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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE VIETNAM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES PHAN THI THUY TRANG MANAGEMENT OF PEDAGOGICAL PROFESSIONAL TRAINING FOR VOCATIONAL COLLEGE TEACHERS IN THE MEKONG DELTA IN THE DIRECTION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE Major: Education Management Major Code: 9.14.01.14 DOCTOR OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES DISSERTATION SUMMARY Ha Noi - 2019 Works to be done in: THE VIETNAM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES Scientific Instructor: PROF DR NGUYEN LOC DR PHAN CHINH THUC Reviewer 1: Reviewer 2: Reviewer 3: The dissertation is defended in front of the Institute-level Board of Examiners meeting at The Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences, 101 Tran Hung Dao, Ha Noi At hour ., date month year The dissertation can be found at: - National Library - Library of The Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences INTRODUCTION Rationale The establishment and development of Vocational Education institutions, especially in the Mekong Delta in the period of 2010 - 2015, has achieved some results in meeting highly skillful human resources Teaching staff of Vocational Education has developed in quantity and quality step by step raised but still reveals many limitations and inadequacies, who is imposing objective and urgent requirements to meet the needs of human resource training, contributing to economic growth, accelerating the process of economic and labor restructuring in the direction of industrialization and modernization, increasing labor productivity, increasing income for workers and improving the quality of human resources in the context of international integration The teaching staff is formed from many different sources: - High school graduates are trained from technical pedagogical universities and technical pedagogic colleges - University graduates from specialized technical universities (fostering career skills and pedagogical skills) to become teachers - Technical staff, artisans and workers with high vocational skills from production (being trained in pedagogical skills), mainly recruited as vocational practice teachers - The need to train high-quality technical human resources to meet the socio-economic development of the country in general and the Mekong Delta in particular requires the development of a contingent of teaching staff of Vocational Education in terms of quantity, quality and industry structure In order to remedy the above situation, solutions for continuing training and fostering pedagogical skills for teachers from different sources are concerned General Department of Vocational Training; MOLISA has developed and issued a framework curriculum for pedagogical skills teaching at elementary, intermediate and college levels At the same time, Faculty of Vocational Education has been set up in some key vocational colleges in the regions to train and foster Pedagogical Skills for teachers in the region From the above reasons, the research on the topic "Management of pedagogical professional training for vocational college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance" is very urgent and highly practical Objectives of the research On the basis of theoretical research, assessing the status of fostering and management status of pedagogical skills fostering for teachers, the studying proposes some solutions for managing pedagogical skills training for teachers in colleges in Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance Object and subject of the study 3.1 Object of the study: Pedagogical Skills training activities for teachers of colleges in the Mekong Delta 3.2 Subject of the study: Management of pedagogical skill training for teachers of colleges in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance Scientific hypothesis: Management of pedagogical skill training for teachers in colleges in the Mekong Delta is still inadequate due to the characteristics of the teachers and the need to quickly develop human resources in the Mekong Delta in the near future Therefore, if the solutions for managing pedagogical skills training for teachers about developing enrollment plans, managing the training process, evaluating outputs and innovating the operation of the pedagogical course in the direction of quality assurance, it will contribute to improving the efficiency of teacher management and improving the training quality of colleges in the Mekong Delta Research missions Mission 1: Researching the theoretical basis for managing pedagogical skills training for college teachers in the direction of quality assurance Mission 2: Assessing the status of management of fostering pedagogical skills for college teachers of Mekong Delta Mission 3: Proposing some solutions for managing pedagogical skills training for college teachers in Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance At the same time, conducting testing the solution and choosing a solution of Managing and evaluating the outputs and issuing the graduation certificate applying the CIPO model in fostering pedagogical skills for college teachers in the direction of QA Scope of the study - Researching the theoretical basis of management of pedagogical skill training for teachers in the direction of QA - Assessing the status of management of fostering pedagogical skills for colleges teachers in the Mekong Delta - Proposing solutions for managing training of Pedagogical Skills for college teachers in the Mekong Delta region to 2025 towards QA - Testing a solution at the pedagogical faculty of vocational training at Can Tho Vocational College on the subject of College Teachers teaching Elementary occupations Approach and research method 7.1 Approach method: In this study, the researcher applied the following approaches: System approach; Quality assurance approach; Human resource development approach; Competency Approach (output standard); Process approach 7.2 Research method Group of theoretical research methods; Practical research methods; Statistical methods that handle the survey data The defended thesis - Managing Pedagogical Skills training for teachers in the direction of quality assurance is a standardized method (in management and control) in order to develop thinking and self-maintenance to make a difference in motivation and work efficiency It is considered as a new personnel management method in accordance with the requirements of innovation in educational management - In order to improve the capacity of the teachers, fostering the pedagogical skill level towards quality assurance must be paid special attention by colleges This is one of the decisive factors to help teachers form professional and technical knowledge, practical skills and ethical qualities to well perform the teaching duties - Pedagogical Skills training should be based on performance standards and at the same time choosing an approach based on CIPO model, ensuring that the whole training process (Inputs, Processes, Outputs and Regulating Contexts) achieves the desired effect New contributions of the study: - Contributing to systematizing concepts, theoretical basis of fostering pedagogical skill management for college teachers towards QA - Assessing the status of management of fostering pedagogical skills for teachers at colleges in the Mekong Delta - Proposing some solutions of managing pedagogical skill training for college teachers in the direction of QA to contribute to improving the quality of teachers in