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FM_88815.QXP 12/23/08 12:24 PM Page i HumanComputer Interaction Fundamentals FM_88815.QXP 12/23/08 12:24 PM Page ii Human Factors and Ergonomics Series Editor Published Titles Conceptual Foundations of Human Factors Measurement, D Meister Designing for Accessibility: A Business Guide to Countering Design Exclusion, S Keates Handbook of Cognitive Task Design, E Hollnagel Handbook of Digital Human Modeling: Research for Applied Ergonomics and Human Factors Engineering, V G Duffy Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety, P Carayon Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design, R Proctor and K Vu Handbook of Standards and Guidelines in Ergonomics and Human Factors, W Karwowski Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications, K Stanney Handbook of Warnings, M Wogalter Human-Computer Interaction: Designing for Diverse Users and Domains, A Sears and J A Jacko Human-Computer Interaction: Design Issues, Solutions, and Applications, A Sears and J A Jacko Human-Computer Interaction: Development Process, A Sears and J A Jacko Human-Computer Interaction: Fundamentals, A Sears and J A Jacko Human Factors in System Design, Development, and Testing, D Meister and T Enderwick Introduction to Human Factors and Ergonomics for Engineers, M R Lehto and J R Buck Macroergonomics: Theory, Methods and Applications, H Hendrick and B Kleiner The Handbook of Data Mining, N Ye The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications, Second Edition, A Sears and J A Jacko Theories and Practice in Interaction Design, S Bagnara and G Crampton-Smith Usability and Internationalization of Information Technology, N Aykin User Interfaces for All: Concepts, Methods, and Tools, C Stephanidis Forthcoming Titles Computer-Aided Anthropometry for Research and Design, K M Robinette Content Preparation Guidelines for the Web and Information Appliances: Cross-Cultural Comparisons, Y Guo, H Liao, A Savoy, and G Salvendy Foundations of Human-Computer and Human-Machine Systems, G Johannsen Handbook of Healthcare Delivery Systems, Y Yih Human Performance Modeling: Design for Applications in Human Factors and Ergonomics, D L Fisher, R Schweickert, and C G Drury Smart Clothing: Technology and Applications, G Cho The Universal Access Handbook, C Stephanidis FM_88815.QXP 12/23/08 12:24 PM Page iii HumanComputer Interaction Fundamentals Edited by Andrew Sears Julie A Jacko Boca Raton London New York CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business FM_88815.QXP 12/23/08 12:24 PM Page iv This material was previously published in The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications, Second Edition, © Taylor & Francis, 2007 CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4200-8881-6 (Hardcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint Except as permitted under U.S Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400 CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Human-computer interaction Fundamentals / editors, Andrew Sears, Julie A Jacko p cm (Human factors and ergonomics) “Select set of chapters from the second edition of The Human computer interaction handbook” Pref Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-1-4200-8881-6 (hardcover : alk paper) Human-computer interaction I Sears, Andrew II Jacko, Julie A III Human-computer interaction handbook IV Title V Series QA76.9.H85H8566 2008 004.01’9 dc22 2008049134 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com FM_88815.QXP 12/23/08 12:24 PM Page v For Beth, Nicole, Kristen, Franỗois, and Nicolas FM_88815.QXP 12/23/08 12:24 PM Page vi FM_88815.QXP 12/23/08 12:24 PM Page vii CONTENTS Contributors ix Advisory Board xi Preface xiii About the Editors xv PART I—Humans in HCI 1 Perceptual-Motor Interaction: Some Implications for HCI Timothy N Welsh, Romeo Chua, Daniel J Weeks, and David Goodman Human Information Processing: An Overview for Human–Computer Interaction 19 Robert W Proctor and Kim-Phuong L Vu Mental Models in Human–Computer Interaction 39 Stephen J Payne Emotion in Human–Computer Interaction 53 Scott Brave and Cliff Nass Cognitive Architecture 69 Michael D Byrne Task Loading and Stress in Human–Computer Interaction: Theoretical Frameworks and Mitigation Strategies 91 J L Szalma and Peter Hancock Motivating, Influencing, and Persuading Users: An Introduction to Captology 109 B J Fogg, Gregory Cueller, and David Danielson Human-Error Identification in Human–Computer Interaction 123 Neville Stanton Part II—Computers in HCI 135 Input Technologies and Techniques 137 Ken Hinckley 10 Sensor- and Recognition-Based Input for Interaction 153 Andrew D Wilson 11 Visual Displays 177 Christopher Schlick, Martina Ziefle, Milda Park, and Holger Luczak 12 Haptic Interfaces 205 Hiroo Iwata 13 Nonspeech Auditory Output 223 Stephen Brewster 14 Network-Based Interaction 241 Alan Dix 15 Wearable Computers 271 Dan Siewiorek, Asim S Mailagic, and Thad Starner 16 Design of Computer Workstations 289 Michael J Smith, Pascale Carayon, and William J Cohen Author Index 303 Subject Index 321 vii FM_88815.QXP 1/15/09 9:58 AM Page viii FM_88815.QXP 12/23/08 12:24 PM Page ix CONTRIBUTORS Scott Brave Baynote Inc., USA Asim S Mailagic College of Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University, USA Stephen Br ewster Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, UK Clif for d Nass Department of Communication, Stanford University, USA Michael D Byr ne Department of Psychology, Rice University, USA Milda Park Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics, RWTH Aachen University, Germany Pascale Carayon Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Stephen J Payne University of Manchester, UK Robert W Pr octor Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, USA Romeo Chua School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia, Canada Christopher Schlick Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics, RWTH Aachen University, Germany William Cohen Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, USA Gr egory Cuellar Communication Department, Stanford University, USA Daniel P Siewior ek Human–Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie-Mellon University, USA David Danielson Communication Department, Stanford University, USA Philip J Smith Institute for Ergonomics, Ohio State University, USA Alan Dix Computing