Test bank herman aguinis – performance management ch11

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Chapter 11—Observation Methods TRUE/FALSE It is typical in observation studies for the observer to ask questions of the person who is being observed ANS: F No questioning or communication with people is needed in observation PTS: REF: p 239 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Attitudes cannot be observed ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 240 One limitation of observation as a research method is that the observation period is generally short ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 240 Researchers can observe people or events with human observers or with machines ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 240 Mechanical observation best suits a situation or behavior that is not easily predictable in advance of the research ANS: F Human observation is better suited for these types of situations or behaviors PTS: REF: p 240 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Hidden, unobtrusive observation maximizes respondent error ANS: F It minimizes respondent error PTS: REF: p 240 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking The results of observation studies can provide complementary evidence, along with other measures, for a respondent's "true” feelings ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 242 Response latency is the amount of time it takes to make a choice between two alternatives ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 243 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 9 Direct observation is a straightforward attempt to observe and record what naturally occurs ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 243 10 In observation studies, it is normally not necessary to ask a person who is being observed to state his or her gender, since that characteristic can be observed ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 243 11 Since the observer does not interact with the subject in observation studies, observation is an error-free method of data collection ANS: F There are several errors associated with observation: subjectivity, observer bias, accuracy, and interpretation PTS: REF: p 243 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 12 In observation research, a distortion of measurement resulting from the cognitive behavior or actions of the witnessing observer is called selectivity bias ANS: F This is referred to as observer bias PTS: REF: p 243 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 13 A source of error in observation studies is in the interpretation of the meaning of the observation data ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 244 14 When the investigator intervenes to create an artificial environment to test a hypothesis, this approach is called artificial observation ANS: F This is called contrived observation PTS: REF: p 244 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 15 Hidden observation studies must be alert to situations in which the subject's right to privacy must be protected ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 245 16 Some might see contrived observation as unethical based on the notion of entrapment ANS: T PTS: REF: p 245 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Ethics 17 Researchers may observe physical phenomena as well as human behavior © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 246 18 A study of the recording of a Monday Night Football Game in the National Football League in which the observer counts the number of shots of cheerleaders on the sidelines is an example of camera surveillance ANS: F This is an example of content analysis PTS: REF: p 246 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 19 One observation measure for monitoring Web site traffic is click-through rate (CTR) ANS: T PTS: REF: p 249 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 20 The most refined measure of Web site traffic is click-through rate (CTR) ANS: F A more refined count is the number of unique visitors to a Web site, which counts the initial access to the site but not multiple hits on the site by the same visitor during the same day or week PTS: REF: p 249 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 21 Scanner data can observe supermarket sales in response to a local newspaper ad promotion ANS: T PTS: REF: p 250 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 22 Pupilometers measure unconscious eye movement and are useful for determining which component of an ad (or other stimuli) were seen and which were overlooked ANS: F Eye-tracking monitoring does this A pupilometer observes and records changes in the diameter of a subject’s pupils, which are interpreted as changes in cognitive activity that result from the stimulus PTS: REF: pp 251-259 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 23 Physiological observation techniques, such as pupilometers, psychogalvanometers, and voice-pitch analysis, precisely measure levels of arousal ANS: F While these devices identify arousal, they cannot precisely measure levels of arousal PTS: REF: p 252 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology MULTIPLE CHOICE © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 1 When an employee who works at McDonald's headquarters outside Chicago travels around the U.S and observes franchises to see if they are acting in the best interests of McDonald's good name in terms of friendly service, cleanliness, and quality of food, this observer is acting as a(n): a mystery shopper b indirect observer c mechanical observer d scanner-based consumer panel ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 238 Clara is a researcher who records shoppers’ movement through a grocery store What method of research is Clara using? a survey b assessment c immersion d observation ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 239 All of the following are observable phenomena EXCEPT: a attitudes b verbal behavior c spatial relations and locations d neurological activity ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: pp 239-240 Observing a person's television viewing habits is an example of which type of observation? a verbal records b expressive behavior c physical actions d physical objects ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 239 Observing how close a financial adviser sits to his or her clients is an example of what type of observation? a spatial relations and locations b verbal records c verbal behavior d expressive behavior ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 239 All of the following cannot be observed EXCEPT: a intentions b attitudes c expressive behavior d feelings ANS: C PTS: REF: pp 239-240 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Observing the movement of a shopper in a supermarket is an example of what type of observation? a mall interception b verbal behavior c physical actions d expressive behavior ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 239 Observing the comments made by travelers waiting in a check-in line at the American Airlines ticket counter in Chicago is an example of what type of observation? a pictorial records b verbal behavior c expressive behavior d spatial relations ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 239 Measuring the distance visitors stand from a painting in a Van Gogh exhibit at the St Louis Art Museum is an example of what type of observation? a verbal behavior b temporal patterns c expressive behavior d spatial relations ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 239 10 Using a stopwatch to determine the average waiting time for a customer at a drive-through location at McDonald's is an example of what type of observation? a verbal behavior b temporal pattern c physical action d physical objects ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 239 11 Having observers record the brand names of items found in a kitchen pantry of a consumer panel is an example of what type of observation? a physical actions b verbal behavior c physical objects d pictorial records ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 239 12 When the subject is unaware that he is being observed in a shopping mall, this represents what type of observation? a contrived b indirect © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part c content analysis d hidden ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 240 