Test bank herman aguinis – performance management ch12

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Chapter 12—Experimental Research TRUE/FALSE Experimental research attempts to find causal relationships among variables ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 257 In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the dependent variable and measures its effect on the independent variable ANS: F The researcher manipulates the independent variable(s) and measures its effect on the dependent variable PTS: REF: p 257 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Participants in experimental research are typically referred to as respondents ANS: F Participants in experimental research are referred to as subjects rather than respondents PTS: REF: p 258 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking An experimental construct refers to one of the possible levels of an experimental variable manipulation ANS: F This describes an experimental condition PTS: REF: p 258 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Covariates are categorical variables (such as a subject’s gender or ethnicity) which are not manipulated but are included in the statistical analysis of experiments ANS: F Categorical variables such as these are called blocking variables PTS: REF: p 258 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking An experimental treatment is the term referring to the way an experimental variable is manipulated ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 261 A control group is one in which an experimental treatment is administered ANS: F This is an experimental group A control group is one in which no experimental treatment is administered © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part PTS: REF: p 261 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Often, the term linkage is used to refer to a treatment combination within an experiment ANS: F The term is cell PTS: REF: p 263 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Experiments in which an individual subject is exposed to more than one level of an experimental treatment are referred to as repeated measures designs ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 263 10 An experiment can have only one experimental variable ANS: F Experiments can have more than one independent (i.e, experimental) variable PTS: REF: p 263 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 11 People are the most common test units in most business experiments ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 264 12 The most common procedure to try to ensure that experimental and control groups not differ from each other in important ways at the beginning of a research study is random assignment of subjects to treatment and control groups ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 264 13 A confound in an experiment means that there is an alternative explanation beyond the experimental variables for any observed differences in the dependent variable ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 265 14 When subjects guess the purpose of an experiment, this creates a confound known as a bias effect ANS: F This is called a demand effect PTS: REF: p 267 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 15 One way to reduce demand characteristics is to tell subjects the purpose of the experiment so they will be more willing to participate honestly ANS: F One way of reducing demand characteristics is to use an experimental disguise PTS: REF: p 268 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 16 A confound is an experimental deception involving a false treatment ANS: F This is a placebo PTS: REF: p 269 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 17 The people administering an experiment must be aware of the experimental hypotheses ANS: F One way to reduce demand characteristics is to use a “blind” experimental administrator who does not now the experimental hypotheses PTS: REF: p 269 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 18 Factorial experimental designs are the least sophisticated type of experimental design ANS: F Factorial experimental designs are more sophisticated than basic experimental designs PTS: REF: p 271 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 19 When a test market is conducted in five retail stores in Erie, Pennsylvania, this is an example of a laboratory experiment ANS: F This is an example of a field experiment PTS: REF: p 272 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 20 Between-subjects designs involve repeated measures because with each treatment the same subject is measured ANS: F This describes a within-subjects design PTS: REF: p 273 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 21 The question as to whether the experimental treatment was the "sole cause" of the changes in the dependent variable is the basic issue in external validity ANS: F This is the basic issue in internal validity PTS: REF: p 274 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 22 A maturation effect in an experiment is a function of time and the naturally occurring events that coincide with growth and experience ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 276 23 Field experiments tend to have less external validity than laboratory experiments © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: F External validity is increase when the subjects truly represent some population and when the results extend to market segments or other groups of people PTS: REF: p 277 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 24 When the gender of respondents (male, female) is thought to affect in important ways the dependent variable, an experimenter can attempt to block out the effect of gender on the results of the study ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 284 25 A x factorial experiment requires six combinations of treatment groups ANS: F It requires nine combinations of treatment groups (3 x = 9) PTS: REF: p 285 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 26 Factorial designs allow researchers to measure interaction effects ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 285 MULTIPLE CHOICE "Does package size affect consumption rates in snack products?" is a typical question in what type of research design? a descriptive research b time-series research c experimental research d phone surveys ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 257 A researcher