colleges in the Mekong Delta 10 Place for conducting research: The Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences 11 Structure of the study Apart from the Introduction, Table of Contents, Abbreviations and List of Tables Charts, Conclusions, References and Appendices, the study consists of following chapters: Chapter 1: Theoretical basis for management of pedagogical skills training for college teachers towards quality assurance Chapter 2: Status of fostering and management pedagogical skills for college teachers of Mekong Delta towards quality assurance Chapter 3: Solutions for managing pedagogical skills training for college teachers in Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance CHAPTER THEORETICAL BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS TOWARDS QUALITY ASSURANCE 1.1 Overview of Literature review 1.1.1 Foreign research works Foreign authors have been very interested in researching issues related to quality management, perspectives on quality, effective training methods and effective management models However, the works did not deeply mention the management of fostering pedagogical skills for teachers in the direction of QA The study inherits the domestic and foreign research achievements on the effective management theory of education, at the same time, the researcher combines the theory of QA model, in order to develop measures to help manage the pedagogical skills training for college teachers in Mekong Delta in the direction of QA 1.1.2 Domestic research works: Research by Pham Thanh Nghi (2000) shows that, in order to be able to manage strategies effectively, strategic thinking needs to be used and focused on: (1) Creating organization-oriented activities; (2) Identifying areas of innovation related to the organization's overall vision, mission, and goals; (3) Reviewing the overall orientation within the organization's traditional operations as well as further looking in the coming years; (4) Emphasizing on how and why, defining the strategy and implementing the strategy; (5) Finding the organization's greatest competitive advantages compared to similar organizations, selecting the type of students to serve and identifying funding sources [66] Research by Nguyen Danh Huu (2016) identified basic pedagogical competence groups of teachers who need to be trained and fostered for development, namely: (1) Capacity group on ethical qualities; (2) Group of teaching and educational competencies (capacity to diagnose; capacity of designing educational and teaching plans; capacity to organize the implementation of education and teaching plans; capacity to supervise and evaluate the results of teaching and educational activities; capacity to solve problems that arise in practice, the capacity of integrated teaching, differentiated teaching, teaching for sustainable development [67] In general, the research issue has attracted many domestic authors to implement However, the above works have not gone into research on management of fostering pedagogical skill for college teachers 1.2 Theory of quality and management towards quality assurance 1.2.1 Management: Management is described as a program of activities undertaken by the manager to ensure that the organization's objectives are achieved The Management process includes the combination of: People; Time; Work; Currency; Place; Machinery (technology); Source of raw materials From a functional perspective, manager performs many different activities depending on the organization, or according to the levels of the managers However, there are some basic, common tasks for everyone to manage in all organizations People often call these most common tasks as the management function Up to now, many management experts agree that there are four basic management functions: Planning; Organization; Leadership / Coordination (direction); Examining However, in order to perform the above functions, the organization or the manager must ensure other resources conditions such as human, facilities, information these conditions directly affect the results of management work, which is a decisive factor and lays the foundation for the success of the organization Achieve organizational goals effectively Human resources Financial resources Material resources Information resources Planning Organization Leadership Examining Hình 1.1 Relationship in terms of different resources of management Source: Nguyen Loc, (2010), Management theory, University of Pedagogy Publishing House [56] Management's functions are all aimed at achieving organizational goals effectively, while the functions have their own duties, but they affect each other in the management process of leadership and functions This must be based on human, financial, physical and information resources Without these resources, the functions will be useless to the organization's goals, any management function is related to resources, none of the resources does not affect function of management Thus, in order to achieve the organization's goals effectively, it is necessary to invest, considering the mission of the functions with the presence of all investment resources in the organization From the above-mentioned approaches, it is shown that: Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and examining the work of its members to achieve the organization's goals [59] 1.2.2 Quality concept The concept of "quality" is perceived from many different perspectives: a) According to absolute conception b) According to relative conception c) The conception of vocational training quality is based on many components: Quality is a multidimensional concept, so when mentioning the quality of vocational training, it is necessary to mention many different elements, directly or indirectly affecting quality The researcher said that: Quality of training is a dynamic, multi-dimensional, historical concept - specifically, containing many quantitative and qualitative factors From a different perspective of interest, the evaluation of vocational training quality can serve different purposes, possibly emphasizing the function of one component or the function of another With the most common purpose of evaluating the quality of vocational training is to analyze and find solutions to improve the quality of training in vocational education institutions 1.2.3 The levels of quality management: Quality management is an effective system of unified operation of different parts of the organization, responsible for implementing quality parameters, maintaining and improving it to ensure production and consumption The most economical way to satisfy the needs of consumers (A.Feigenbaum)[1] Quality management is classified into levels of management, specifically as follows: Quality control, quality assurance and overall quality management The level of quality management is shown as follows: (1) Quality Control (QC): In the field of training, it is controlling factors: teachers and staff, facilities and teaching equipment, enrollment, teaching-learning methods and information ( information about education, education management and labor market information) (2) Quality Assurance (QA): In the field of education and training, the basic factors that need to be tested for QA are: curriculum, lecturers / teachers, facilities and teaching equipment, organizing and managing the process of teaching, scientific research, the relationship between schools and businesses, services for students The important issue for training management under the "quality assurance" model is to develop a standard system of quality assurance