Test bank performance management 3rd edition by aguinis chapter 04

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Part II: System Implementation _ Chapter 4—Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach True/False Questions 4.1 Behaviors that we label as performance can be judged as negative, neutral, or positive for individual and organizational effectiveness (Suggested points: 2, [4.1]) 4.2 Typically, there is only one type of behavior that has the capacity to advance organizational goals (Suggested points: 2, [4.2]) 4.3 When the behaviors that contribute to success in a particular job are not observable, one can include measures of results that we infer to be the direct result of an employee’s behavior (Suggested points: 2, [4.2]) 4.4 Declarative knowledge is information about facts and things, including an understanding of a given task’s requirements, information on labels, facts, principles, and goals (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.5 The three determinants of performance have an additive relationship (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.6 Performance management systems need to not only measure performance but also provide information on the source of any performance deficiencies (Suggested points: 2, [4.4]) 4.7 Contextual performance is also known as organizational citizenship or pro-social behavior (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ 4.8 Many organizations now realize that there is no need to focus on both task and contextual performance (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) 4.9 Task performance varies across jobs and is likely to be role prescribed (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) 4.10 The fact that there are many ways to deliver effective results in a job is an indication that a results approach to performance measurement might be appropriate for the job (Suggested points: 2, [4.6]) 4.11 The behavior approach to measuring performance emphasizes the use of tools to assess relatively stable individual attributes such as cognitive abilities and personality (Suggested points: 2, [4.9]) 4.12 The behavior approach is a process-oriented approach that emphasizes how an employee does the job (Suggested points: 2, [4.7]) 4.13 When workers are skilled in the needed behaviors, behaviors and results are related, and results show consistent improvement over time, it is best to use the results approach to measuring performance (Suggested points: 2, [4.10]) 4.14 Contextual factors, such as voice behavior and cultural differences, should be considered when organizations choose to define and measure performance (Suggested points: 2, [4.6]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Multiple-Choice Questions 4.15 The combination of each of the following factors allows some individuals to perform at higher levels than others EXCEPT: A Declarative knowledge B Procedural knowledge C Biases D Motivation (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.16 Procedural knowledge is: A Information about facts and things B Knowing what to and how to it C Choosing to expend effort D None of the above (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.17 Motivation involves which of the following behaviors? A Choice to expend effort B Choice of level of effort C Choice to persist in the expenditure of that level of effort D All of the above (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.18 In addition to procedural knowledge, declarative knowledge, and motivation, also affect performance A HR practices B work environments C A and B D None of the above (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ 4.19 Which of the following performance facets must be considered to understand performance? A Task performance and results B Declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge C Contextual performance and results D Task performance and contextual performance (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) 4.20 Task performance is defined as: A Activities that transform raw materials into the goods and services that are produced by the organization B Activities that help with the transformation process by replenishing the supply of raw materials C Offering help and cooperating with others D A and B (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) 4.21 is defined as those behaviors that contribute to the organization’s effectiveness by providing a good environment in which task performance can occur A Contextual performance B Results C Declarative knowledge D Procedural knowledge (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) 4.22 _ performance is fairly similar across jobs and is not likely to be role prescribed A Task B Contextual C Exceptional D None of the above (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 4.23 Which of the following factors are causing organizations to focus on contextual as well as task performance: A Increased amount of teamwork B Global competition C Customer service D Employee perceptions of performance management E Supervisors’ views F All of the above G A, B, and C (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) 4.24 The approach to measuring performance emphasizes cognitive abilities and personality A trait B results C behavior D objective (Suggested points: 2, [4.9) 4.25 The technical definition of performance includes: A The employee’s behaviors and the results of the employee’s behaviors B Only the results of the employee’s behaviors C Only the employee’s behaviors D None of the above (Suggested points: 2, [4.1]) 4.26 Declarative knowledge is: A Information that an employee can be tested on B Information about facts and things C Information that is included in the employee handbook D All of the above (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.27 Procedural knowledge is: Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ A Knowing what the boss wants done B Knowing how well the job has to be done to “get by” C Knowing what to and how to it D Knowing where all the required equipment are located (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.28 Declarative knowledge includes which of the following? A Facts B Psychomotor skill C Persistence of effort D Cognitive skill (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.29 Contextual performance and task performance should: A Only be considered in higher level employees B Be considered as one and the same C Be listed in the employee manual D Be considered separately (Suggested points: 3, [4.5]) 4.30 The traits approach emphasizes and ignores _ A financial gain; financial loss B employee traits; financial loss C the individual performer; specific situations, behaviors, and results D specific situations, behaviors, and results; employee traits (Suggested points: 2, [4.9]) 4.31 The behavior approach emphasizes rather than _ A what employees do; employee traits or results B employee traits; results C results; employee traits D None of these are correct Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter (Suggested points: 2, [4.7]) 4.32 Under which of the following conditions would a