Test bank herman aguinis – performance management ch14

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Chapter 14—Attitude Measurement TRUE/FALSE A person's attitude toward Tide detergent can be directly observed ANS: F Attitudes are latent, or hypothetical, constructs and because of this, they are not directly observable PTS: REF: p 315 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Attitudes are thought to have three components: affective, cognitive, and behavioral ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 315 A person's knowledge about a brand is part of the affective component of that person's attitude toward that brand ANS: F The cognitive component represents a person’s awareness and knowledge of the brand PTS: REF: p 315 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Researchers face a wide variety of choices in measuring attitudinal concepts ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 316 Ranking asks the respondent to estimate the magnitude or the extent to which some characteristic exists ANS: F This is a rating task PTS: REF: p 316 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Business researchers commonly use rating scales to measure attitudes ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 317 The category scale measures attitude with greater sensitivity than a two-point response scale ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 318 If a Likert scale statement is worded negatively, the scoring of this item needs to recoded so that its score values are the opposite of the values of a statement that is positively worded ANS: T PTS: REF: p 319 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking The semantic differential scale uses unlabeled response categories between two bipolar opposite adjectives ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 320 10 Semantic differential scales can be scored by: -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 321 11 Business researchers generally assume that the semantic differential provides interval data ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 321 12 A perceptual map can be developed based on semantic differential data ANS: F Image profiles are derived from semantic differential data PTS: REF: p 321 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 13 A Stapel scale measures both the direction and the intensity of the attitude at the same time ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 322 14 The Stapel scale is more difficult to administer in a phone interview than a semantic differential scale ANS: F The Staple scale is easier to administer over the telephone PTS: REF: p 322 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 15 The fractional-point scale demands that respondents divide points among several attributes to indicate their relative importance ANS: F This is called a constant-sum scale PTS: REF: p 323 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 16 In a graphic rating scale, a respondent's score is the length in millimeters from one end of the scale to the point marked on the scale by the respondent ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 324 17 A variation of the graphic ratings scale is the ladder scale ANS: T PTS: REF: p 324 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 18 A Thurstone scale is widely used in business research because of its simplicity ANS: F Its current popularity is low because the construction of a Thurstone scale is fairly complex process that requires two stages, making it time-consuming and costly PTS: REF: p 325 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 19 Ranking measurements of attitudes provide interval data ANS: F Ranking provides ordinal data PTS: REF: p 327 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 20 If a researcher wants to compare three brands of toothpaste on the basis of their flavor using the paired comparison method, the researcher must ask each respondent to make three comparisons ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 327 21 Sorting tasks require that respondents indicate their attitudes or beliefs by arranging items on the based of perceived similarity or some other attribute ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 328 22 A bipolar rating scale asks a respondent to rate a concept, such as a specific brand, in comparison with a benchmark ANS: F This is a comparative rating scale PTS: REF: p 329 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 23 A balanced rating scale has a neutral point, or point of indifference, at the center of the scale ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 330 24 Researchers who accept the notion of forced-choice scales essentially argue that the respondents really have an attitude toward the items that they are asked about ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 330 25 Most psychological concepts are latent constructs generally require multiple items ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 331 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part MULTIPLE CHOICE Which of the following is a basic component of an attitude? a cognitive component b affective component c behavioral component d all of the above ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 315 Which attitude component represents a person’s awareness and knowledge of the relative matter? a affective b cognitive c behavioral d personal ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 315 "I love my job" is an example of which component of an attitude toward one’s job? a affective b behavioral c cognitive d perceptive ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 315 Laurie believes a Honda Accord get 36 miles per gallon This belief represents which component of an attitude? a affective b behavioral c cognitive d personal ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 315 "I plan to buy a new DVD player sometime in the next three months" is an aspect of which component of an attitude? a cognitive b affective c behavioral d personal ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 315 When a respondent is asked to place each shopping mall in a list of four local shopping malls in the order in which she prefers to shop at each mall, this is an example of a _ task a rating b ranking c sorting d semantic differential © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 316 When a respondent is given a set of 3" x 5" cards containing the current advertising slogan for a brand or product on each card and is asked to place the cards into two piles: (1) Recognize this slogan and can identify the brand/product and (2) Do not recognize the slogan, this is an example of a _ task a rating b ranking c constant-sum d sorting ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 316 When a respondent is asked either to agree or to disagree with the statement: "The CEO is doing a good job