conditions for each type of school, each level and different training professions as a basis for evaluating and managing training quality Researcher are particularly interested in the management model of "Quality Assurance" in the implementation of the thesis (3) Total quality mangement (TQM): Nguyen Loc [57] introduced the definition of TQM given by ISO 8402:1994: "TQM is one management method an organization, focusing on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to the society " and Marsh J as follows: “TQM is a philosophy that is accompanied by tools and processes for practical implementation in order to achieve a culture of continual improvement implemented by all members of the organization in order to meet and satisfy customers” 1.2.4 Quality assurance and models of quality assurance of training and fostering 1.2.4.1 Quality assurance: Training at the institutions is the operational management within the scope of vocational training institutions and activities with external partners to guide and control the training quality assurance system, in order to create believe that graduates have enough knowledge, skills and attitudes towards their goals and meet the requirements of the labor market 1.2.4.2 Quality assurance models a) Management model according to Europe b) Organizqtion Element Model - SEAMEO c) Management model by ASEAN Union (AUN&QA ): The QA model of training program (training program) according to AUN-QA starts from determining the needs of stakeholders These needs are loaded into expected learning outcomes, the model is shown in Figure 1.5 as follows: Sơ đồ 1.5: The QA model of training program according to AUN-QA (version 3.0) The quality assurance of school level is included in the school's missions, tasks, targets and goals Version of the QA model for training program according to AUN - QA includes 11 criteria: (1) Expected learning results; (2) Description of training program; (3) Structure and content of training program; (4) Methods of teaching and learning; (5) Examining and evaluating students (Students); (6) Teacher quality; (7) Quality of support staff; (8) Student quality and activities to support students; (9) Infrastructure and equipment; (10) Improve the quality; (11) Output The model ends with meeting the needs of stakeholders and continually improving the QA system [6] d) Quality management model according to ISO 9000:2000 e) Quality assurance model approaching CIPO of UNESCO Also according to Nguyen Loc [58], American author Hoy W.K.and Miskel C.G argues that following a quality management model includes inputs, processes and outputs with about 21 indicators of all kinds Academic achievement is only one of many indicators above (see Figure 1.6) Input Financial strength Device Willingness of the student The capacity of the teacher Technology Help from parents Policy Process Vision Work environment The level of encouragement Organization of class Program quality Teaching quality Learning time Quality leadership Output Academic achievement Student learning Satisfaction of the teacher Degree of absence The number of school dropouts Quality made Figure 1.6: Assessing quality according to input - process – output of USA Source: Hoy W.K.and Miskel C.G., (2001) Educational Administration (excerpt according to [58]) Quality assurance model according to SEAMEO organization with elements of management of input quality, process, result, output and efficiency; The AUN-QA model has provided 11 QA standards for training programs with the aim of achieving expected results for stakeholders In particular, the labor and product management must be competent and qualified to create quality products and the product user must actively evaluate to contribute to QA 1.2.5 Managing pedagogical professional training for college teachers towards quality assurance: 1.2.5.1 Concept of Pedagogical Skills, fostering Pedagogical Skills for college teachers a) Pedagogical Skills: “Skills” According to the definition of the Vietnamese Dictionary 1992: To be understood as a professional occupation, professional work of an occupation [71]; Pedagogy: According to the definition of the Vietnamese Dictionary 1992: is a science of teaching and education in schools [71] Thus, the term "pedagogical profession" is a professional work of teaching profession, an educational activity and a method of teaching a specific job or subject of a teacher The minimum standards of the most common teachers for all occupations include the following competencies: Professional career competence; Pedagogical career competence; Supporting competence (information technology, Internet, foreign languages, communication); Competence includes Knowledge, Skill, Professional Attitude and Workhabit b) Fostering the pedagogical skills for teachers: “Training” according to the definition of the Vietnamese Dictionary 1992 is to become a competent person according to certain standards [71]; Fostering: According to the definition of the Vietnamese Dictionary 1992, it is to increase the strength of the body with a tonic and to increase the capacity or quality [71] 11 following key aspects: quality; qualification; pedagogical capacity The requirement for fostering pedagogical competence for teachers is firstly equipping them with basic, systematic knowledge about psychology, helping teachers to form psychological research skills and apply them to training themselves, being able to analyze, explain and understand the psychological phenomena of students on a scientific basis Since then determine the appropriate teaching methods to achieve quality and effectiveness Fostering pedagogical skills for teachers in the direction of QA is an urgent requirement in the context of current international integration, which is the research content of the thesis 1.3.2 College teacher model According to Vu Xuan Hung [42]: Teachers are responsible for performing teaching tasks in vocational institutions, contributing to training human resources for technical workers directly for the national industrialization and modernization Due to the nature and characteristics of professional activities, teachers have very specific characteristics They are both educators, with qualified and capable of organizing and managing teaching and educational activities; being a technologist-technician with a certain level of professional knowledge and skills of a training major or profession; being a scientist capable of carrying out and participating in research activities, technical improvements, innovation of training methods and contents; being a manager capable of organizing and managing activities according to his functions and duties and is also a social activist with knowledge, participation and organization of social and community activities Thus, we can generalize the career model of teachers according to the following model: Educator Social activist Technican (Technology & Vocational skills) Teacher Model Manager Scientific researchers Figure 1.8: Career model of teachers [77] 1.3.3 Pedagogical competence of teacher 1.3.3.1 Capacity structure of teacher: Minimum standards and core components of the model of the most common vocational teachers for all occupations include: Professional career capacity; Pedagogical capacity; Supporting capacity (information technology, Internet, foreign languages, communication); Competence includes Knowledge, Skill, Professional Attitude and Workhabit 1.3.3.2 Structure of pedagogical competence of teacher 12 a) Pedagogical competence: In order to have pedagogical competence, teachers must not only have the knowledge