is conducting an experiment in which one group of people is exposed to an advertisement and another group is exposed to another advertisement He is examining the effect of headline font sizes on consumers’ attitude toward the brand advertised The participants in this experimental research are referred to as: a respondents b elements c factorials d subjects ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 258 Categorical variables like a subject’s gender or ethnicity are known as which type of variable in experimental research? a blocking variables b covariates c main variables © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part d confounds ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 258 The experimental difference in means between the different levels of any single experimental variable is referred to as a(n): a interaction effect b primary effect c main effect d confound ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 259 Experimental results that show that consumers purchased more when a store had a blue color with bright lights than they did when a store was orange with bright lights but no difference when the lighting was low is an example of which type of effect? a main b interaction c confound d synergistic ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 260 All of the following are experimental design issues EXCEPT: a selection and assignment of subjects to treatments b control over extraneous variables c manipulation of the independent variable d manipulation of the dependent variable ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 260 If the level of advertising expenditures is compared to the number of units sold at the end of a fourmonth period, the independent variable is _ while the dependent variable is _ a advertising expenditure level; units sold b customer satisfaction; advertising expenditure level c units sold; advertising expenditure level d none of the above ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 260 The group receiving an experimental treatment is called the: a primary group b experimental group c control group d unit of analysis ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 261 Which of the following is the term used to refer to a treatment combination within an experiment? a level © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part b link c cell d unit ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 263 10 Monica is conducting an experiment where all subjects rotate through all of the training programs she is testing This type of experiment in which an individual subject is exposed to more than one level of an experimental treatment is called: a between-subjects b repeated measures c redundant manipulation d randomization ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 263 11 Which of the following are possible test units in a business research study? a people b sales territories c strategic business units d all of the above ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 264 12 Which of the following occurs if the sampling units in an experimental cell are somehow different than the units in another cell, and this difference affects the dependent variable? a systematic or nonsampling error b sampling error c experimenter bias d subject bias ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 264 13 Which of the following is a way for a researcher to equally distribute the effects of extraneous variables to all conditions in an experiment? a confounding b split sampling c repeated measures d randomization ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 264 14 Which of the following means that there is an alternative explanation beyond the experimental variables for any observed differences in the dependent variables? a confound b interaction c randomization d repeated measures ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 265 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 15 Which term refers to an experimental design element that unintentionally provides subjects with hints about the research hypothesis a demand characteristic b Hawthorne effect c testing effect d confounding effect ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 267 16 Which of the following is present when the person administering experimental procedures influences the subjects’ behavior or sways them to slant their answers to cooperate with him or her? a experimenter bias b response bias c Type I error d Type II error ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 267 17 When subjects act differently because they are aware that they are in an experiment, this is called the: a history effect b Hawthorne effect c maturation effect d repeated measures effect ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 268 18 All of the following are ways to reduce demand characteristics EXCEPT: a use an experimental disguise b administer multiple experimental treatment levels to each subject c use a “blind” experimental administrator d isolate experimental subjects ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 268 19 Caroline is participating in an experimental study in which she is taking an herbal supplement and the researcher measures her perceived energy levels for several weeks Although she doesn’t know it, the supplement she is given in the study does not contain any of the herb of interest in the study However, Caroline feels as though she has more energy than before, and she attributes it to the herbal supplement This effect due to the psychological impact that goes along with knowledge that a treatment has been administered is called a(n): a maturation effect b false positive c counterbalancing effect d placebo effect ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 269 20 When subjects in all experimental groups are exposed to identical conditions except for the differing experimental treatments, this is called: © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part a b c d the Hawthorne effect confounding constancy of conditions compounding ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 270 21 If a soft-drink company performs an experiment with a new type of soft drink in which experimental subjects always taste this new product first and then taste a competitor's product second, the study has an error in design termed a(n): a history effect b maturation effect c order of presentation effect d guinea pig effect ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 