Bài tập ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh 11

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tranaigv@gmail.com §1. Both … and …, Not only … but also …, Either … or, Neither … nor … Revision Terms We call both … and, not only … but also …, either… or, neither … nor pair conjunctions or correlative conjunctions. Parallel structures The same grammatical form should follow each part of the paired conjunctions. Both + noun + and + noun/pronoun Both my sister and I went to Hoang Van Thu High School. Not only + adj + but also + adj Trang is not only intelligent but also generous. Not only + verb + but also + verb Minh not only saw the famous writer but also spoke to him. Either + noun + or + noun Students can choose either English or French in this semester. Neither + verb + nor + verb She had promised to visit me, but she neither came nor telephoned. Subject and verb agreement • Two subjects connected by both … and … take a plural verb. Both Tam and Dan work for an instruction company. • When two subjects are connected by not only … but also, either … or…, neither… nor…, the second subject determines the form of the verb. Not only my parents but also my brother is on a trip to Ha Long. Either the teacher or the students have to make a plan for the class newspaper. Neither salt nor sugar is necessary for this dish.  Notes • Not only… but also … can be replaced by not only … but … as well. It is not only rainy but also windy in this season. It is not only rainy but windy in this season as well. Exercises A. In each of the following sentences, there is an error. Identify and correct it. 1. Both my teacher praised my best friend and me. . 2. Ha neither went to my party or told me the reason why. . 3. I enjoy neither swimming nor go fishing. . 4. Hoa not only helps me in my work but as well shares my happiness and sadness in life. . 5. I prefer living in the country since it is not only quiet but also less traffic. . tranaigv@gmail.com 6. I love not only watching game shows but talk shows as well. . 7. I love literature, so I will either become a literature teacher or a journalist. . 8. Rice is both grown in the north and in the south of Viet Nam. . B. Suply the correct form and tense of the verb in the parentheses. 1. Both the fridge and the air conditioner (not work) ………………… today. 2. Both my sister and I (never be) ………………… to Ha noi before. 3. Either my husband or I (have) ………………… to see the estate agent today. 4. Either Thuy or her friends (be going to) ………………… pick you up at the airport. 5. Neither Mrs. Hoa nor her assistants (be) ………………… at the meeting yesterday. 6. Not only Trung but also his parents (be expected) ………………… to come to the ceremony. C. There is a lack of both, and, not only, but also, either, or, neither or nor in the following passage. Put a check () where you will find in one of these words and write the word on the right. Television is one of the greatest inventions since it helps us relaxed after a day of work transfers the latest news in the world. Normally, when we feel tired, we can choose to go out and have a drink with some friends to sit on the sofa in front of the television and enjoy the family warm atmosphere. You may say that you like music programs lengthy soap operas. No problem. There are many channels for you to choose. Why don’t you try TV news programs documentaries if you are interested in enlarging your knowledge? Besides, you can watch live soccer games that are transferred through satellites listen to lively comments which you can never hear in the stadium. However, spending so much time watching television may have bad effects on parents work and children’s study. Therefore, parents children should agree on how much time of watching TV is enough for a day. ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… D. Combine wo sentences into one, using both … and …, not only … but also, either… or …, neither … nor… 1. Hoang didn’t come to class today. Nhan didn’t come to class today. (neither… nor…) . 2. Le will buy a new T-shirt. If there is no style that she likes, she will buy a shirt instead. (either … or…) . 3. Oxygen is necessary for life. Water is necessary for life too. (both … and…) . 4. Chanh is also absent-minded. He left his book in class. He also left his jacket in class. (not only … but also) . 