and skills, but also need an attitude towards the work to show individual capacity in teaching activities Each pedagogical student must create his or her own capacity through active work b) Structure of pedagogical competence: pedagogical competence includes the system of knowledge, skills and attitudes about pedagogical careers Pedagogical competence is a complex capacity, so the structure of pedagogical competence also has many different views However, the researcher said that: According to F.N Gonobolin [36]: there are 10 typical competencies, the basic of pedagogical competence is the ability to understand students; ability to communicate learning materials; capacity to attract students; ability to persuade people; organizational capacity; capacity to handle pedagogical situations; ability to forecast results; creative capacity in teaching work; operational process control capacity; competence based on interest This is the basis for teachers to assert themselves in the teaching process c) Standard of college teachers: Circular No 30/2010 / TT-BLĐTBXH dated September 29, 2010 of the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs providing for teacher and vocational trainers' standards: (1) "Teacher standards" is a system of requirements basic requirements on political qualities, ethics, lifestyles, professional capacity that teachers need to achieve in order to meet vocational training goals; (2) "Criteria" is a field of standards, including requirements with relevant content demonstrating the competence of teachers in that field Each criterion has a number of criteria; (3) "Standards" are the specific requirements of the criteria There are indicators of evaluation in each standard 1.4 Training pedagogical skills for teachers to approach performance standards 1.4.1 The concept of training, competence, implementation competence 1.4.1.1 Fostering: According to the Vietnamese dictionary: "Fostering” in a broad sense, is the process of education and training to shape the personality and distinct qualities of the personality according to the chosen orientation Fostering Pedagogical skills for teachers is essentially fostering pedagogical competence to supplement pedagogical knowledge, improve the quality and teaching capacity of teachers, reaching a specified pedagogical level (level one , level two ) 1.4.1.2 Competence : “Competence” is a scientific term, with many different views on this term Competence is different from ability and skill Competence is the "successful" implementation of a "real" mission; while the ability is only potential (expectation, latent) in individuals that have not been revealed in reality; skill is only one of the main components of competence (knowledge, skill, attitude) Therefore, it is a mistake to say that a person who has just graduated from a good education is a competent person According to the researcher, competence is understood as the ability to effectively combine the knowledge and skills of awareness and action, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics to perform tasks in the context as well as in practice to achieve the expected goal 13 1.4.1.3 Competency: “Competency” according to Bob Mansfield (1989), Competency includes: (1) The ability to perform the entire job role or scope of work; means doing them, not just knowing them; fulfilling the entire labor role or scope of work rather than each of their individual skills and jobs; (2) Follow the standards expected in that job; (3) In a real work environment, that is, with all pressures and changes related to real labor - model and practical condition [97] 1.4.2 Pedagogical skill standard of teachers: Pedagogical skill standard of college teachers show the requirements of pedagogical competence that teachers must meet In the process of socio-economic development and international integration, each teacher is required to regularly study and foster to improve their qualifications in all aspects in general and pedagogical capacity in particular and at the same time management levels must also develop a plan for fostering pedagogical skills for teachers in the direction of QA [80] 1.4.3 Pedagogical skill training program for teachers according to competency standards (1) Level Pedagogical Training program issued under Decision No 1672 / TH-DN of August 18, 1992 of the Ministry of Education and Training (2) Level Pedagogical Training Program, issued under Decision 2988 / QD of December 28, 1993 of the Ministry of Education and Training * Comment: Regarding the content of the program, although it is called a pedagogical training and fostering program, it actually only equips teachers with pedagogical knowledge, not yet going into teaching, education and organization skills as well as the method of using teaching equipment and subject teaching methods that each teacher must have, so the teaching staff, especially the new teachers, are still very inadequate in terms of pedagogy (3) In 2011, in order to meet the requirements of teaching staff development, the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs issued the "Program of pedagogical training framework for teachers and teachers of Vocational Intermediate Level, Vocational College" [84] * Comment: “Program of pedagogical training framework for teachers and teachers of Vocational Intermediate Level, Vocational College" with objectives, time, content, implementation method, specific requirements have contributed to the additional number of teachers, improved the quality of teachers, contributed to the training of technical labor force directly serving the socio-economic development of the region and the whole country * In order to improve the quality of teaching staff's access to international-level pedagogy, the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs and the General Department of Vocational Training instructed the compilation of the framework curriculum and vocational pedagogical curriculum approaching the international level The textbook "City & Guilds 1106 International Pedagogical Curriculum level 2" consists of lessons as follows Lesson 1: Identifying needs and assessing input; Lesson 2: Planning and preparing lessons; Lesson 3: Teaching methods; Lesson 4: Checking the results of the learning process 14 Through the application, it shows that City & Guilds 1106 International Pedagogical Curriculum level put into training has contributed to improving the quality of pedagogy for nuclear teaching staff at vocational colleges and vocational schools, approaching the international level 1.5 Applying CIPO model in managing pedagogical skills training for teaching staff in the direction of quality assurance 1.5.1 Managing subjects: Management subjects with different management levels, with different functions, tasks and authority in management of pedagogical skill training for teachers are: Government, MOLISA and relevant Ministries , People's Committee of Province, City directly under the Central Government, and Principals of Vocational Colleges 1.5.2 Applying CIPO model in managing pedagogical skills training for teaching staff in the direction of QA: CIPO model in management of training, fostering pedagogical skills for teachers approaching standard competency and towards QA (shown in Figure 1.10), including management content groups including: input management, process management, output management and impacts of context on management of training and fostering of pedagogical skills 1.5.3 Contents of pedagogical skill training management for college teachers to approach CIPO model in the direction of QA: In order