Department, Lancaster University, UK Neville A Stanton School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, UK B J Fogg Persuasive Technology Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University, USA Thad Star ner College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA J L Szalma Department of Psychology, University of Central Florida, USA David Goodman School of Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Canada Kim-Phuong L Vu Department of Psychology, California State University Long Beach, USA P A Hancock Department of Psychology, and The Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida, USA Daniel J W eeks Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Canada Ken Hinckley Microsoft Research, USA Timothy N W elsh Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Canada Hiroo Iwata Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Japan Andr ew W ilson Microsoft Research, USA Holger Luczak Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics, RWTH Aachen University, Germany Martina Ziefl Institute for Psychology, RWTH Aachen University, Germanyix ix 88815_Au_Index.QXP 1/7/09 11:58 AM Page 319 AUTHOR INDEX Wilson, J M., 50, 51, 130, 131, 134 Wine, D W., 180, 203 Winkelholz, C., 194, 203 Winograd, T., 147, 150 Wisneski, C., 170, 173 Wisneski, G., 260, 270 Witten, I H., 263, 270 Wobbrock, J O., 294, 301 Wohldmann, E L., 29, 35 Wolf, C., 148, 152 Wolf, E., 195, 203 Wolf- Kelly, K., 194, 202 Wolfe, J M., 31, 38 Wolgast, E., 194, 201 Wong, B., 273, 288 Wood, L E., 30, 38 Wood, S D., 80, 86, 87, 88 Woodson, W E., 178, 203 Woodward, J P., 115, 122 Worrall, L., 60, 66 Wren, C., 156, 174 Wright, C E., 5, 16, 26, 36, 37 Wright, J H., 7, 15 Wright, P C., 170, 172, 233, 239 Wright, R D., 9, 17, 157, 172 Wu, M., 147, 152, 170, 175 Wu, Y., 157, 164, 175 Wullert J R II, 183, 183f, 185, 190, 191, 202 Wyer, R S., 57, 65 X Xia, S., 264, 270 Xiao, Y., 286, 288 Y Yacoob, Y., 61, 68 Yamada, H., 144, 152 Yamao, T., 189, 221 Yang, B., 147, 151 Yantis, S., 31, 38 Yee, K.-P., 147, 148, 152 Yeh, Y., 96, 103, 108 Yeh, Y.-Y., 195, 203 Yerkes, R., 97, 108 Yi, J., 287 Yoshida,Y., 216, 220 Yoshitake, R., 293, 294, 295, 301 Young, D E., 47, 52 Young, M J., 57, 66 Young, M S., 131, 132, 134 Young, P M., 20, 38 Young, R M., 34, 35, 41 52, 70, 75, 77, 81, 86, 87, 88, 89 Youngme, M., 115, 122 Yu, K., 180, 201 Yua, K., 180, 201 Z Zacks, R T., 44, 52 Zajonc, R B., 60, 67 Zedaker, M S., 122 Zeleznik, R., 168, 173 Zeller, C., 198, 202 Zhai, S., 138, 139, 142, 142f, 143, 144, 146, 148, 149, 150, 152, 157, 162, 164, 175 Zhang, S., 145, 151 Zhang, Z., 156, 175 Zhao, S., 145, 152 Zhao, W., 161, 175 Zhuang, J., 206, 220 Ziefle, M., 184, 194, 195, 196, 196f, 197, 197f, 198, 200, 201, 202, 203 Zietsman, A I., 115, 122 Zillmann, D., 60, 68 Zimmerman, B J., 98, 108 Zimmerman, T G., 243, 270 Zou, Y., 180, 201 Zwarun, L., 118, 122 Zyda, M., 180, 199, 203 • 319 88815_Au_Index.QXP 1/7/09 11:58 AM Page 320 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 321 SUBJECT INDEX Page numbers in italics indicate figures and tables 3D shape modeling, 219 3D sounds, 230–231 3G networks, 242 A Day Adventures CD, 110, 116 ALIVE system, 156 Alternating current thin film electroluminescent displays (ACTFEL), 190, 191 Amateurism, credibility and, 119 Amazon.com, 110–111 Analog displays, digital displays vs., 178 Analog representation, 42 Analytic prototyping, 131–132 Anchoring heuristic, 33 Andrine, 246 Anisotropy, 196, 196–197, 198 Annoyance, 225, 226–227 Anomalocaris, 213 Anorexia, 120 ANSI/HFES-100 guidance, 290, 292, 296 Applets, 250 Appraisal theory, 59, 92–93 Appropriate mapping, 143 AR See Augmented reality Architecture, 70, 265 See also Cognitive architectures ArKola system, 232, 252–253 Arm holders, 297 Arousal, emotion and, 63 ARPA See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPANET, 266 Array microphones, 157 Art, haptic interfaces and, 219 Articulatory suppression, 28 Artifacts, cognitive architectures as, 70 Artificial intelligence, development of field of, – Ascension magnetic tracking device, 156 Assessment, emotion and, 57–58 Asynchronous discrete coding model, 24 ATMs, 40–41, 75, 84, 189 Attention action-centered, 9–13 adaptation under stress model and, 102 emotion and, 56–57 A Absolute devices, 138, 143 Acceleration functions, 143 Accelerometers, 154, 169 Accomodation state, 194 Accuracy, 22, 22, 64, 159, 194 Acoustic sensors, 155 Acquisition time, defined, 138 ACT model, 34 ACTFEL, 190–191, 191 ACT-IF model, 84–85 Action slips, 124, 125 Action-centered attention, 9–12 Active haptic feedback, 144 Active matrix LCDs, 189 ACT-R 0, overview of, 82–85, 83, 85 Adaptation, stress and, 93, 93–94, 94, 95, 102–103 Adaptive automation, 97–98 Adaptive response, 105 Additive color mixing, 182–183 Additive factors method, 22 Additive Synthesis, 229 Addresses, network models and, 258–259 Ad-hoc networks, 259 Affect, sensing of, 158–159 See also Emotion Affective computing systems, 158 Affordances, motivational, 99 AFIPS See American Federation of Information Processing Systems (AFIPS) Agency, emotional response and, 59 Air pressure sensors, 155 AIS See Association for Information Systems Alexa, 245 321 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 322 • 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 322 SUBJECT INDEX human information processing and, 30–32 models of, 30–32 narrowing of, 105 overview of, 6–9 sound and, 225 wearable computers and, 275–276 Attention matrix, 276, 277 Attenuation, 30 Audio Aura, 238 Auditory environment, ergonomics and, 298–299 Auditory icons, 224, 231–232, 234–235, 235 Auditory output, 235–239, 236 See also Nonspeech auditory output; Speech Augmented reality (AR), 199–200, 276, 280–283 Authentication, 249–250 Automatic differential capture, 7–8 Automatic processing, 101 Autonomic nervous system, emotion and, 61 Availability heuristic, 33 Awareness, networks and, 252–253, 260–261 Awareness servers, 265 B Baby Think It Over, 112, 115 Background sensing techniques, 146–147 Bandwidth, 246–247, 247 Barcodes, 273, 273–274 BAS See Behavioral activation system Base-level activation, 83 Basic emotions, 55 Bayesian analysis, 83, 163 BBN See Bolt Beranek and Newman Beamforming, 157 Behavioral activation system (BAS), 104 Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 104 Behavioral modeling, 116 Berkeley project, 155 Bimanual input, 145 BiPort, 208 BIS See Behavioral inhibition