5. My father is going to see my teacher this Sunday. If he is busy, my mother is going to see my teacher. (neither … nor… ) . tranaigv@gmail.com 6. Let’s go to the market to get some spices. We don’t have any salt left and we run out seasoning too. (neither … nor …) . 7. My aunt lives with me. My cousins live with me too. (not only… but also….) . 8. This shop sells fresh fruits. It also sells canned fruits. (both … and …) . §2. Cleft sentences Revision  Cleft sentences in the active • Subject focus: We use cleft sentences to emphasize the subject of the action. Did your friend give you these earrings? No. It was my mother that gave me these these earrings. Instead of saying My mother gave me these these earrings, the speaker says It was my mother that gave me these these earrings to emphasize that her mother, not her friend gave her the earrings. • Object focus: We use the cleft sentences to emphasize the object of the verb. You went to the book store yesterday, didn’t you? Did you buy this English book? It looks new. No. It was this Math book that I bought yesterday. The English book is a present from my teacher. Instead of saying I bought this Math book yesterday, the speaker says It was this Math book that I bought yesterday to emphasize that he bought the Math book, not the English book. • Adverbial focus: We use cleft sentences to emphasize the adverb. I should be grateful to my sister. It was for me that she quitted school. Instead of saying she quitted school for me, the speaker says It was for me that she quitted school to emphasize that his sister sacrificed her study for him.  Cleft sentences in the passive • Cleft sentences can also be used in the passive voice. I heard that dog bit you yesterday. No. It was the postman that was bitten by the dog. Exercises A. Choose the sentences that can best replace the sentences provided. 1. I was born and grew up in this village. A. It was this village that I was born and grew up. B. It was in this village I was born and grew up. C. It was in this village that I was born and grew up. D. It was in this village where I was born and grew up. 2. Your carelessness cause the accident. A. It is the accident that your carelessness caused. B. It was the accident that your carelessness caused. C. It is your carelessness that caused the accident. D. It was your carelessness that caused the accident. 3. Hue helped me a lot with my study last semester. A. It was Hue that helped me a lot with my study last semester. tranaigv@gmail.com B. It was Hue that has helped me a lot with my study last semester. C. It was Hue that had helped me a lot with my study last semester. D. It was Hue that was helped me a lot with my study last semester. 4. – Did the headmaster give Tham a bicycle as a scholarship. - The headmaster gave Tam a bicycle as a scholarship. A. It was the headmaster who gave Tham a bicycle as a scholarship. B. It was the headmaster who gave Tam a bicycle as a scholarship. C. It was Tham who was given a bicycle as a scholarship. D. It was Tam who was given a bicycle as a scholarship. 5. – Who put the photo here on the desk? - Don’t you remember? You put it there on your birthday. A. It was you that put it there on your birthday. B. It was on your birthday that you put it there. C. It was there that you put it on there birthday. D. It was the photo that was put there on your birthday. B. Complete the following sentences with groups of words in the box. There is one extra group. it was this school it was in this school it was in the summer that i gave it a fish that i asked to carry the luggage for me that broke the window it was the bicycle it was in the winter that stole the fish 1. It was the boy 2. It was the cat . 3. that I learnt the first letter. 4. that was rebuilt that year. 5. it was the taxi driver 6. . that my grandpa used when he was young. 7. . that birds moved to the south. 8. . that my family often went to the seaside. C. Answer the following questions with the word provided, using cleft sentences. 1. Did you first meet your husband at high school. . (at university) 2. Who did you give the letter to? (the landlady) 3. It is said that you were on television last night. Is it right? . (my twin sister) 4. I absent-mindedly washed your white T-shirt with the dark blue one. Was your white T-shirt ruined? (my white shirt) 5. Your cell phone was stolen, wasn’t it? Do you know who stole it? (a monkey) 6. Long time no see. Do you still major in English now? (French) D. Unscramble the words to make complete sentences. 