to orient and take initiative in the implementation of management of fostering vocational training according to competency on the basis of applying the CIPO model; the researcher created a matrix of management functions and management content of pedagogical skill training according to CIPO model to easily access the key features and core issues to be studied 1.6 Factors affecting the management of pedagogical skills training for teachers in the direction of QA 1.6.1 Objective factors: The mechanisms and policies of the state Reality off SocioEconomic Development and Science-Technology 1.6.2 Subjective factors: Management apparatus and qualifications of managing and teaching staff Pedagogical environment, reputation and brand of the school Mechanisms and policies of the school in managing pedagogical skills training for teachers CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER Management is both a science and a complex art, but it is a decisive role in achieving the organization's goals The thesis has analyzed the concepts and some related models of quality management in education in general and vocational education in particular QA in training and fostering is a decisive factor to create products that meet practical requirements in our country in general and the Mekong Delta in particular in terms of human resource training in the context of market economy and international integration With the above viewpoint, proposing the content of management of pedagogical skill training for college teachers in Mekong Delta in the direction of QA is approaching the process and output oriented approach to the market towards QA 15 CHAPTER STATUS OF MANAGEMENT OF FOSTERING PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS IN MEKONG DELTA IN THE DIRECTION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE 2.1 Overview of socio-economy and vocational education in Mekong Delta 2.1.1 Natural geographic and socio-economic characteristics 2.1.2 Overview of vocational education in the Mekong Delta 2.2 Status of teaching staff and management of fostering pedagogical skills for college teachers in Mekong Delta 2.2.1 Teaching staff of vocational colleges in Mekong Delta According to the Report on "Development of education, training and vocational training in provinces in the Mekong Delta in the period of 2011 - 2015, development directions for the period of 2016 - 2020" of September 2015 of the Ministry of Education and Training and the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs In the Mekong Delta region, there are 3416 teachers in 43 schools (this is the number of fulltime teachers excluding part - time teachers), It is estimated that about 700 teachers teaching general subjects such as politics, law, physical education, etc The remaining about 2700 teachers teaching professional modules, but this proportion is not evenly distributed among specialized departments so there is still a phenomenon of lack of teachers, some of which are redundant in part due to the demand of learners according to crowd trend and the labor market, so the annual number of students registering for vocational training changes about 20% compared to the registered scope Thus, the demand of each year for training and fostering of about "300,000 workers", particularly the intermediate and college level accounts for about 12-15% in the region [7] will be a challenge for the vocational education institutions in the Mekong Delta to perform the mission of training and fostering highly skilled labor force This challenge can only be overcome when the state-owned vocational education institutions have a training strategy for pedagogical skill training, which is not only sufficient in quantity but also important in the capacity of the vocational education teachers 2.2.2 Faculty of vocational education in colleges in Mekong Delta - Before 2008, there were universities of Technology and Education in the country (Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Nam Dinh University of Technology and Education, Vinh University of Technology and Education, and Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, Vinh Long Technology and Education College) and some technology and education faculties of universities and technology colleges participate in training and fostering vocational teachers - From 2008 to December 2016, the whole country had about 73,612 teachers teaching at vocational training institutions, of which: 40,264 teachers at colleges, 19,454 teachers at vocational schools, 13,912 teachers at Vocational Education centers 16 Implementing the policy of piloting the construction of vocational education faculties of vocational colleges, from 2007 up to now, there have been 45 institutions training and fostering pedagogical skill for vocational teachers Among them, 05 faculties of Technology and Education belong to the universities of Technology and Education, 03 faculties of specialized universities, 01 Institute of Vocational Education Science and 36 faculties of vocational education at the colleges From the situation of the vocational teaching staff and requirements for development of vocational education in the period 2005-2010 and 2010-2020, the development and synchronous implementation of solutions to develop the contingent of vocational education teachers is extremely necessary and urgent In particular, the pilot solution to establish vocational education faculties of vocational colleges is one of the solutions that can partially overcome the existing problems 2.2.3 Functions and duties of vocational education faculties in fostering pedagogical skill for teachers - Training and issuing certificates of vocational education skills and fostering teaching skills for vocational trainers, according to the program issued by the General Department of Vocational Training - Developing programs and training materials for teachers for each profession and each topic - Regular and advanced fostering for teachers in terms of skills, teaching methods, curriculum development, and vocational modular training methods - Participate in Research on Vocational Education and Pedagogical skills to contribute to improving the quality of teachers Deploying and applying the results of scientific research in vocational education in teaching tasks 2.2.4 Pedagogical skill fostering activities of vocational education faculties of colleges in Mekong Delta The schools have been instructed by the General Department of Vocational Training to implement the project to establish vocational education faculties, submit to the People's Committee of province (city) for approval, and then General Department of Vocational Training will give the school the activities of pedagogical skill training of vocational education faculties, including: Organization training and fostering to raise occupational skills and fostering new technologies according to new curriculum and teaching methods for vocational teachers 2.4.5 Results of pedagogical skill training and fostering for teachers in schools having vocational education faculties in the Mekong Delta region a) The period of 2011-2017: 17 School Name Long An Vocational College (Established in 2014) An Giang Vocational College (Established in 2008) Cần Thơ Vocational College (Established in 2008) Vinh Long University of Technology and Education (Formerly Technology and Education 4) Total Vocational education at level of CollegeVocational School (Subjects taught in CollegeVocational School) Vocational education at level of Elementary (Primary vocational trainees at vocational centers) 148 86 14 701 551 