of managing the affairs of the corporation," this type of question produces _ data a ordinal b nominal c ratio d interval ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 317 When a respondent is asked: "How often, on the average, you take a smoke break during working hours?" and is asked to indicate her answer by circling one of the following: never, rarely, sometimes, often, very often, this is an example of a _ scale a semantic differential b Likert c category d constant-sum ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 318 10 Which type of scale asks respondents to indicate their attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with carefully constructed statements, ranging from very positive to very negative attitudes toward some object? a constant-sum b Likert c Stapel d graphic rating ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 318 11 What type of scale is the following? The current economic condition is favorable Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree a semantic differential b constant-sum © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part c Thurstone d Likert ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 318 12 How many choices researchers commonly use when using Likert scales? a two b three c five d ten ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 318 13 Which type of scale has respondents describe their attitude using a series of bipolar rating scales? a Likert b constant-sum c semantic differential d Thurstone ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 320 14 What type of scale is the following? a b c d Contemporary : : : : : : Traditional Likert graphic rating Thurstone semantic differential ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 320 15 Which of the following is a graphic representation of semantic differential data for competing brands, products, or stores to highlight comparisons? a image profile b category profile c Likert profile d comparative profile ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 321 16 What type of scale is the following when female shoppers are asked to rate Macy's department store in terms of its women's apparel items? Macy's +3 +2 +1 Price -1 -2 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part -3 a b c d semantic differential Stapel paired comparison constant-sum ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 322 17 A type of scale that demands that respondents divide points among several attributes to indicate their relative importance is called a: a constant-sum scale b Likert scale c Stapel scale d semantic differential ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 323 18 What type of scale is the following? United Parcel Service (UPS) would like you to distribute 50 points among the following in terms of how important each aspect is to you for your overnight shipping needs: _ Accurate billing _ On-time delivery _ Price a b c d Likert paired comparison Thurstone constant-sum ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 323 19 What type of scale is the following? Please an X at the position on the horizontal line that most reflects your feelings regarding the atmosphere of this restaurant Modern _ Old-fashioned a b c d graphic rating Likert linear category ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 323 20 What type of scale is the following? © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part How likely are you to purchase a DVD player during the next six months? Definitely will purchase Probably will purchase Might purchase Probably will not purchase Definitely will not purchase a b c d Likert behavioral intention semantic differential constant-sum ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 326 21 What type of measurement is the following? I would like to know your overall opinion of two brands of athletic shoes They are Nike and New Balance Overall, which of these two brands Nike or New Balance you think is the better one? Or are both the same? Nike is better New Balance is better They are about the same a b c d semantic differential Thurstone paired comparison constant-sum ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 327 22 If researcher wish to compare six brands of HDTVs on the basis of quality, how many paired comparisons will be necessary? a b c 15 d 30 ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 327 23 All of the following are practical decisions regarding the selection of a measurement scale EXCEPT: a Is a ranking, sorting, rating or choice technique best? b Should a single measure of an index measure be used? c How large should the sample size be? d How many scale categories or response positions are needed to accurately measure an attitude? ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 329 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 24 Which type of scale is the following? Now that you have driven your Toyota Camry for six months, how satisfied you are with the car's gas mileage? Very Satisfied a b c d Very Dissatisfie d Thurstone monadic rating constant-sum behavioral intention ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 329 25 What type of scales asks a respondent to rate a concept, such as a specific brand, in comparison with a benchmark (i.e., a competing brand) explicitly used as a frame of reference? a comparative rating scale b monadic rating scale c semantic differential d ladder scale ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 329 26 In which type of scale is a neutral point, or point of indifference, at the center of the scale? a synergistic b symmetrical c unbalanced d balanced ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 330 27 Which type of scale is the following? a b c d Very Satisfied Satisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied balanced Thurstone unbalanced semantic differential ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 330 28 Which type of scale is the following? Satisfied © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied a b c d Thurstone unbalanced paired comparison balanced ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 330 29 When a respondent is required to choose one of the fixed alternatives, what type of scale is being used? a semantic differential b forced-choice c non-forced-choice d symmetric ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 330 30 When a respondent is asked whether he agrees, disagrees, or has no opinion to a series of statements, what type of scale is being used? a forced choice b Likert c semantic differential d non-forced-choice ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 330 COMPLETION An enduring disposition to respond consistently to an aspect of the world is called a(n) ANS: attitude PTS: REF: p 315 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking The component of attitude that represents the action that corresponds to a certain type of