 41 - - C h a pter Com pr ehen si ve Review [ s t ud e n t @ s e r v e r x - ] $ sudo t a r getcli t a r g e t cli shell ve r s io n fb34 C o p y r ig h t 2011 - 2013 by Dat e r a , I n c a n d o t h e r s F o r help on comman d s , type ' h elp ' l /> backstores/block c reate serve rX zoidberg /dev/vdbl /> /iscsi c reate iqn 2014 - 06 com example : se rverX zoidbe r g i /> /iscsi/iqn 20 14 - 06 com example : se rv e rX zoid b e r g / t pgl/lu ns c reate /backstores/ block/serverX zoidber g /> /iscsi/iqn 20 14 - com example : se rverX zoidbe rg/t pgl/po r t als c reate 172 25 X 11 3260 I> /iscsi/iqn 2014 - 06 com example : se rverX zoid b e r g/t pgl/acls c reate iqn 2014 - 06 com example : desktopX /> saveconfig I> exit L��-�-� � ���� -� ' Open port 60/TCP o n t h e fi rewa l l - - - C reate t h e expo rted d i rectory I'- - _- � -�� , [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r x - ] $ sudo mkdir - m1777 - p /ex po r t s / h yp n o t o a d � -· -� C reate a new file /etc/expo r t s with t h e fo l l owi n g contents: ·- i - - Confi g u re a Ke rbe rized N FSv4 export for /expo r t s/ hypnot oad A keyt a b c a n be obta i n e d f r o m h t t p : / / c l a s s r o o m e x am p l e c o m / p u b / k e y t a b s / s e r v e rX k e y t a b T h e export s h o u l d b e ava i l a b l e read-write to c l ients using both Ke r b e ros a ut h e n t ication and e n c ryptio n T h e exported d i rectory s h o u l d h a v e 7 p e r m issions - - [ s t u d e n t @s e r v e rx - ] $ sudo firewall - cmd - - permanent - - add - po r t =3260/t c p [ s t u d e n t @s e r v e r x - ] $ s u d o firewall - cmd - - reload - -expo r t s / h yp n o t oad 25 X 0/24 { sec = k r b 5p , r w ) - Dow n l o a d t h e keyt a b to / e t c / k rb5 keytab: I ! - - - , -� -�� �- - I j [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r X - ] $ sudo systemc t l start nfs - s e c u r e - serve r se rvice [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r X - ] $ sudo systemc t l e nable nfs - sec u r e - serve r se rvice L Open the po rts n e e d e d fo r N FSv4 o n the fi rewa l l [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r x - ] $ sudo firewall - cmd - - pe rmanent - - add - se rvice=nfs [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r x - ] $ sudo firewall - cmd - - reload I 'I Sta rt a n d e n a b l e the n f s - secu re - se rve r se rvice se rvice i [ s t u d e n t @ s e r v e r x - ] $ sudo wget - /etc/k rbS keytab h t t p : //class room example com/ pub/keytabs/serverX keytab J i ! i - - - - - - 41 R H 254- R H E L - e n -1 -20140711 - - - S o l ut i o n - - - - Yo u r se rve rX syst e m s h o u l d export t h e ( n ew) d i rectory /expo r t s/ bigbang using smb T h i s d i rectory s h o u l d be owned by t h e bigbang g ro u p, and a n y new f i l es c reated i n t h i s d i rectory s h o u l d a ut o m a t i ca l l y b e o w n e d by t h e bigbang g ro u p a s we l l U s e rs o u t s i d e of t h e bigbang g r o u p s h o u l d not h ave a ccess to t h i s s h a re The n a m e fo r the s h a re s h o u l d be bigbang, and the S a m ba-o n l y user penny s h o u l d b e a b l e t o c o n nect rea d -write u s i n g t h e passwo rd I
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