1. was/ that/ this river/ It/ died/ in/ many people. . 2. difficult/ loved/ was/ that/ they/ It/ in/ each other/ the/ more/ time. tranaigv@gmail.com . 3. secretary/ was/ typed/ It / the/ the/ letter/ that. . 4. this shirt/ by/ It/ actress/ was/ that/ was/ the/ worn. . 5. that/ was/ writer/ by/ signed/ book/ was/ It/ the/ the. . §3. Conditional Type 1 Revision Use We use conditional type 1 to express real or probable conditions. If Van gets high marks in the exam, her parents will give her a computer. (Van is a good student, and it is possible for her to get high marks in the exam) Form If clause Main clause Present Simple Future Simple If clause can come first or later. Be careful. If you step on the dof’s tail, it will bit you. You’ll never get success if you don’t try your best. Notes • Instead of the Future simple tense in the main clause, we can use can + bare- infinitive to indicate permission or ability. You can go out with friends if you promise to come home before 9. (permission) If you concentrate, you can do the job well. (ability) • May/might + bare-infinitive can be used in the main clause to indicate possibility. The soccer game may be delayed if the weather isn’t better. • Other modal verbs or any expressions of command can be used according to their meanings. If Tuan wants to recover soon, he should stay in bed. (advice) Please tell Ha to see me in the library if you happen to see him. (request) • Instead of Present Simple tense in the If clause, we can use the Present Perfect tense. Hand in your paper if you have finished your writing. Exercises A. Make conditional sentences from the following words. 1. weather/ fine/ go on a pinic. . 2. I/ be employed/ invite you/ eat out. . 3. you/ come across/ monolingual dictionary/ take one for me. . 4. mother/ allow/ go to your party. . 5. you/ want/ good English learner/ learn to speak at the very beginning. . 6. not eat breakfast/ not have enough energy. . tranaigv@gmail.com 7. you/ feed it too regularly/ the fish die. . 8. you/ travel by bus/ save money. . 9. the storm/ attack the village/ everyone/ be moved. . 10. Suong/ finish her assignment/ within two weeks/ have one mark plus. . B. Complete the following conditional sentences. 1. You will enlarge your knowledge …………… you spend time reading newspapers and magazines. 2. You …………… cut yourself if you are not careful with the knife. 3. …………… you want to lose weight, you …………… eat more vegetables. 4. If the strike …………… finished, the factory won’t be opened tomorrow. 5. …………… it’s Nhan that’s calling, please …………… him that I’m waiting for him. 6. If you …………… your homework, you …………… play computer games. 7. You …………… what you want if you try your best. 8. The traffic in the city is very busy. It will be easier for you if you …………… by bus during rush hour. 9. Don’t forget to take your flashlight with you. You …………… it if it is too dark outside. 10. Normally the dog doesn’t bite anyone but …………… you enter the house stealthily, it …………… you. C. Complete the following conditional sentences with your own ideas. 1. If you want to speak English well, . 2. If I see an old lady crossing the street, . 3. If you visit my hometown, . 4. If the weather is nice this weekend, . 5. If I come first in the exam, . 6. If a friend of mine gets a cold and cannot go to class, 7. If I come across an old friend who I haven’t seen for a long time, . 8. If you want to become a good student, §4. Conditional Typed 2 Revision Use We use conditional type 2 to express unreal conditions in the present. If I were you, I wouldn’t tell Nha that bitter truth. Form tranaigv@gmail.com If clause Main clause Past Simple / Past Subjunctive Would/ could/ might + bare-infinitive If clause can come first or later If I had enough money, I would buy a house for my parents. We would become lazy if we didn’t work. Note • We can use both was or were for the subjects I, he, she, it in the if clause. If I was/were stronger, I could carry the luggage for you • We can use could in the if clause to express ability. If I could speak French well, I would apply for a job in a French company. • Instead of the Past Simple tense in the if clause, we can use the Past Progressing tense. I am talking to Ha who is a little boring.  I would be more interested if I was talking to another one. Exercises. A. Complete the following sentences with the verbs in parentheses. 