attitude is a(n) component ANS: behavioral PTS: REF: p 315 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When respondents are asked to rank order brands of cosmetics in terms of their prices (from high to low), this is an example of a(n) task ANS: ranking PTS: REF: p 316 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 4 When respondents are asked to indicate the magnitude of a characteristic that a brand of toothpaste has, this is an example of a(n) ANS: rating PTS: REF: p 316 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When respondents are asked whether they strongly agree, agree, are neutral, disagree, or strongly disagree to a series of attitude items, this is an example of a(n) scale ANS: Likert PTS: REF: p 318 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking A(n) scale measures attitudes by using 7-point rating scales that are anchored at either end by polar opposite adjectives ANS: semantic differential PTS: REF: p 321 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking A(n) scale measures attitudes in both their direction and their intensity simultaneously ANS: Stapel PTS: REF: p 322 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When respondents are asked to divide up a sum (e.g 50 points) to indicate the relative importance of features on a new car, this is an example of a(n) scale ANS: constant-sum PTS: REF: p 323 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking A scale that presents respondents with a graphic continuum is called a(n) rating scale ANS: graphic PTS: REF: p 323 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 10 A variation of the graphic rating scale is the scale ANS: ladder PTS: REF: p 324 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 11 A rating scale instrument similar to a semantic differential that measures the behavioral intentions of subjects toward future actions is called a(n) ANS: behavioral differential © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part PTS: REF: p 327 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 12 When respondents are asked to choose among four brands of detergent in such a way that they are asked to select the brand they prefer when each brand is compared with each other brand, this is a type of measurement ANS: paired comparison PTS: REF: p 328 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 13 An attitude scale that asks respondents about a single concept by itself is called a(n) rating scale ANS: monadic PTS: REF: p 329 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 14 A fixed-alternative rating scale with an equal number of both positive and negative categories, with a neutral point in the middle of the scale, is called a(n) scale ANS: balanced PTS: REF: p 330 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 15 A fixed-alternative rating scale that has an unequal number of positive and negative categories so that the categories are "piled up" at one end of the scale is called a(n) scale ANS: unbalanced PTS: REF: p 330 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking ESSAY Define attitude and explain why it is considered a hypothetical construct ANS: An attitude is a social-psychological concept that can be defined as a relatively enduring predisposition to respond consistently to various things including people, activities, events, and objects Attitudes are thought to have three components: affective, cognitive, and behavioral However, attitudes cannot directly be observed Someone may have an attitude toward something, but we cannot actually see this attitude Rather, we can measure an attitude by making an inference based on the way an individual response to multiple scale indicators Because we can’t directly see these phenomena, they are know as latent constructs, hypothetical constructs, or just simply constructs Thus, we attempt to measure such constructs through indirect indicators, such as verbal expression or overt behavior PTS: REF: p 315 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Compare and contrast a Likert scale with a semantic differential scale ANS: © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part With a Likert scale, respondents indicate their attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with carefully constructed statements The scale results reveal the respondent’s attitude ranging from very positive to very negative Individuals generally choose from multiple response alternatives such as strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree A semantic differential is a scale type that has respondents describe their attitude using a series of bipolar rating scales Bipolar rating scales involve respondents choosing between opposing adjectives, such as “good” and “bad,” “modern” and “old-fashioned,” or “clean” and “dirty.” Like Likert scales, a numerical score can be assigned to each position on a semantic differential scale PTS: REF: pp 318-320 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Describe a constant-sum scale and discuss when a researcher might use this type of scale ANS: A constant-sum scale demands that respondents divide points among several attributes to indicate their relative importance It requires respondents to understand that their response should total to the number of points being allocated This technique may be used for measuring brand preference and is similar in approach to the paired-comparison method PTS: REF: p 323 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Explain how a researcher uses the paired comparison method and determine the number of paired comparisons necessary to compare four brands ANS: Paired comparison is a measurement technique that involves presenting the respondent with two objects and asking the respondent to pick the preferred objects More than two objects may be presented, but comparisons are made in pairs If a researchers wishes to compare four brands, six comparisons will be necessary This is determined with the following equation: number of comparisons = [(n)(n-1)/2] = [(4)(4-1)/2] = 12/2 = PTS: REF: p 328 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Define forced-choice rating scale and explain the advantage of using a non-forced-choice scale ANS: A forced-choice rating scale is a fixed-alternative scale that requires respondents to choose one of the fixed alternatives A non-forced-choice scale is a fixed-alternative rating scale that provides a “no opinion” category that allows respondents to indicate that they cannot say which alternative is their choice Asking this type of question allows the investigator to separate respondents who cannot make an honest comparison from respondents who have had experience with the object of interest The use of forced-choice questions is associated with higher incidence of “no answer.” PTS: REF: pp 330-331 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part
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