system Blood volume pulse sensors, 158–159 Bloodhound, 85 Bluetooth, 155, 243 Boosting, 162 Bottom-up shifts of attention, 7–8 Boxcar filters, 159 Bracketing, 81–82 Bragg diffraction, 193 Brain structure, 54, 54–55, 159 Brain-computer interaction, 159 Braun, Karl Ferdinand, 178 Braun tubes, 178 Brightness, 182, 182, 183, 183, 195–196 Broadcast media, 254–255 BSR/HFS-100 guidance, 290, 292, 296 Buffering, 28, 28, 247–249, 248 C CAD See Computer-assisted design Calibrating attention, 276 CAMP framework attention and, 275–276 manipulation and, 276–285 overview of, 273 performance evaluation and, 285, 285–287, 286 wearability and, 273–275, 275, 276 CAN See Within-car networks Capacitive sensors, 155, 157 Capacity, short-term memory and, 27–28 CAPS See Collaborative Action-based Production System Captology computers, credibility and, 116–119 domains for, 111, 111–112 ethics and, 120 framework for, 113–116, 116 interactive, 111, 111 lack of universal theory of, 113 overview of, 110–111 positive and negative applications of, 119–120 potential and responsibility of, 120 two levels of, 112–113 Cars, networks and, 243–244 Casablanca project, 253 Cascade model, 23, 24 Cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), 178, 186–188, 187, 197–198 Cathodoluminescent displays, 178, 190–191 Cause-and-effect simulators, 114–115, 115 CAVE See Computer Animated Virtual Environments CCD See Charge-coupled devices CCT See Cognitive Complexity Theory Cell phones See Mobile phones Central executive, 28, 28 Cerebral cortex, 24 Certainty/uncertainty, 59 Chairs, 295–296, 300 Charge transfer technique, 157 Charge-coupled devices (CCD), 155 Choice reaction tasks, 24–27, 25 Chronometric information processing, 21–22 Chrysler Corporation, 115 Chunking, 46, 141 CIE chromaticity diagram, 181–182, 182 CirculaFloor, 218, 218–219, 219 Citizenship, 246 Classification, sensing, recognition and, 161–163, 162 Closed-loop control, 262, 262 Clutching, 138 Clutter, episodic memory and, 77 Cm See Michelson Contrast Cm CMYK model, 182–183 “Cocktail party” phenomenon, CODA, 263 Coding, perceptual-motor interaction and, Coercion, persuasion vs., 110 Cognitive architectures contemporary, 78–85, 80, 83, 85 future of, 86–87 overview of, 70–71 past HCI systems and, 72–78, 73 relevance of, 71–72 Cognitive Complexity Theory (CCT), 74–75, 81 Cognitive load theory, 45, 46 Cognitive neuroscience, 33 Cognitive processing, 4–5, 40, 80–82 Cognitive walkthrough, 71, 79 Cognitive Walkthrough for the Web (CWW), 79 Cognitive workload, as form of stress, 96 Cognitive-energetic framework, 94–95, 95 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 323 SUBJECT INDEX CogTool, 84 Coherence cues, 47 CoLiDeS, 78–79, 85 Collaborative Action-based Production System (CAPS), 75–76 Color, 60, 181–182, 182, 188 Color-naming effect, 26 Command-referent patterns, 164, 165 Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram, 181–182, 182 Compatibility, 5, 12–13, 14, 25–26 Complex structural data, sharing of, 263 Complexity, 74 Compound earcons, 233 Compound tasks, input devices and, 141 Comprehension, 40, 43–44, 47–48 Comprehension-based Linked model of Deliberate Search See CoLiDeS Compression, 247 Computation, networks and, 244–246 Computational cognitive models, 70, 72 Computational costs, 166–167 Computer Animated Virtual Environments (CAVE), 179, 199 Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 243 Conditional independence, 162 Conflict resolution, ACT-R and, 82–83 Confusion, networks and, 260 Confusion matrix, 162 Connection-based services, 249 Consistency breakdown, 252, 252 Construction, LICAI and, 78 Constructivist learning theory, 45 Contagion, emotion and, 59, 60 Context, 29, 158, 167–168, 168 Contiguity principle, 46 Continuous information processing models, 23–24 Contrast, visual displays and, 184–185, 195–196 Control, emotional response and, 59 Controlled processing, automatic processing vs., 101 Convergence, 48–49, 188 Coping strategies, networks and, 251 Core relational themes, 92–93 Cortex, 54, 54–55 Costs, 166–167, 259–260 Covert shifts of attention, CoWord, 264 Credibility, computers and, 116–119 CricketGraph, 78 Critical fusion frequency, 192 Cross validation, 161 CRTs See Cathode-ray tubes CSCW See Computer Supported Cooperative Work CSTG See Computer Systems Technical Group CTOA See Cue-target asynchrony Cues, 8, 8–9 Cue-target asynchrony (CTOA), Cw See Weberscher Contrast Cw CWW See Cognitive Walkthrough for the Web Cyber Grasp, 206, 207 Cybernetic view of cognition, 34 D DARPA See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Data, networks and, 244, 244 Data processing (DP), 4–5 • 323 DBN See Dynamic Bayesian network Deadbands, 160 Debouncing, 160 DEC See Digital Equipment Corporation Decentralizing, 259 Decision making, 21, 32–33, 57–58, 114 Decision trees, 162 Declarative memory, 27, 74, 75, 82–83, 83 Deep Blue, 70 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 276 Delayed-retention tests, 47 Delays, networks and, 250–251, 262 DES See Differential Emotion Scale Detection, 161 See also Sensors Dial pointing, 276–279 Differential Emotion Scale (DES), 63 Digital displays, analog displays vs., 178 Digital signatures, 249–250 Digitizing tablets, 139 Dimensional overlap, 26 Dimensionality, 138, 161, 179, 179–180 Direct input devices, defined, 138 Direct recognition tests, 29 Direct volume display devices, 179–180 Direction, sound and, 228 Direct-view displays, 186 DIS conferences See Designing Interactive Systems conferences Disabled people, sound and, 225 Discrete information processing models, 23–24 Discrete stage model, 24 Display design, 97 Display refresh rates, 185–186, 195, 198 Displays See Visual displays Distractors, 9–12 DNS See Domain name servers Document holders, 297 Documentation, standards for, 198 Domain knowledge, 168–169 Domain name servers (DNS), 259 dOPT algorithm, 264 Dot-mask screens, 187, 188 Double super-twisted nematic (DSTN) LCDs, 189 Downsampling, 160 DP See Data processing Dragging input devices, 140, 140 Dragon Multilingual Interview System, 283–284 Driving model, 84 DSTN LCDs See Double super-twisted nematic LCDs Dual coding theory, 45 Dual Purpose Speech, 275 Dual purpose speech, 286, 286 Duration, 228, 234 DUX conferences See Designing for User Experience conferences Dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), 163, 165, 165–166 Dynamic range, 160 Dynamics, earcons and, 233 E Earcons, 