behavior approach be most appropriate? A Behaviors and results are obviously related B There are many ways to the job correctly C Results show consistent improvement over time D Outcomes are distant in the future (Suggested points: 2, [4.10]) 4.33 The results approach emphasizes rather than _ A employee behaviors; results and employee traits B outcomes; financial gain C employee traits; results and employee behaviors D outcomes; employee traits or employee behaviors (Suggested points: 2, [4.8]) 4.34 When results and behaviors are obviously related, which approach to measuring performance is most appropriate? A Trait approach B Results approach C Behavior approach D Orthodox approach (Suggested points: 2, [4.10]) 4.35 When poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control, which approach to measuring performance is most appropriate? A Trait approach B Results approach C Behavior approach D Orthodox approach (Suggested points: 2, [4.10]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ 4.36 When employees challenge the status quo in a positive way and make innovative suggestions for change, they are exhibiting: A Cultural differences B Declarative knowledge C Psychomotor skills D Voice behavior (Suggested points: 2, [4.6]) Essay-Type Questions 4.37 What are the five steps of deliberate practice that lead to excellence? (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.38 Performance consists of both task and contextual dimensions Please define each type of performance, and explain whether companies should focus on task performance, contextual performance, or a combination of both (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) 4.39 Using your current work situation, or one of someone you know well, describe whether performance is measured using a trait, behavior, or results approach Use the checklist below to identify whether or not your company should measure performance using the trait, behavior, or results method Adopting a Traits Approach to Measuring Performance Is Most Appropriate When …  The organization is undertaking a drastic structural change Adopting a Behavior Approach to Measuring Performance Is Most Appropriate When …  Employees will take a long time to achieve the desired outcomes  The link between behaviors and results is not obvious Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter  Outcomes are distant in the future  Poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control Adopting a Results Approach to Measuring Performance Is Most Appropriate When …  Workers are skilled in the needed behaviors  Behaviors and results are obviously related  Results show consistent improvement over time  There are many ways to the job right Is this approach appropriate given your job responsibilities and the climate of the organization? Explain whether or not you think that the system could be improved using a different approach to measuring performance (Suggested points: 3, [4.10]) 4.40 What are the three determinants of performance that allow some people to perform at higher levels than others? (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.41 Motivation involves three types of choice behaviors What are they? (Suggested points: 2, [4.3]) 4.42 What is the expected outcome if any of the determinants of performance are lacking? (Suggested points: 5, [4.3]) 4.43 The factors that influence determinants of performance are influenced by what three things? (Suggested points: 5, [4.3]) 4.44 Activities that transform raw materials into goods and services that are produced by an organization are called … (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) 4.45 Activities that help with the transformation process by replenishing the supply of raw materials, distributing its finished products, or providing important planning, coordination, or supervision are called … (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ 4.46 Behaviors that contribute to the organization’s effectiveness by providing a good working environment are called … (Suggested points: 2, [4.5]) 4.47 List the differences between task performance and contextual performance (Suggested points: 5, [4.5]) 4.48 Contextual performance should be carefully defined because … (Suggested points: 5, [4.5]) 4.49 List some challenges associated with a system that emphasizes only the measurement of traits (Suggested points: 2, [4.10]) 4.50 Voice behavior is a type of behavior that emphasizes what three things? (Suggested points: 2, [4.6]) 4.51 Why is it important to consider cultural differences when defining and measuring performance? (Suggested points: 5, [4.5]) 4.52 The behavior approach is most appropriate under what three conditions? (Suggested points: 2, [4.7]) 4.53 Give three examples of jobs in which the results approach would be the most appropriate approach to performance measurement (Suggested points: 5, [4.10]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Answers 4.1 4.2 4.12 4.13 4.14 T F: There are many different kinds of behaviors that have the capacity to advance (or hinder) organizational goals T T F: The three determinants have a multiplicative relationship T T F: Many organizations now realize that there is a need to focus on both task and contextual performance because organizations cannot function properly with a minimum dose of contextual behaviors on the part of all employees T T F: The trait approach emphasizes the use of tools to measure stable traits such as personality and cognitive abilities T T T 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.34 4.35 4.36 C B D C D D A B F A C B C A D C A D D B C D 4.37 The five steps of deliberate practice that lead to excellence are: Approach performance with the goal of getting better and better 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ 4.38 4.39 As you are performing, focus on what is happening and why you are doing things the way you them Once your task is finished, seek feedback on your performance from expert sources, and the more the sources, the better Build mental models of your job, your situation, and your organization Repeat steps through continually Task performance is defined as activities that transform raw materials into the goods and services that are produced by the organization and activities that help with the transformation process by replenishing the supply of raw materials, distributing its finished products, or providing important planning, coordination, supervising, or staff functions that enable the organization to function effectively and efficiently Contextual performance is defined as those behaviors that contribute to the organization’s effectiveness by providing a good environment in which task performance can occur Both task and contextual performance are important dimensions to take into account in performance management systems First, global competition is raising the effort levels required of employees Second, many organizations are organizing based on teams Although some teams may not be permanent and are formed to complete specific tasks only, the reality of today’s world of work is that teams are here to stay Third, contextual performance