150 1841 1375 489 3377 473 681 6.068 2.485 1334 Teaching skills (Subjects serving the project of 1956 vocational training for rural laborers) Source: Report on the conference on fostering Vocational education skills 2011-2017 of the General Department of Vocational Training in Da Lat on September 23, 2017 b) Expected to 2025: Continuing to organize fostering to meet the standards of vocational education skill and vocational skills for teachers who teach currently not meet the standards; Training, fostering, evaluating and granting certificates of vocational practice skills for teachers teaching key national occupations; Fostering on "credit training, compiling lesson plan and integrating teaching, training and evaluating according to implementation capacity”, according to the Decision No 586 / QD-TCDN dated September 16, 2015 of the General Department of Vocational Training 2.3 Survey on the status of management of pedagogical skill training for college teachers in the Mekong Delta region Limiting the survey to a number of managers and teachers of 05 Mekong Delta colleges, according to the statistics of the General Department of Vocational Training by 2016, the reality of the five surveyed schools is shown in Table 2.3 18 School Name Long An Vocational College (with Faculty of VE) An Giang Vocational College (with Faculty of VE) Kien Giang Vocational College Can Tho Vocational College (with Faculty of VE) Soc Trang Vocational College Total Total number of managers, teachers Mana Teach Foreign Informat gers er Language ion (PS Level B, technolo level 2, B1 gy level VE) (English) B, IC3 Vocation al skills Accordin g to worker level 7/7 84 19 65 63 60 65 313 34 279 276 276 279 130 40 90 77 77 90 132 28 104 132 132 104 158 61 97 97 97 61 817 182 635 645 642 599 Table 2.3 Actual situation of teachers of vocational colleges in the Mekong Delta Source: Statistical report in 2016 of the General Department of Vocational Training - Survey methods and tools: Survey method by questionnaire Methods of conversation, interview Survey time: September 2016 to September 2017 2.4 Actual situation of managing pedagogical skills training for college teachers in the Mekong Delta 2.4.1 Actual situation of input management 2.4.1.1 Survey form of managers: The survey results show that managers are very aware of the input quality as well as enrollment, counseling plan They only performed a few criteria of management process at average level It can be said that they are not interested in implementing this criterion or it very often in managing the inputs quality 2.4.1.2 Survey form of teachers: The survey results show that the management of the inputs must have a clear, specific plan in accordance with the school's mission and goals The competence of the learners needs to be clearly defined and evaluated before joining the recruitment The counseling and admissions for fostering pedagogical skills are comprehensively and publicly inspected Information about counseling, enrollment meets and engage the learners 2.4.1.3 Survey form of students: Students' perceptions of the inputs include: The recruitment support team is enthusiastic, considerate; needs and targets of candidates are 19 evaluated and classified Admission criteria must be published publicly and popularly The recruitment plan is clearly and specifically formulated Admissions policies and criteria are clearly defined, issued, disseminated and updated regularly 2.4.2 Status of process management 2.4.2.1 Teaching activities of teachers and students' learning 2.4.2.2 Resources for pedagogical skills training 2.4.2.3 Organization and implementation of Pedagogical skills training plan: The General Department of Vocational Training directs Vocational education institutions to make plans for pedagogical skills training for them, assign teachers to take part in international vocational education courses, specialized training courses for key occupations, support funding for organizing courses Vocational colleges plan, provide funding and organize for vocational education teachers to participate in pedagogical skills training courses, specialized training courses according to the needs of the schools 2.4.2.4 Manage teaching activities of teachers and students' learning: Actual survey shows: Management of teachers’ teaching activities and students' learning is a decisive factor for the quality and effectiveness of pedagogical skill training courses for vocational education teachers 2.4.2.5 Status of process management a ) Survey of managers: The survey results show that only the report on: recruitment criteria, teaching facilities, programs designed to be compatible with learners, health indicators, learning environment, processes teaching is very high on average, about 80% agree and strongly agree, the remain are average about 50% This proves that the number of votes surveyed assessing the management of the "process" of training are concerned and supported by managers b) Survey of teachers: the “process” factors of teachers are similar to the survey of managers The survey results show that all criteria are assessed the status above 70% agree and strongly agree That is, they are satisfied with the actual situation of teaching with the teachers of the schools The teaching organization closely follows the content of the lesson to meet the needs of the learners, but some suggestions about the organized classes outside the school are not guaranteed in the direction of innovating the current positive teaching methods c) Survey of students: The actual results of the "process" were assessed by the trainees on a relatively high level of satisfaction However, there are still low indicators of "Frequent feedback in the process of pedagogical skills training" in many classes, which are not really satisfied by many people, even though this is one of important and necessary criteria in the quality assurance standard 2.4.3 Actual situation of output management: Survey results of managers: The results of the referendum show that the indicators of "outputs" for managers are always important, such as: developing a learner results assessment plan and feedback indicators for assessing learners The highest agree almost and 20 strongly agree is 100% This proves that these indicators have a great influence on the teaching management process as well as teaching quality Survey results of teachers: Feedback of learners after the training course on work efficiency is assessed by the teacher as 100% of agree and strongly agree, and the lowest indicator is to determine satisfaction with the practical application of knowledge for the learners with only 15% of agree and the next low indicator is to determine the satisfaction of employers to have policies to improve the quality of training with 15.3% of agree With this survey result, it requires the teachers to teach expertise and management staff should pay attention to review their training process where there is any inappropriate Survey results of students: The last issue that proves that feedback from learners is always very important to evaluate the students' learning results, the pre-training and posttraining indicators really need a real innovation to ensure that the assessment is aimed at helping teachers and learners change teaching and learning methods more effectively 2.5 General assessment - Strength: The management levels have taken the initiative in developing a plan for training and fostering the vocational education teaching staff in professional knowledge and pedagogical skill to meet the socio-economic development needs of