224, 232–235, 233, 235 EBMT system See Example-Based Machine Translation system ECG See Electrocardiograms Ecological approach, 33–34, 231 E-commerce, 255 E-democracy, 246 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 324 • 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 324 SUBJECT INDEX Editors, 263–264 Educational software, 112 EEGs See Electroencephalograms E-government, 246 Electrocardiograms (ECG, EKG), 159 Electroencephalograms (EEGs), 23, 61, 276 Electroluminescent displays (ELDs), 178, 190, 191 Electromagnetic positioning technology, 158 Electromyelography (EMG), 62, 159 Electronic information displays, overview of, 178 Electronic ink, 178, 192–193 Electronic paper, 178, 192–193 Electron-transport layers, 190, 191 EMG See Electromyelography Emissions standards, 198 Emotion See also Affect causes of, 58–60 effects of, 56–58 measurement of, 60–64, 62 mood vs., 55–56, 60 overview of, 54, 54–55 questions concerning, 64 sentiment vs., 56 Enabelers, networks as, 243–246, 244 Encoding, signal detection theory and, 21 Encoding specificity, 29 Encryption, 249–250 Endogenous components, 23 Endogenous shifts of attention, 7–8 Endoscopic surgery, 13 Energetic metaphors, 96, 99–100, 101–102 See also Cognitiveenergetic framework Energy consumption standards, 198 Energy distribution, 130–131, 133 Engelbart, Douglas, 154 Environment simulators, 115, 115 Environmental Defense Foundation, 112 EPIC See Executive-Process Interactive Control EPIC Model, 34, 79–82, 80, 85 EPIC-Soar, 87 Episodic memory, defined, 27 Equivalence, 42–43 Equivalence searching, 31 Ergonomics See also Human factors; Neuroergonomics standards for, 198 workstation design and, 290–291, 299–300 ERPs See Event-related potentials Errors See also Human errors linearity, 188 mode, 125, 125–126 parallax, 139, 179 postcompletion, 75–76 speech recognition and, 166 Ethernet, 257, 266 Ethics, captology and, 120 Event/messaging systems, 265 Event-related potentials (ERPs), 23 Evidence nodes, 163 Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system, 284, 285 Excitation transfer, 60 Executive-Process Interactive Control (EPIC), 23 Exogenous components, 23 Exogenous shifts of attention, 7–8 Exoskeletons, 206, 207, 209, 209 Expectation maximization algorithm, 162 Expected utility theory, 33 Expertise, credibility and, 117, 119 Explicit interactions, 167 Extraversion, 97, 103 Eye-gaze, 14 Eyes, 6–7, 9, 194–195 EyeToy, 167 Eyetracking, sensing of, 157 F Face recognition, 158, 160–161 Facial Action Coding System (FACS), 61–62, 63 Facial expression, 61–62, 62 Facilitation of return, 8, 8–9 FACS See Facial Action Coding System Failure costs, 166–167 Fatigue, visual displays and, 195 Feature extraction, 24, 25 Feature Integration Theory, 31 Feature selection, overview of, 160–161 FEDs See Field-emission displays Feedback, 143–144, 167, 251–252, 262 See also Haptic feedback Feedthrough, 251 FEELEX, 210–213, 211, 212, 213, 219, 220 Field-emission displays (FEDs), 191 Filter theory, 30 Filter-attenuation theory, 30 Financial transactions, 255 Fisher’s linear discriminant, 161, 162 Fitts’ Law, 4–5, 26–27, 73, 80, 142, 142, 170 A Day Adventures CD, 110, 116 Fixed networks, flexible networks vs., 242–243 Flickering, 198 FM Synthesis methods See Frequency Modulation Synthesis methods Fmod, 228 fMRI See Functional magnetic resonance imaging FNIR imaging See Functional near infrared imaging Fogg’s Prominence-Interpretation Theory, 118 Foot pads, 208 Footprint, 138 Foraging, 84–85 Force, detection of, 206 Force display, 206, 206–207, 220 Force sensitive resistors (FSRs), 156 Fovea, 6–7, 157, 225 Frame rates, 185–186, 195, 198 Frequency, 227–228 Frequency Modulation (FM) Synthesis methods, 229 Freudian slips, 124 Frustration, detection of, 154 FSRs See Force sensitive resistors Full-body haptics, 207–208 Functional analysis, 131–132 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 23 Functional near infrared (fNIR) imaging, 159, 276 Functional Triad framework, 113–114, 116 G Gain, defined, 138 GaitMaster, 216, 216–217, 217, 220 Galvanic skin response, 61, 158 Gaze detection, 157 General packet radio service (GPRS), 242–243 General Problem Solver (GPS), 70 Generalization, sensing, recognition and, 169 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 325 SUBJECT INDEX General-purpose learning mechanisms, 76 Generation effect See Spacing effect Gesture input, 145–146 Gestures, sensing of, 157–158 Ghostings, 188 Glare, 183, 184, 195–196 Global networks, 242 Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) devices, 155 Global system for mobile communications (GSM), 242–243 Global villages, 267 Goals, emotion and, 58 Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules (GOMS) See GOMS analysis GoDaddy, 119 GOMS analysis, 71–75, 142–143, 262 Government, 246 GPRS See General packet radio service GPS See General Problem Solver GPS devices See Global Positioning Satellite devices Graffiti, 145 Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) EPIC and, 82 sensing, recognition and, 169–170 sonic enhancement of, 235–236, 236 TabletPC and, 140–141 Graphics, 139, 207 Graphics tablets, 139 Gray scales, 184–185, 189 Ground truth values, 160 Groupware, 243 Grove editor, 264 GSM See Global system for mobile communications GSM standards, 155 Guiard’s kinematic chain theory, 145 Guided Search Theory, 31 GUIs See Graphical user interfaces Gyricon, 193 Gyromouse, 156, 166 Gyroscopes, 156 H Habituation, 60, 226 Handheld devices, 200–201, 245–246 Handshaking, 247 Handwriting, 144 Handykey, 279, 279–280 Haptic feedback applications of, 219–220 design specification and implementation of, 211–213 full-body technologies and, 214–219, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219 input devices and, 144 methods of, 206, 206–209, 207, 208, 209, 210 object-oriented interfaces in finger/hand technologies and, 210–211, 211 technologies in finger/hand haptics and, 209–210 volumetric object oriented interfaces and, 213, 213–214 Haptic Master, 207, 219 Haptic User Interface (HUI), 219 HCI program See Human-Computer Interaction program Head tracking, 231 Head-mounted displays (HMD), 180, 180–181, 181, 199–200 Headphones, 226–227, 299 Head-related transfer functions (HRTF), 231 Hearing, vision and, 225 Heart rate, 61 • Hedonomics, 98–99, 105 Heuristics, decision making and, 33 HFES See Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Hick-Hyman law, 5, 24–25 