270 22 When a food company tests a new product by having one group of experimental subjects taste this product first and then taste a competitor's product second, while a second group of experimental subjects tastes these two products in the reverse order, the experimental design has been: a counterbalanced b reversed c confounded d validated ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 270 23 Which of the following is critical when conducting experimental research because it allows researchers to return subjects to normal? a manipulation check b cohort analysis c debriefing d deception ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 270 24 Which experimental design involves manipulating a single independent variable to observe its effect on a single dependent variable? a primary experimental design b basic experimental design c factorial experimental design d counterbalanced experimental design ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 271 25 When an experiment is conducted on the premises of a research organization, this is an example of a: a static group design b laboratory experiment c field experiment d controlled store test © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 272 26 A researcher is interested in the level of employees’ understanding of health benefit options He is interested in how the amount of time spent looking at the brochure for each option influences understanding, so he’s using a device that controls the amount of time a subject is exposed to the brochure This device is called a: a pupilometer b psychgalvanometer c tachistoscope d rotoscope ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 272 27 Research projects involving experimental manipulations that are implemented in a natural environment are called: a laboratory experiments b field experiments c primary experiments d secondary experiments ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 272 28 Which experimental research design involves repeated measures? a within-subjects design b between-subjects design c squared-subjects design d interdependent-subjects design ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 272 29 In which experimental research design does each subject receive only one treatment combination? a within-subjects design b between-subjects design c squared-subjects design d independent-subjects design ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 274 30 The question as to whether the independent variable was the sole cause of the change in the dependent variable is the basic issue in: a a repeated measures study b internal validity c a matching study d external validity ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 274 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 31 When subjects in an experiment in which the they were exposed to varying price levels for a product are asked how low they believe the price of the product to be so that the researcher can determine whether or not the subjects perceived “high” and “low” conditions, this is an example of a: a manipulation check b reliability assessment c factor analysis d surrogate manipulation ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 275 32 When a competitor introduces a 15 percent price cut in order to blunt the effect of a test marketing study, this is an example of a: a maturation effect b testing effect c history effect d cohort effect ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 275 33 Which of the following is a special case of the history effect and refers to a change in the dependent variable that occurs because members of one experimental group experienced different historical situations than members of other experimental groups? a cohort effect b Hawthorne effect c testing effect d instrumentation effect ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 276 34 Which of the following is a function of time and the naturally occurring events that coincide with growth and experience? a history effect b testing effect c selection effect d maturation effect ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 276 35 When salespeople are tested one year after a sales training program and perform better on the exam, not because of the training program, but because they have gained one year's experience in sales, this is an example of a: a selection effect b maturation effect c history effect d cohort effect ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 276 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 36 When high school students who take the ACT in their junior year perform better on that exam during their senior year because they know better how to take the exam because of what they experienced on the first exam, this is an example of a(n): a mortality effect b testing effect c history effect d instrumentation effect ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 276 37 When different interviewers are used in a pretest from those used in the posttest and this produces different results in the study, this is an example of a(n): a history effect b mortality effect c instrumentation effect d cohort effect ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 276 38 Which of the following is a threat to the internal validity of experiment using a repeated measures design? a instrumentation effect b redundancy effect c cohort effect d attrition effect ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 276 39 When some subjects exit the experiment before it is completed and this effects the results of the study, this is an example of a(n): a mortality effect b history effect c instrumentation effect d confounding effect ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 277 40 When a researcher tries to say that the results of a test market in Indianapolis, Indiana will hold in a national rollout of the new product, this researcher is concerned with: a internal validity b the repeated measures effect c constant error d external validity ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 278 41 When a Ford Motor Co dealer in St Louis tries to reduce his inventory of new cars by offering "two free tickets on American Airlines to anywhere American Airlines flies within the continental United States" to anyone who purchases a new car in February, this is an example of a(n): a one-shot design © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part b pretest-posttest control group design c Solomon four-group design d