localities, regions and the whole country, contributing to standardization and improvement of vocational education teachers’ quality, gradually approaching regional and international level - Weakness: The management, checking and evaluating the quality and effectiveness of some training courses are not good The training and fostering of teachers teaching fostering courses and improving the qualifications of pedagogical skills are not enough to meet the requirements of developing and improving the quality of vocational teachers The management, organization of compilation and evaluation of curriculum in some schools have not followed the process 2.6 Experience of some countries in the world on training pedagogical skills for teachers 2.6.1 Experience of countries in the world: USA, Germany, Australia 2.6.2 Lessons applied in Vietnam CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER From the results of the survey on fostering and management situation of pedagogical skill for college teachers in the Mekong Delta region, comparing with the requirements of management of fostering pedagogical skills for college teachers in the direction of QA will be the basis for building and propose solutions for managing pedagogical skills training for college teachers in the direction of QA, meeting the requirements of training high quality human resources, contributing to the socio-economic development of the Mekong Delta region by 2025 in a suitable, feasible and effective manner in the context of current international integration 21 CHAPTER SOLUTIONS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS IN THE MEKONG DELTA IN THE DIRECTION OF QA 3.1 Orientation of vocational education development and development of teaching staff of colleges in the Mekong Delta up to 2025 3.1.1 Orientation of Vocational Education development Management of pedagogical skill training for teachers should be screened and recruited, the use management, training, fostering, standardization, evaluating task performance, implementin regimes and policies, creating working environment for teaching staff This is a fundamental, comprehensive change process towards completion to meet the requirements and challenges for the overall development of the school 3.1.2 Objectives a) Overall objective: Focusing on improving the quality of comprehensive education; planning pre-school and general education institutions suitable to development scale and conditions in water way areas; shifting the focus of regional human resource training development from scale development to improving quality and efficiency, training according to market and social needs; gradually meeting the requirements of comprehensive renovation of education and training, contributing to political stability, security, defense and socioeconomic development of region b) Specific objectives: Building a network of vocational education institutions with industry structure suitable to the national human resource development planning; stabilizing the vocational school network of about 80 schools Renovating and improving the quality of secondary education so that by 2020, striving to attract about 15% of lower secondary school graduates into vocational education In the 2016-2020 period, an average of 300,000 people will be trained every year, of which intermediate and college degrees will account for 1215% By 2020, there will be at least 02 colleges meeting the criteria of high quality schools in the region according to Decision No 761 / QD-TTg; 03 boarding secondary schools that meet the training quality standards for boarding ethnic minority students; about 100 key occupations at the minimum standard levels 3.1.3 Orientation of developing college teachers in the Mekong Delta a) Teachers: Focusing on developing plans for training teachers of vocational education institutions, improving pedagogical and professional competence for teachers is a prerequisite for ensuring the quality of training, promoting socialization of training, adjusting job structure and prioritizing the development of occupations to meet the requirements of regional industrialization and modernization b) Fostering of pedagogical skills for teachers: Fostering pedagogical skills for teachers at colleges is one of the key tasks that need to be changed Teaching staff is a decisive factor to the quality of vocational education and the ability to adapt to rapid changes in the market economy mechanism, ensure that vocational education service actively serves the task 22 of socio-economic development Vocational education products are special goods, but also comply with following the rules of market competition 3.2 Principles of solution formulation: 3.3 Solutions on management of pedagogical skill training for teachers of colleges in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance 3.3.1 Solution 1: Managing enrollment and training for pedagogical skills for teachers of colleges in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance Students must go through the prequalification process, which is designed to suit each student's learning needs At the same time, the planning should also inherit the existing values and develop the enrollment plan as a process to ensure the improvement of input student selection standards and high quality requirements at the output 3.3.2 Solution 2: Managing the conditions of implementation of pedagogical skill training for college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance a) Pedagogical skill training program: In the context of fundamental and comprehensive renovation of education and training to meet the requirements of industrialization and modernization, market economy and international integration, teachers in general and vocational teachers in particular should play the role of people: Teacher scientist - manager Therefore, the content of the pedagogical skill training program for teachers must also be developed with the corresponding requirements b) Teaching staff of pedagogical skills: In the context of high-speed development of science and technology and current international integration requirements, it is necessary to build a teacher force approaching the international level of qualified pedagogical skills to teach fostering courses for the teaching staff of key occupations in the regional and international level c) Facilities, equipment for fostering pedagogical skills Ensuring conditions of facilities and equipment for pedagogical skill training is an important and decisive factor to ensure the quality and efficiency of pedagogical skill training in the direction of quality assurance 3.3.3 Solution 3: Managing the evaluation of outputs and granting graduation certificates in pedagogical skill training to college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of QA The organization of examination and evaluation of each stage will help confirm the correctness of the plan and timely correct if any errors The periodic examination and evaluation will help managers and teachers to recognize the effectiveness of the task of pedagogical skills training for teachers in the Mekong Delta region in the direction of QA, identify the responsibilities of managers at all levels and teachers themselves in promoting strengths and adjusting errors to suit the set goals 23 3.3.4 Solution 4: Innovating the operational management of vocational education faculty at colleges in the Mekong Delta towards quality assurance Innovating the operational management of vocational education faculty at colleges in the Mekong Delta towards quality assurance is a very necessary