Hidden Markov Model, 163 Hierarchical earcons, 233 Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA), 126–127, 128 HMD See Head-mounted displays Hoaxes, 118 Holdout method, 161 Hole-transport layers, 190, 191 Homing time, defined, 138 Homomorphisms, 42 Homunculus, 262 Hotspots, 243 HRA See Human Reliability Analysis HRTF See Head-related transfer functions HTA See Hierarchical Task Analysis Hue, 182, 182 Hue, saturation, and brightness (HSB), 182, 182 HUI See Haptic User Interface Human errors classification of, 124–126, 125 overview of, 124, 131–132 predicting, 126–128 SHERPA and, 130, 130–131, 133 TAFEI, interface design and, 129–130, 131, 132 validation of identification of, 128–129 Human factors (HF), See also Ergonomics Human information processing attention and, 30–32 choice reaction tasks and, 24–27, 25 memory and, 27–30 methods of, 21–23 models of, 23–24 new developments in, 33–34 overview of, 20, 34 perceptual-motor interaction and, 4–5 problem solving, decision making and, 32–33 Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), 126 HUSAT center See Human Sciences and Advanced Technology center I IBM System/336 ICAD conferences, 224 Icons, 11 See also Auditory icons ICOT See Institute for New Generation Computer Technology ICS model See Interacting cognitive subsystems model IdDa enabled devices See Infrared enabled devices Identity, sensing of, 158 IDXL models, 77 IID See Interaural Intensity Differences Illumination, ergonomics and, 298 Image generation, 178 Implementation, cognitive architecture and, 86 Implicit interactions, 167 Inclusion matching, 31 Inconsistent interface states, 252, 252 Indexing, 148 Indirect input devices, defined, 138 Indirect tablets, 139 Individual differences principle, 46, 103–105 Inertial sensors, 156 Information foraging, 84–85 325 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 326 • 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 326 SUBJECT INDEX Information processing, 4–5 See also Human information processing Infrared (IrDa) enabled devices, 243 Infrared LED (IR-LED) See IR-LED tracking systems Inhibition of return, 8, 8–9, 31 Ink, 178, 192–193 In-plane switching (IPS), 189 Input devices See also Mice evaluation and analysis of, 141–143, 142 feedback and, 143–144 keyboards, text entry and, 144–145 modalities of interaction and, 145–147, 146 overview of, 138 transfer functions and, 143 trends in, 147–148 understanding technologies of, 138–141 user task composition and, 141, 141 Inspections, 281–283 See also VuMan project Integration, LICAI and, 78 Intel Mote project, 155 Intelligent rooms, 163–166, 165 Intensity, 226, 234 Inter pupillary distance (IPD), 199 Interacting cognitive subsystems (ICS) model, 260–261 Interactive conversation, 253–254 Interactive table systems, 170 Interaural Intensity Differences (IID), 228, 231 Interaural Time Difference (ITD), 228, 231 Interfaces, 6, 129, 129–130, 169–170 Interference, 9–12 See also Proactive interference; Retroactive interference Intermediate feedback, 251 Intermittent light stimulation, 195 Internet,79, 118–119, 242–243 Internet browsers, 41 Internetworking, 257–258 Intrinsic motivation, 98–99 IP numbers, 258–259 IPD See Inter pupillary distance IPS See In-plane switching IPTO See Information Processing Techniques Office IPv, 258, 267 IR-LED tracking systems See Position sensitive devices IS See Information systems ISO 9217-9, Isometric joysticks, 139 Isomorphisms, 42 Isotonic joysticks, 139 ITD See Interaural Time Difference iTunes, 255 J Jamesian tradition, 61 JINI framework, 259 Jitter, 247, 247–249, 248, 254 Joint position receptors, 206 Joysticks, 139 K Kairos, 119 Kalman filters, 159–160 Keyboards, 144–145, 279, 279–280, 292, 297, 300 Keystroke-level models, 84, 142–143 KidsRoom, 168, 168 Kinematic chain theory, 145 Kinesthetic feedback, 143–144 Knowledge, 70, 74, 86 L Label-following, 78–79 Lag effect, 29, 160 LAN See Local area networks Language, See also Terminology Lapses, defined, 125, 126 Laptop computers, workstation design and, 293–294 Laser displays, 191–192, 192 Latency, 160, 247, 247 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), 79 Lateralized readiness potential (LRP), 23 Late-selection theory, 30 Layers, network models and, 256, 256–257, 257 LCD See Liquid-Crystal Displays Leading See Times square method Learning effects, 46 Levels-of-processing framework, 29 LICAI, 77, 78–79, 85 Lighting, 297 Limbic system, 54, 54–55 Limited Technical Inspections See VuMan project Linearity errors, 188 Liquid-Crystal Displays (LCD), 178, 180, 188–189, 189 Lisp tutor, 72 Liveware, 263 Load theory of attention, 30–31 Local area networks (LAN), 242–243 Loci method See Method of loci Locking, 263 Locomotion interfaces, 207–209, 208, 209, 214–219, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 219–220 Logistic functions, 160 Longitudinal studies, 170 Long-term memory, 27, 28–29 Lossy networks, 249 Loudness, 228 LRP See Lateralized readiness potential LSA See Latent Semantic Analysis Luminance, 181, 183–184, 195–196, 298 M MAA See Minimum auditory angle Macrosuasion, 112 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 61 Magnetometers, 156 Major/minor mode, earcons and, 234 Management, networks and, 259–260 Management information systems (MIS), See also Information systems Manual Motor processors, EPIC and, 80 Mapping, Marketing, 267 Marking menus, 145–146 Markov model, 163 Martini principle, 267 Maslow’s hierarchy of user needs, 58 Massed repetition, 29 Matrix codes, 158 Maximal adaptability model, 93, 93–94, 94, 95 Maxwellian-view optical systems, 180 MCC See Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation Mechanoreceptors, 206, 209 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 327 SUBJECT INDEX Media, 114–115, 253–255 Median filters, 160 Mediators, networks as, 246–255, 247, 248, 252 Medicine, haptic interfaces and, 219 Meissner corpuscles, 206, 209 Memory, 27–30, 56–57 See also Working memory Memory span, 28 MEMS technology See Micro-electro-mechanical systems technology Mental models, 32–33, 40–50 See also Situation models Mental resources, understanding of, 99–103 Mental stimulation, 41 Menu design, 31–32, 81, 200 Mercator system, 236–237 Merkel disks, 206, 209 Metaphors, 99–102 Method of loci, 30 Mice as absolute input device, 138 overview of, 138, 140, 140 perceptual-motor interaction and, 4, 14 as sensors, 154 Michelson Contrast Cm, 185 Micosuasion, 112–113 Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, 156 Micropin arrays, 209 MIDI See Musical Instrument Digital Interface Minimal manuals, 47 Minimum auditory angle (MAA), 228 Minimum Jerk Law, 142, 142 Mini-QWERTY thumb keyboard, 279, 279–280 MIS See Management information systems; Multilingual Interview System Mistakes, defined, 125–126, 126 Mixture of Gaussians, 162 Mnemonic techniques, 30 Mobile computers, 237–238, 294–295 Mobile keyboards, 279, 279–280 Mobile phones, 200–201, 237–238, 242–243, 294–295 Mode errors, 125, 125–126 Model Human Processor, 23, 34, 73, 73–74, 76, 262 Model of response activation, 10–11 Modeling, sensing, recognition and, 161–163, 162 Moiré, 188 Mood, 55–56, 59, 60 See also Emotion Moore’s Law, 166 Mote project, 155 Motifs, 232–233 Motion, 155, 156 Motion-sensing devices, 143, 155–156 Motivation, 98–99 Motivational affordances, 99 Motor adjustment, 25 Motor processing, 11 Motor programming, 25, 26 Movement See Motion Movement-process approach, MRI See Magnetic resonance imaging Multidomain vertical alignment (MVA), 189 Multilingual Interview System (MIS), 283–284 Multimedia instruction, mental models and, 45–46 Multimodal input, 145 Multiple presentation principle, 45–46 Multiple resource theory, 31, 275–276 • 327 Multitouch tables, 147 Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI), 228, 229–231 MVA See Multidomain vertical alignment MyFoodPhone, 119 N NAOMI See Naval Aerospace and Operational Medical Institute Napster, 255 NASA Test Director-Soar See NTD-Soar model National Science Foundation Interactive Systems program, See also Human-Computer Interaction program Natural GOMS Language, 74 Naval Aerospace and Operational Medical Institute (NAOMI), 283 Navigator , 281, 281–283, 282 Needs, emotion and, 58 Negroponte, Nicholas, – Networks as enablers, 243–246, 244 history, futures, paradigm shifts and, 266–267 as mediators, 246–255, 247, 248, 252 overview of, 242–243 as platforms, 262–266, 264 as subjects, 255–265, 256, 257, 258, 262 Neural net models See Parallel distributed processing Neuroergonomics, 102 See also Functional magnetic resonance imaging Neuroimaging information processing methods, 23 Neurological responses, emotion and, 61 Neuroticism, 97 NGOMSL See Natural GOMS Language Noise trials, 21 Nonspeech auditory output applications of, 235–239, 236 overview of, 224 perception of sound and, 227, 227–228 presentation techniques for, 231, 231–235, 233, 235 reasons for use of, 224–227 technology, sound production and, 228–231 Note On/Off events, 229–230 Notecards, 250 Notification servers, 265 Novelty, emotional response and, 59 NTD-Soar model, 77 Nulling problem, 138 O Object recognition, 158 Object simulators, 115, 115 Object-oriented type force display, 207 Obstacles, emotional response and, 59 Occupancy, 155 Ocean Odyssey, 131 Off-screen display systems, 186 OLEDs See Organic light-emitting diodes Open-loop control, 262, 262 Operators, 81, 262 Optimistic concurrency, 263, 264 Optoelectric sensors, 155 Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), 180 Orientation, sensing of, 156 Orthogonal data, sharing of, 263 Orthogonality, 225 OSIRIS, 208–209 Out-of-range input devices, 140, 140 Ownership, networks and, 255 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 328 • 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 328 SUBJECT INDEX P P3 component, 23 Pace, 252 Pacinian corpuscles, 206, 209 Packets, 257, 257, 258 PalmPilot, 145 PAN See Personal area networks PANAS See Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Pantographs, 209 Paper, 178, 192–193 Parallax error, 139, 179 PARC See Palo Alto Research Center Passive infrared (PIR) detectors, 155 Passive matrix LCDs, 188–189, 189 Passive props, 207 PC farms, 245 Pedaling devices, 208 Peephole displays, 147 Peer-peer file sharing, 259 Pegword method, 30 Pen gestures, 158 Pen input, 145 Pen-based force displays, 207, 209–210, 210 Pen-operated devices, 139 Perception, 117, 227, 227–228, 255, 286–287 Perceptual cycle, 124–125 Perceptual-motor interaction attention, performance and, 6–13 examples of, 13–14 human information processing and, 4–5 translation, coding, mapping and, Performance, 57, 96, 193–198, 196, 197 Performance-workload associations, 103 Performer-driven shifts of attention, 7–8 Perifoveal areas, 6–7 Personal area networks (PAN), 243 Personal digital assistants (PDAs), 13–14, 77, 200, 237–238 Persuasion, 110, 111 See also Captology PET scans, 23 PHANToM, 207, 207, 219 Phidgets hardware toolkit, 154–155 Philips Research, 181 Phonological loop, 28, 28 Photonic textiles, 181 Physical Modeling Synthesis, 229 Physiological sensors, 158–159 Ping-PongPlus system, 170, 171 Piper Alpha, 131 PIR detectors See Passive infrared detectors Pirates game, 260 Pitch, earcons and, 233, 234 Pixel formats, 184 See also Resolution Pixel matrices (formats), 179 Plasma displays, 189–190, 190 Platforms, networks as, 262–266, 264 PMI See Pointwise mutual information Podcasting, 255 Pointwise mutual information (PMI), 85 Polarity, 196 Polhemus magnetic tracking device, 156 Pollution, 112 POMS See Profile of Mood States PopuNET, 267 Position sensitive devices (PSD), 155–156, 164 Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), 63 Positron-emission tomography (PET) scans, 23 Postcompletion errors, 75–76 Potentiometers, 209 Power Law, 144, 228 Precision, preprocessing and, 159 Preprocessing, 25, 159–160 Prerecorded media, 254–255 Pressure mat switches, 155 Pressure sensors, 156–157 Principle Component Analysis, 161 Principle P, 76 Privacy, networks and, 255 Proactive interference, 30 Proactive password generation, 30 ProAnorexia websites, 120 Problem solving, 32–33 Problem space, 32, 76 Procedural memory, 27, 144 Productions, 75 Profile of Mood States (POMS), 63 Projection displays, 186 Prominence-Interpretation Theory, 118 Property sensed, 138 Proprioception, 206–208 Proprioceptive feedback, 143–144 Protocols, 257 Proxy settings, 259 PRP paradigm See Psychological refractory period paradigm PSD See Position sensitive devices Psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, 32, 81 Psychology, 220, 224, 227, 227–228 Psychophysiological information processing methods, 22–23 Punishment, 120 PVDF films, 156 Q QoS issues See Quality of service issues QR codes, 158 Quality control, web credibility and, 118 Quality of service (QoS) issues, 249, 267 Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction (QUIS), 63 Questionnaires, emotion and, 62–63 Quicken, 112 QUIS See Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction QWERTY, 144, 279, 279–280 R Race conditions, 252, 262 Radial Basis Function networks, 163 Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, 158 Range sensing, 155 Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), 200 Reaction time, 8, 21, 32 Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, 162, 162, 167 Recognition-based systems, 166–170 Refresh rates, 185–186, 195, 198 Register, earcons and, 233, 234 Regulations, 198, 198, 199 Relative input devices, defined, 138 Reliability, 249, 254 Remote procedure call (RPC) codes, 265–266 Repetition, memory and, 29 Replication, 263 Representation, information processing and, 23 Representativeness heuristic, 33 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 329 SUBJECT INDEX Reservation, networks and, 249 Resistive touch screens, 157 Resolution, 159, 178, 184, 195, 225 Resource Competition Framework, 275–276 Resource discovery servers, 265 Resource metaphors, 99–101 Response activation model, 10–11 Response programming, Response selection, 4, 25, 32 Retinal scanning displays (RSDs), 180, 193 Retinal surfaces, 6–7 Retroactive interference, 30 Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) calculators, 41, 45 RFID tags See Radio frequency identification tags RGB model, 182–183 Rhythm, earcons and, 233, 234 Risk-taking, 58 Robotic Graphics, 207 Robust statistics, 160 ROC curves See Receiver operator characteristic curves Routing, network models and, 258, 258 RPN calculators See Reverse Polish Notation calculators RSDs See Retinal scanning displays RSVP See Rapid serial visual presentation Ruffini capsules, 206, 209 Ruffini corpuscles, 206 S Saccadic eye movements, 9, 194 Safety, 198, 220 See also Ergonomics Sample size, defined, 230 Sampling, 230–231 Sampling rate, defined, 230 Sampling Theorem, 230 Satellites See also Global Positioning Satellite devices Saturation, 182, 182 Scenario analysis, 132 Scent Whisper, 253 Scent-based navigation and information foraging See SNIF-ACT Scorecard.org, 112 Screen mask technology, 187–188, 188 Seamful games, 260 Search for Extra-Terrestrial (SETI) project, 245 SegMan, 86 Segmentation, 179 Selective attention, See also Attention Self-centering devices, 143 Self-determination theory, 98 Self-efficacy, captology and, 113–114 Semantic feedback, 251 Semantics See Latent Semantic Analysis Sensors designing recognition-based systems and, 166–171 example system of, 163–166 input devices and, 146–147 overview of, 154, 171 sensing modes and, 154–159 signal processing and, 159–163 Sensory stores, 27 Sentiment, 56, 59 See also Emotion Sequential data, sharing of, 263 Sequential sampling models, 24 SETI project See Search for Extra-Terrestrial project Setup time, 247 Shadow mask technology, 187, 187 • 329 Shared objects, 262–265, 264 SHERPA, 126–127, 127, 129, 130, 130–131, 133 Shifts of attention, 7–8 Ship Research Laboratory, 219–220 Shneiderman, Ben, 250 Short-term memory, 27–28 See also Working memory SIGCHI See Special Interest Group in Human-Computer Interaction Signal detection information processing, 21, 24, 159–163 Signed applets, 250 SIGOA See Special Interest Group on Office Automation SIGOIS See Special Interest Group on Office Information Systems SIGSOC See Special Interest Group on Social and Behavioral Science Computing Simon effect, 12, 26, 275 Simplification, captology and, 114 Simulations ACT-R 5.0 and, 84 captology and, 114–115, 115 cognitive models and, 72 credibility and, 117–118 haptic feedback and, 208–209 Soar and, 76, 77–78 Singular value decomposition, 79 Situated cognition, 34 Situation models, 32–33, 40–50 Skin conductivity, 61 Skin sensation, 206, 209 Skype, 249 Slips, 124, 125, 125, 126 Slit masks, 187, 188 Slot-mask screens, 187–188, 188 Snapping, 144 SNIF-ACT, 84–85 SOAP, 265, 266 SOAR Model, 34, 76–78, 87 Social support, computers for, 115–116 Software development, 49–50 SonicFinder, 231, 231–232, 236 Sonification, 237 Sonification Sandbox, 237 Sound, 227, 227–228, 254 See also Nonspeech auditory output; Speech Sound effects See Nonspeech auditory output Sound pollution, 226–227 Sound synthesis, 228–230 SoundBlaster, 229 Soundtrack, 236, 236 Space-time distortion, 103 Spacing effect, 29, 160 Spatial compatibility, 12 Spatial sound, 230–231 Speech, 62, 62, 225–226, 294 See also Text-to-speech systems Speech recognition errors and, 166 input devices and, 145 sensors and, 157 wearable interfaces for, 280, 280–285, 281, 282, 284, 285 Speech Recognition/Language Translation (SR/LT), 283–284 Speech Translator Smart Module, 285, 285 Speed, 194 Speed-accuracy tradeoff, 22, 22, 194 Spindt-type devices, 191 Split screens, EPIC and, 82 Spotlight coding system, 7, 31 S-R compatibility See Stimulus-response compatibility 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 330 • 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 330 SUBJECT INDEX SRI See Stanford Research Institute SR/LT See Speech Recognition/Language Translation SSD See State-Space Diagrams Standards, 198, 198, 199, 292, 293 State-Space Diagrams (SSD), 127 Static electricity, 155 Steering Law, 142, 142 Stewart platforms, 209 Stimulus characteristics, 7–8 Stimulus identification, Stimulus onset asynchrony, 32 Stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility, 5, 12–13, 14, 25–26 STN LCDs See Super-twisted nematic LCDs Strain gauges, 156–157 Stress cognitive workload and, 96 future research areas in, 99–103 implications of for researchers and practitioners, 105 mitigation of, 96–99 performance, workload differences and, 103–105, 104 tasks as, 92 theoretical frameworks for, 92–96, 93, 94, 95 traditional research approaches and, 92 visual displays and, 195 Stress exposure training, 97 Stroop color-naming effect, 26 Structural analysis, 132 Structural metaphors, 99–100, 101–102 Subgoaling, 76 Subtractive method, 21–22 Subtractive Synthesis, 229 Super-twisted nematic (STN) LCDs, 189 Support Vector Machine (SVM), 162 Surface acoustic wave systems, 157 Surfaces, 216, 216–217, 217 Surrogates, 41 SVM See Support Vector Machine Synchronistic editing, 263–264 Syntactic feedback, 251 Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach See SHERPA T TabletPC and, 140–141 TacAir-Soar, 77–78 Tactical Information Assistant-Prototype (TIA-P), 283–284, 284, 285 Tactile display, 209 Tactile feedback, 