1. There would be less crime if anyone (have) ………………… a job. 2. I will buy a new T-shirt for you if you (like) …………………. 3. If all the factories (be move) ………………… out of the city center, the air pollution (be) ………………… less serious. 4. If you (fry) ………………… the meat for a long time, it (become) ………………… tough. 5. (The phone ring) - Thao, please answer the phone. - I (will) ………………… if I (can) …………………. I’m in the bathroom. 6. If there (be) ………………… no sunlight, life (not exist) …………………. 7. Mr. Nhan is a poor worker but if he (have) ………………… enough money, he (buy) ………………… a motorbike. 8. If I (be) ………………… a bird, I (be) ………………… a white pigeon. If I (be) ………………… a flower, I (be) ………………… a sunflower. If I (be) ………………… a cloud, I (be) ………………… a warm cloud. As a human, I will die for my country. B. Choose the best answer. 1. – I have never been to a job interview before - ……………………………………………………… A. If I were you, I will dress formally. B. If I were you, I could dress formally. C. If I were you, I would dress formally. D. If I were you, I can dress formally. 2. There were 2000 workers in that prosperous company. Many people ………………… out of work if that company ………………… down. A. would be, closed B. are, closed C. will be, closed D. wouldn’t be, closed 3. I don’t like living in the city, but if I ………………… a job there, I’ll move there. A. had B. don’t have C. get D. don’t get 4. …………………………………… if you have a headache. tranaigv@gmail.com A. You drink these medicines. B. Drink these medicines. C. You take these medicines. D. Take these medicines. 5. I’m sure Toan ………………… win the scholarship. I ………………… be very surprised if she couldn’t. A. will, will B. would, will C. will, would D. would, would 6. – Are you going to read this novel? - I ………………… if I ………………… time. I am very busy with my jobs. A. will, have B. will, had C. could, have D. would, had C. Answer the following questions with your own ideas. 1. What would you do if you were of the opposite sex? 2. What would happen if there were no wars in the world? 3. What would you do if you became a member of the city government for a day? 4. If you could meet a famous person, who would you meet? 5. If you had a wish, what would you wish? 6. What would happen if Vietnamese became an international language? §5. Conditional Type 3 Revision Use We use conditional type 3 to express unreal conditions in the past. Loan failed the exam because she was too lazy. If she had studied hard, she would have passed the exam. Form If clause Main clause Past perfect Would/ could/ might + have + past participle If clause can come first or later If it hadn’t rained, I would have gone fishing. I would have gone swimming if I had had time. Note • Might + have + past participle can be used in the main clause to indicate possibility. The accident might have been more serious if the driver hadn’t driven slowly. • Could + have + past participle can be used in the main clause to indicate possibility or ability. If Toan had tried more, he could have done better. (ability) The bridge could have collapsed if it had rained more heavily. (possibility) • Inversion can be used to replaced if. If Dan had been out late last night, she might have been punished by her parents. tranaigv@gmail.com  Had Dan been out late last night, she might have been punished by her parents. Conditionals in reported speech • Type 1: present  past, will/ can  would/ could “If I see Lam, I’ll tell him to phone you”, Tran promised.  Tran promised (that) she would tell Lam to phone me if she met him. • Type 2 and type 3: no tense changes “I would travel to Ha Long Bay if I had enough money”, said Hoai.  Hoai said (that) she would travel Ha Long bay if she had enough money. “If Japan hadn’t attacked the Pearl Harbor, the U.S. couldn’t have joined World War II”, our history teacher said.  Our history teacher said (that) if Japan hadn’t attacked the Pearl Harbor, the U.S. couldn’t have joined World War II. Exercises A. Match each clause in column A to its following in column B to make a complete conditional sentences. Add a comma where necessary. A B 1. If It hadn’t been for the storm 2. I would have come back to work in my hometown after graduation. 