solution to meet the needs of fostering pedagogical skills for university graduates from other majors to become vocational education teachers and fostering modern topics, teaching methods, and exploiting multimedia documents to improve the skill of pedagogical skill of vocational education teachers in the context of international integration today 3.3.5 The relationship between the solutions: Each of the solutions proposed above has a certain position, importance and impact on the management of fostering pedagogical skills for college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance and they are united in one system, interactive relationship with each other, creating motivation to promote the implementation process and improve the effectiveness of pedagogical skills training management, contributing to the development of teaching staff in the direction of QA 3.4 Testing the feasibility and necessity of the solutions Through a survey of 182 state management officials in 05 vocational training institutions, the feasibility test results of the solutions are shown by the feasibility assessment experts with the highest necessary questionnaire as the solution "Managing the evaluation of outputs and issuing graduation certificates, applying CIPO model in fostering pedagogical skills for college teachers in the direction of quality assurance " Assessing the necessity of the solution: The results show that 60% (2/3) of the proposed solutions to improve the effectiveness of "pedagogical fostering management for college teachers in the Mekong Delta" are evaluated as relatively feasible or feasible or relatively necessary or necessary; 20% (1/3) of the solutions were evaluated as not feasible or less necessary The solution evaluated by experts with a high score is the solution "Managing the evaluation of outputs and issuing graduation certificates in pedagogical skill training for lecturers of colleges in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance" evaluated with the number of votes that are relatively feasible and feasible is 148/182, which is the opinion of the managers, accounting for 81.3% Next is the solution "Innovating the operation management of pedagogy faculty at colleges in the Mekong Delta towards quality assurance" evaluated with relatively feasible and feasible votes of 136/182 is the opinion of the managers, accounting for 74.7% 3.5 Testing solution Solution 3: “Managing the evaluation of outputs and granting graduation certificates in pedagogical skill training to college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of QA” General assessment: After testing, the solution of "Managing the evaluation of outputs and granting graduation certificates in pedagogical skill training to college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of QA" has a higher average score before the test The solution has been greatly evaluated and will be one of the important factors to ensure the 24 quality of training The project has successfully tested the solution " Managing the evaluation of outputs and granting graduation certificates in pedagogical skill training to college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of QA" belongs to the "output" management group CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER The solutions are proposed to influence the management subjects and the stages of the management process to foster pedagogical skills for college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance, contributing to improving quality the number of lecturers will meet the demand of training human resources in the Mekong Delta up to 2020 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion The use and good work of fostering teachers is a decisive factor for the success of educational managers, according to the general experience possible through the following specific contents: Fostering probationary teachers: According to the State's regulation, graduates who are recruited as teachers must undergo an probationary period of not less than one year Fostering regularly and updating for teachers: The school needs to develop regular retraining plans for its staff of political ideology, professional ethics, professional skills in various forms and methods to reduce boredom and inhibit of the teacher Advanced training, conversion training: Derived from the school development strategy and teacher planning, the school needs to have a training plan to improve the professional skills for teachers in order to improve the quality of training and meet the requirements of school development Recommendation 2.1 For MOLISA - General Department of Vocational Education - Giving priority to funding support to develop programs, develop learning resources to well implement the training of vocational education teachers Developing and perfecting the training curriculum framework for teaching staff in technology and education schools on the basis of professional knowledge and skills of vocational education teachers 2.2 For People's Committees of provinces in the Mekong Delta Preferential allowance Training and fostering teaching staff from local funding 2.3 For colleges in the Mekong Delta - Doing well the propaganda campaign of self-study, self-fostering movement to develop the teaching staff - Raising the awareness of individual and collective responsibility for the training and retraining to improve the professional skills, vocational pedagogical competence, ethical political qualities teachers deserve to be role models for students to follow 25 LIST OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS BY AUTHOR ANNOUNCED BY THE THESIS THEME [1] Phan Thi Thuy Trang (2013), Improving pedagogical skills for vocational teaching staff at Can Tho Vocational College; Journal of Educational Administration, No 48, p 44, May 2013 [2] Phan Thi Thuy Trang (2015), The training and fostering of vocational teachers in the Mekong Delta to meet the current requirements of educational renovation, Journal of Education; Special numbers, p 170, Period - December 2015 [3] Phan Thi Thuy Trang (2017), The management training and fostering of vocational pedagogical skill at Can Tho Vocational College, Yearbook of Conference of National Science - Continuing Education in the Mekong Delta Current with situation and challenges, ISBN: 978-604-919-975-2, p 120, publishing Decision No 104 / QD-NXB DHCT, Issued on December 28, 2017; completed printed and deposited in the 1st Quarter of 2018 [4] Phan Thi Thuy Trang (2018), Pedagogical skills fostering for current vocational teachers and experiences from countries around the world to apply to Vietnam, Journal of Education; No 423, p 58, Period – February 2018 [5] Phan Thi Thuy Trang (2018), Applying CIPO model in management of pedagogical skills training for college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance, Vietnam Journal of Educational Science; 14th year; No 07, p.89, July 2018 ... knowledge about psychology, helping teachers to form psychological research skills and apply them to training themselves, being able to analyze, explain and understand the psychological phenomena... training and fostering for teachers in schools having vocational education faculties in the Mekong Delta region a) The period of 2011-2017: 17 School Name Long An Vocational College (Established... Vinh Long University of Technology and Education (Formerly Technology and Education 4) Total Vocational education at level of CollegeVocational School (Subjects taught in CollegeVocational School)
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