144 TAFEI, 126, 127–128, 129–130, 131, 132 Tailored information, captology and, 114 TAM See Technology Acceptance Model Tangible user interfaces, 170 Targets, action-centered attention and, 11 Task Analysis For Error Identification See TAFEI Task demands, 194 Task factors, 103 Task loading, 92 See also Stress Task-Action Learner models, 77 Task-relative versions, 42 TCP/IP, 249, 258, 266, 267 Tectrix Virtual Reality Bike, 115 Telephone assistance operators, 81, 262 Teletic work, 98, 99 Tempo, earcons and, 234 Temporal resolution, 225 Terminology, 283 Text, 144–145 Text comprehension, 40, 43–44, 47–48 Text editors, 263–264 Textile Institute TITV Greiz, 181 Text-to-speech (TTS) systems, 63 TFT See Thin-film transistor displays Thalamus, 54, 54–55 Theory of learning by not doing, 46–47 Thermodynamic metaphors, 100 Thermoreceptors, 206 Thin-film transistor (TFT) displays, 189, 196, 196–198, 197 3D shape modeling, 219 3D sounds, 230–231 3G networks, 242 TIA-P See Tactical Information Assistant-Prototype Tilt sensors, 156 Timbre, 228, 233–234 Time, 74, 83–84, 103, 250–251 See also Chronometric information processing Times square method (TSM), 200–201 TN LCDs See Twisted nematic LCDs TOOIS See Transactions on Office Information Systems Tool-handling type force display, 206–207 Torus Treadmill, 214–216, 215, 220 Touch, 156–157 See also Haptic feedback Touch pads, 139 Touch screens, 139, 157, 219 Touch tablets, 139, 147 Trackballs, 139 Tracking input devices, 140, 140 Trait anxiety, 97, 103, 104 Transfer functions, 138, 143 Transformation, 23 Transition matrices, 127 Translation, 5, 283–285, 284, 285 Transmission, information processing and, 23–24 Transparency, networks and, 250 Transparent overlays, 147 Treadmills, 208, 214–216, 215 Treadport, 208, 208 Triboelectric detectors, 155 Trigg, Randy, 250 Trinitron technology, 187, 188 Triple super-twisted nematic (TSTN) LCDs, 189 Trust, 255 Trustworthiness, 117 TSM See Times square method TSTN LCDs See Triple super-twisted nematic LCDs TTS systems See Text-to-speech systems Tunneling, 257–258 Twiddler, 279, 279–280, 286 Twisted nematic (TN) LCDs, 188–189, 189 Typewriters, 144 See also Keyboards U Ubiquitous computing, 171, 237–238 Ubisense location system, 155 Ultra Wide Band (UWB), 243 UMTS See Universal mobile telecommunications systems Unattended speech effect, 226 Uncertainty See also Certainty/uncertainty Uneven surfaces, 216, 216–217, 217 Unistrokes, 145 Unitary resource models, 31 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 331 SUBJECT INDEX Universal mobile telecommunications systems (UMTS), 200 Universal subgoaling, 76 UPC bar codes, 158 Usability engineers, 71 Utility, 166–167 UWB See Ultra Wide Band V Vacuum fluorescent displays (VFD), 190–191 Valence, 59, 63 VDTs See Video display terminals VDUs See Visual display units Verbal reports See Psychological method of verbal reports Vertical scanning rates, 185–186, 195, 198 Vibration detectors, 155 Vibration displays, 209 Vicon Peak system, 156 Video games, 112 Vigilance, 21 Virtual clay, 213 Virtual environments, credibility and, 118 Virtual locality, 260 Virtual machines, 70 Virtual Perambulator, 207–208, 208, 215–216 Virtual private networks (VPN), 257–258 Virtual reality systems, 158, 198–199, 200–201, 251, 253 Virtual reality treatments, 115 Virtual retinal displays (VRDs) See Retinal scanning displays Vision, 225, 254 Visual displays augmented reality and, 199–200 basic principles of, 178–181 overview of, 178 quality criteria for, 181–186 standards, rules, regulations and, 198, 198, 199 technologies of, 186, 186–193 virtual reality and, 198–199 visual performance of, 193–198 workstation design and, 297–298 Visual dominance, 144 Visual environment, ergonomics and, 297–298 Visual load, 195 Visual processors, 80 Visualization, 237, 259 Visually impaired users, 236–237 Visuospatial sketchpad, 28, 28 Vocabulary See Terminology Voice, 62, 62 See also Speech Voice over IP (VoIP), 254 VoIP See Voice over IP Volflex, 213, 213–214 Volumetric displays, 179–180 Vovollect, 280, 280 Voxels, 179–180 VPN See Virtual private networks VRDs See Virtual retinal displays VuMan project, 272, 272–273, 275, 276–279, 277, 278 • W Wacom electromagnetic positioning technology, 158 WAN See Wide area networks WAP See Wireless Application Protocols War games See Simulations Wavetable synthesis, 229 Weakly Intrusive Ambient Soundscape (WISP), 238–239 Wearable computers attention and, 275–276 CAMP framework and, 273 future challenges for, 287 manipulation and, 276–285 overview of, 180, 180–181, 181, 272 performance evaluation and, 285, 285–287, 286 sound and, 238 VuMan project and, 272, 272–273, 275, 276–279, 277, 278 wearability and, 273–275, 275, 276 Web, 79, 118–119, 242–243 Web Search Platform (Alexa), 245 Web service frameworks, 265–266 Weberscher Contrast Cw, 184–185 White pages systems, 259 Wide area networks (WAN), 242–243 Widgets, 235 Wi-Fi, 155, 243 Wireless Application Protocols (WAP), 243 Wireless local area networks (WLAN), 200 Wireless networking, 147 WISP See Weakly Intrusive Ambient Soundscape Within-car networks, 243–244 WLAN See Wireless local area networks Working memory, 28, 28, 74, 75 See also Short-term memory Workload, 96, 103 See also Cognitive workload Workstation design auditory environment and, 298–299 chairs and, 295–296 ergonomics and, 290–291, 299–300 fixed workstations and, 291–292 laptop computers and, 293–294 mobile computers and, 294–295 overview of, 290 recommendations for, 300 visual environment and, 297–298 World War II, 20 World Wide Web,79, 118–119, 242–243 Wrist rests, 297 WSS 976, 273, 273–274 X XML-RPC, 265 XWand system, 164–166, 165, 168 Y Yoked State Space hypothesis, 44–45 Z ZigBee, 243 331 88815_Sub_Index.QXP 1/7/09 12:00 PM Page 332 ... Human- Computer Interaction: Designing for Diverse Users and Domains, A Sears and J A Jacko Human- Computer Interaction: Design Issues, Solutions, and Applications, A Sears and J A Jacko Human- Computer. .. interaction (HCI), also known as human- machine interaction, and perceptual-motor interaction in general, we have adopted two basic theoretical and analytical frameworks as part of an integrated approach... for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ), and the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Dr Jacko received a National Science Foundation CAREER Award for her research
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