behaviors can make a profound impact on customer satisfaction Finally, when supervisors evaluate performance, it is difficult for them to ignore the contextual performance dimension, although it may not be part of the formal evaluation process In short, performance includes both a task and a contextual dimension (Answers will vary but should be aligned with the definitions of each type of performance measure.) The trait approach emphasizes the individual performer and ignores the specific situation, behaviors, and results It is best used when the organization is undergoing a drastic restructuring, so that the organization can best allocate its human resources across the new organizational units The behavior approach emphasizes what employees on the job and does not consider employees’ traits or the outcomes resulting from their behaviors This is basically a process-oriented approach that emphasizes how an employee does the job The results approach emphasizes the outcomes and results produced by the employees It does not consider the traits that employees may possess or how employees the job and focuses on what is produced (e.g., sales, number of accounts acquired, time spent with clients on the telephone, number of errors, etc.) A results approach to measuring performance usually takes less time because defining and measuring results usually takes less time than defining and measuring behaviors needed to achieve these results In fact, measuring both behavior and results is the approach adopted by many organizations For example, assume an organization measures performance using results through the management by objectives methodology This would be appropriate if the organization employs a highly skilled workforce, and there are several Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter different ways to a job successfully Usually, the better you your particular job, the better your results will be This organization may be a metric-oriented organization, so results are seen immediately However, there are some elements of performance such as a supervisor’s ability to manage that would be better measured through the behavior method Using behaviors would draw attention to managers’ behaviors and put more focus on walking the talk, rather than just fulfilling the relevant metrics 4.40 The three determinants of performance that allow some people to perform at higher levels than others are: A Declarative knowledge B Procedural knowledge C Motivation 4.41 Motivation involves the following types of choice behaviors: A Choice to expend effort B Choice of level of effort C Choice to persist in the expenditure of that level of effort 4.42 If any of the determinants of performance are lacking, overall performance will be lacking 4.43 Three factors that influence determinants of performance are: A Individual employee characteristics B HR practices C Work environment 4.44 Task performance includes activities that transform raw materials into goods and services that are produced by an organization 4.45 Task performance includes activities that help with the transformation process by replenishing the supply of raw materials, distributing finished products, or providing important planning, coordination, or supervision 4.46 Contextual performance is defined as behaviors that contribute to the organization’s effectiveness by providing a good working environment 4.47 Task performance and contextual performance differ in the following ways: A Task performance varies across jobs, whereas contextual performance is similar across jobs B Task performance is likely to be role prescribed, whereas contextual performance is not C Task performance requires skills and abilities; contextual performance requires personality Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ 4.48 Contextual performance should be carefully defined because it is often more subjective and subject to bias compared to measuring task performance 4.49 A system that emphasizes only the measurement of traits will face the following challenges: A Traits are not under the control of individuals, and even if they try, they may not be able to change them B Employees may see the system as unfair (because of the above statement) C The fact that an employee possesses a certain trait does not mean that the trait will translate into the desired behaviors and results 4.50 Voice behavior emphasizes: A Raising constructive challenges with the goal to improve rather than merely criticize B Challenging the status quo in a positive way C Making innovative suggestions for change when others, including an employee’s supervisor, disagree 4.51 It is important to consider cultural differences when defining and measuring performance because they are contextual factors that will affect how organizational members’ added value is measured and perceived For example, organizations in the United States tend to value behaviors that are individualistic in nature and that demonstrate individual achievement, self-reliance, competition, and disengaged emotional styles In such organizations, individuals from groups that align themselves with collectivistic values may view these behaviors as negative, and their behaviors may be perceived as dependent, lacking sufficient commitment, and weak in initiative 4.52 The behavior approach is most appropriate under the following conditions: A The link between behaviors and results is not obvious B Outcomes occur in the distant future C Poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control 4.53 Adopting a results approach to measuring performance is most appropriate in the following three job examples: A Professional basketball players’ offensive performance is well measured by their free throw shooting percentage B The performance of a postal delivery worker can be measured using the results approach: whether the mail is delivered to every customer within a particular time frame C The results approach is appropriate for measuring an artist’s performance such as by the public response to their exhibit and profits made from pieces sold Answers will vary, but they should encompass three or all of the following circumstances A Workers are skilled in the needed behaviors Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter B Behaviors and results are obviously related C Results show consistent improvement over time D There are many ways to the job right Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall ... following performance facets must be considered to understand performance? A Task performance and results B Declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge C Contextual performance and results D Task performance. .. effectiveness by providing a good working environment 4.47 Task performance and contextual performance differ in the following ways: A Task performance varies across jobs, whereas contextual performance. .. Contextual performance is defined as those behaviors that contribute to the organization’s effectiveness by providing a good environment in which task performance can occur Both task and contextual performance
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