3. Had Phuc had a map 4. If Chi hadn’t missed the bus 5. If I hadn’t been so busy 6. Snow White couldn’t have been revived 7. Cinderella couldn’t have met the prince 8. If I hadn’t saved money for a long time 9. If you hadn’t pulled the dog’s tail 10. She wouldn’t have been so exhausted a. it wouldn’t have bitten you b. if the prince hadn’t kissed her c. I would have helped you d. if she hadn’t worked so much e. if I had been able to find a job there f. if It hadn’t been for her godmother’s help g. many people wouldn’t have been badly injured h. I couldn’t have afforded this motorbike i. she wouldn’t have gotten lost j. she hadn’t been late for school B. Write conditional sentences from the following pairs of pictures (page 22) C. Make conditional type 3 from the following situations. 1. Tram stayed up late to watch TV last night, so she got up late and was late for class this morning. . 2. Mr. Trong’s head was badly injured in the accident because he didn’t wear a helmet. . 3. Lan went out yesterday without an umbrella. It suddenly rained, and she got wet. . 4. I was punished because I went out late last night. . 5. I didn’t meet my old friend in the party yesterday because I left so early. . 6. I didn’t know that you arrived in Ho Chi Minh City last Saturday, so I didn’t pick you at the station. . tranaigv@gmail.com 7. I didn’t recognize Hang among the crowd, so I didn’t call her. . 8. Tam was fined because he rode the motorbike without a license. . D. Yesterday was a busy day. You had a lot of homework to do. You didn’t have enough time to do other things. What would you have done if you had had more time? Write 5 sentences. Example: If I had had more time yesterday, I would help my mother with the housework. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . E. Complete the following reported speech with your own ideas. 1. Linh told me she would lend me some money if . 2. The nurse told Mr. Thuan if he took the medicines regularly, . 3. My teacher said the air wouldn’t be so polluted if . 4. Phuong said she would see me the day after if . . 5. A witness said if the victim had been taken to hospital soon, . . 6. Mrs. Le believed if she had fewer children, . 7. Hai said he could have performed better in his interview, . 8. A firefighter said the fire wouldn’t have take place . §6. Defining Relative Clauses Revision Definition Defining relative clauses which describe the preceding noun are essential to the understanding of the noun; so they could not be omitted. The boy who gave me the letter yesterday ran away without letting me know his name. (The clause who gave me the letter yesterday is a defining relative clause. If we omit that clause, the meaning of the sentence becomes unclear.) Relative pronouns used defining relative clauses Subject Object Possessive Things which/ that (1) which/ that (3) whose/ of which (5) Person who/ that (2) whom/ who/ that (4) whose (6) (1) The road which/ that leads to the city center is in bad condition. (2) He is the student who/ that has taken his disable friend to school for years. (3) The book which/ that I bought yesterday is an original one. [...]... most appropriate reason for each of the following utterances 1 – Do you think that Chanh will be employed? - He couldn’t be employed A He performed rather well in the interview B He told me that he wasn’t very confident C He can’t speak English while the employer requires applicants to speak English well 2 – Why is Thanh in bad mood today? tranaigv@gmail.com - He may be sick A I’m sure about that because... 11 Modal verbs Revision Ability • We use can or be able to to express ability Hai can sing very well I believe that I will be able to finish the assignment on time • We use could as the past form of can... ………………… in the world, from America to Africa 9 – Whose hat is it? - I don’t’ know ………………… put it there yesterday 10 There’s ………………… left in the fridge that we can eat Let’s go out and find ………………… to eat 11 ………………… became brighter after we redecorated the house 12 She got angry with him so she went away without saying ………………… 13 Turn off your cell phone please ………………… is listening and doesn’t want to be... the host family Turkey is one of the main dishes in the 9 …………… Christmas party And no one can refuse such a delicious party 10 …………… While adults are enjoying the party, children are eagerly waiting 11 …………… for midnight when Santa Claus will visit them and giving them 12 …………… presents Christmas is really an occasion for someone to relax 13 …………… after a year of hard work The greeting season normally . . 4. Chanh is also absent-minded. He left his book in class. He also left his jacket
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