posttest-only control group design ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 279 42 Which experimental design has the following symbols: a static group design b after-only design c Solomon four-group design d one-group pretest-posttest design ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking O X O2 REF: p 279 43 Which experimental design has the following symbols: Experimental group: Control group: a b c d R R O1 X O2 O3 O4 one-shot design static group design posttest-only control group design pretest-posttest control group design ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 280 44 Which experimental design has the following symbols: Experimental group: Control group: a b c d R R X O1 O2 static group design Solomon four-group design one-group pretest-posttest design posttest-only control group design ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 282 45 Which experimental design has the following symbols: a b c d O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6 static group design after-only design time series design pretest-posttest control group design ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 282 46 An experimental design that uses a random process to assign subjects to treatment levels of an experimental variable is called a: © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part a b c d main effect design completely randomized design Solomon design systematic design ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 283 47 In which experimental design is a single, categorical extraneous variable that might affect test units’ responses to the treatment identified and the effects isolated by being blocked out? a completely randomized design b randomized-block design c factorial design d interactive block design ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 284 48 A researcher is interested in examining the effect of background music and lighting on sales in a restaurant, so he wants to conduct an experiment that manipulates different levels of each Which experimental design would be best to examine the effects of these two treatments at various levels? a completely randomized design b randomized-block design c factorial design d interactive design ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 285 49 A x x experimental design has _ factors, each of which has _ levels a eight; three b three; two c three; eight d two; three ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 285 50 A x experimental design requires _ combinations of subgroup cells a six b two c five d nine ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 285 COMPLETION In an experiment, the variable is manipulated and its effect is measured on the variable ANS: independent, dependent PTS: REF: p 257 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 2 In an experiment, the change in the variable is presumed to be the cause of the results ANS: independent PTS: REF: p 257 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking A categorical variable that is not manipulated but is expected to show a statistical relationship with the dependent variables is known as a(n) variable ANS: blocking PTS: REF: p 258 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Experimental difference in means between the different levels of any single experimental variable is referred to as a(n) ANS: main effect PTS: REF: p 259 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking In an experiment, the treatment is administered to the group ANS: experimental PTS: REF: p 261 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking If subjects in the experimental group are administered the treatment in the afternoon while the subjects in the control group participate in the experiment in the morning, the study is said to experience error ANS: systematic or nonsampling PTS: REF: p 264 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking The random assignment of subject and treatments to groups is called ANS: randomization PTS: REF: p 264 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When the researcher unintentionally provides the subjects with hints about what he wants them to say in the study, this is an example of a(n) ANS: demand characteristic PTS: REF: p 267 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When the experimenter’s comments influence the subjects’ behavior so that they give answers that they think the experimenter wants to hear rather than their true feelings, we say that has occurred ANS: experimenter bias © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part PTS: REF: p 267 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 10 When subjects in an experiment perform differently because they realize that they are participating in an experiment, this is called the effect ANS: Hawthorne PTS: REF: p 268 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 11 An experimental deception that involves a false treatment is called a(n) ANS: placebo PTS: REF: p 269 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 12 When subjects in all experimental groups are exposed to identical conditions except for the differing experimental treatments, we say that has occurred ANS: constancy of conditions PTS: REF: p 270 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 13 When a research organization conducts a taste test in its offices located in a shopping mall, this is an example of a(n) experiment ANS: laboratory PTS: REF: p 271 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 14 When Procter & Gamble conducts a test market for a new shampoo in Kansas City and St Louis, this is an example of a(n) experiment ANS: field PTS: REF: p 272 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 15 A effect is a nuisance effect occurring when the initial measurement or test alerts or primes subjects in a way that affects their response to the experimental treatments ANS: testing PTS: REF: p 276 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 16 When subjects are randomly assigned to treatment groups to study the effects of manipulating an independent variable, this is called a(n) design ANS: completely randomized PTS: REF: p 283 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 17 In a factorial design, the influence of one independent variable on a dependent variable is called a © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: main effect PTS: REF: p 285 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 18 A(n) experimental design allows for testing of the effects of two or more treatments at various levels ANS: factorial PTS: REF: p 285 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 19 produce differences in the dependent variable between experimental cells based on combinations of variables ANS: Interactions PTS: REF: p 285 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 20 A x experimental design incorporates factors, each having levels ANS: two, three PTS: REF: p 285 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking ESSAY List the four important elements in experimental design ANS: Experimental designs involve no less than four important design elements: (1) Manipulation of the independent variable(s) (2) Selection and measurement of the dependent variable(s) (3) Selection and assignment of experimental subjects (4) Control over extraneous variables PTS: REF: p 260 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Explain how systematic or nonsampling error occurs in experiments and discuss ways to minimize it ANS: Systematic or nonsampling error may occur if the sampling units in an experimental cell are somehow different than the units in another cell, and this difference affects the dependent variable Randomization, which is the random assignment of subject and treatments to groups, is one device for equally distributing the effects of extraneous variables to all conditions The presence of nuisance variables will not be eliminated, but they will be controlled because they are likely to exist to the same degree in every experimental cell Matching the respondents on the basis of pertinent background information is another technique for controlling systematic error by assigning subjects in a way that their characteristics are the same in each group PTS: REF: pp 264-265 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 3 Discuss what is meant by demand characteristics and why they are a concern for researchers Discuss four ways of reducing demand characteristics ANS: The term demand characteristic refers to an experimental design element that unintentionally provides subjects with hints about the research hypothesis So, knowledge of the experimental hypothesis creates a confound known as a demand effect Demand characteristics are aspects of an experiment that demand (encourage) that the subjects respond in a particular way, hence being a source of systematic error Ways of reducing demand characteristics include: (1) Use an experimental disguise (2) Isolate experimental subjects (3) Use a “blind” experimental administrator (4) Administer only one experimental treatment level to each subject PTS: REF: pp 267-268 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Explain the advantages of a between-subjects experimental design over a within-subjects design ANS: A within-subjects design involves repeated measures because with each treatment the same subject is measured In contrast, a between-subjects design measure each dependent variable only once for each subject Between-subjects designs are usually advantageous although they are usually more costly The validity of between-subjects designs is usually higher because by applying only one treatment combination to one subject, demand characteristics are greatly reduced When a subject sees multiple conditions, he or she is more likely to guess what the study is about In addition, statistical analyses of between-subjects designs are simpler than within-subjects designs This also means the results are easier to report and explain to management PTS: REF: p 273 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Compare and contrast internal validity and external validity and discuss which one is most important in experimental research ANS: Internal validity exists to the extent that an experimental variable is truly responsible for any variance in the dependent variable In other words, does the experimental manipulation truly cause changes in the specific outcome of interest? Internal validity depends in large part on successful manipulations External validity is the accuracy with which experimental results can be generalized beyond the experimental subjects It is increased when the subjects comprising the sample truly represent some population and when the results extend to market segments or other groups of people The higher the external validity, the more researchers and managers can count on the fact that any results observed in an experiment will also be seen in the “real world.” Researchers often must trade internal validity for external validity Laboratory experiments with many controlled factors usually are high in internal validity, while field experiments generally have less internal validity, but greater external validity Ideally, results from lab experiments would be followed up with some type of field test PTS: REF: pp 274-277 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 6 Compare and contrast completely randomized designs and randomized-block designs ANS: Both are types of complex experimental designs A completely randomized design is an experimental design that uses a random process to assign subjects to treatment levels of an experimental variable Randomization of experimental units is the researcher’s attempt to control extraneous variables while manipulating potential causes The randomized-block design is an extension of the completely randomized design A form of randomization is used to control for most extraneous variations; however, the researcher has identified a single extraneous variable that might affect subjects’ responses systematically The researcher will attempt to isolate the effects of this single variable by blocking out its effects PTS: REF: pp 283-284 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ... posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part b pretest-posttest control group design c Solomon four-group design d posttest-only control group design ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective... Control group: a b c d R R O1 X O2 O3 O4 one-shot design static group design posttest-only control group design pretest-posttest control group design ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF:... group: a b c d R R X O1 O2 static group design Solomon four-group design one-group pretest-posttest design posttest-only control group design ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 282
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