13 A situation in which an observer’s presence, or the mechanical device doing the recording, is easily known to the subject involves: a obtrusive observation b visible observation c primary observation d first-order observation ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 240 14 All of the following are examples of nonverbal behavior EXCEPT: a smiling b nodding c raised eyebrows d talking ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 242 15 John is measuring the amount of time it takes for people to make a choice between two options regarding what to select for lunch to infer the strength of their preferences for one alternative over the other The recorded choice time is referred to as: a response lag b response interval c response latency d response bias ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 243 16 When the manager of a shopping mall records the counties listed on the license plates on cars parked at the mall in order to determine where the shoppers come from, this is an example of: a direct observation b indirect observation c contrived observation d response latency ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 242 17 When an airline passenger (who is really an employee of the airline) complains loudly about his not being served a vegetarian meal so that he can note the behavior of the flight attendant in this type of situation, this is an example of what type of observation? a content analysis b indirect c contrived d response latency ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 244 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 18 All of the following are errors associated with direct observation EXCEPT: a subjectively b entrapment c accuracy d interpretation ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 243 19 When the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry measures the popularity of its children's exhibits by the frequency of tile replacement in front of exhibits, it is using what type of observation evidence? a content b response latency c physical-trace d contrived ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 245 20 Which of the following obtains data by observing and analyzing the contents of advertisements, newspaper articles, television programs, Web sties, and the like? a contrived analysis b content analysis c indirect analysis d response latency analysis ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 246 21 When a researcher analyzes the content of advertisements appearing in cartoons on a Saturday morning in terms of the types of characters that appear in the ads, this is an example of what type of observation? a contrived analysis b content analysis c indirect analysis d entrapment ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 246 22 When a researcher counts the percentage of African Americans who have appeared on the cover of Newsweek during the past decade, this is an example of what type of observation? a contrived analysis b ethnic analysis c indirect analysis d content analysis ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 246 23 When Walgreen’s uses cables across the road as "traffic counters" to determine the density of traffic near a possible retail store location, this is an example of what type of observation? a contrived observation b mechanical observation © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part c human observation d content analysis ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 247 24 Which of the following companies use a television monitoring system for estimating national television audiences? a ACNielsen b Mediamark c Infoscan d TVtrack ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 247 25 Which of the following represents the percentage of people who are exposed to an Internet advertisement who actually click on the corresponding hyperlink which takes them to a company’s Web site? a conversion transaction rate (CTR) b page views c cost per click (CPC) d click-through rate (CTR) ANS: D PTS: REF: p 249 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 26 All of the following are flaws with using click-through rate as a measure of the amount of interest or attention a Web site is receiving EXCEPT: a does not differentiate between a lot of activity by a few visitors and a little activity by many visitors b some hits are likely made by mistake c researcher lacks information about the meaning behind the numbers d does not adequately measure the number of times an ad is clicked on ANS: D PTS: REF: p 249 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 27 A researcher gave Jaunita and her husband a bar-coded card, like a frequent-shopper card, that they give to the checkout clerk at the grocery store Their code number is coupled with the purchase information recorded by the scanner This family is participating is a(n): a scanner-based consumer panel b obtrusive observation study c phenomenological study d ethnographic study ANS: A PTS: REF: p 250 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 28 All of the following are improvements of scanner data over standard mail diary panel data EXCEPT: a scanner data measure observed (actual) purchase behavior rather than reported behavior b scanner measures are obtrusive c more extensive purchase data can be collected with scanner data d scanner data are collected mechanically, resulting in improved accuracy over mail diary panel data © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: B PTS: REF: p 250 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 29 All of the following measure physiological reactions EXCEPT: a eye-tracking monitor b pupilometer c at-home scanning systems d voce-pitch analysis ANS: C PTS: REF: pp 251-252 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 30 A Web site designer is interested in how people look at a Web site He wants to know where they look first when a page comes up Which mechanical device would be appropriate for finding this out? a pupilometer b eye scanner c eye-tracking monitor d psychogalvanometer ANS: C PTS: REF: p 251 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 31 Which of the following measures physiological reactions? a pupilometer b at-home scanning systems c click-through counter d all of the above ANS: A PTS: REF: p 252 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 32 Which of the following measures involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skin? a eye-tracking monitor b psychogalvanometer c pupilometer d voice-pitch analysis ANS: B PTS: REF: p 252 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 33 Which of the following is a problem with physiological reaction measures? a subjects are usually placed in artificial settings b calibration of measuring devices c devices are expensive d all of the above ANS: D PTS: REF: p 252 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology COMPLETION The systematic process of recording the behaviors of people as they occur is called ANS: observation © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part PTS: REF: p 239 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When the presence of an observer is known to the subject, this is called observation ANS: visible PTS: REF: p 240 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When a subject is unaware that he is being observed, this is called observation ANS: hidden PTS: REF: p 240 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When an observer observes a subject in a natural setting, this is an example of observation ANS: direct PTS: REF: p 242 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking The time it takes a subject to make a choice between the appeal of two advertisements is a type of ANS: response latency PTS: REF: p 243 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When an observer's presence causes the subject to act differently, we say that the situation has bias ANS: observer PTS: REF: p 243 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When a researcher creates an artificial situation in order to observe the reactions of a subject in that type of situation, this is an example of observation ANS: contrived PTS: REF: p 244 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking The systematic analysis of the words used in a magazine ad is an example of ANS: content analysis PTS: REF: p 246 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking A is the percentage of people who are exposed to an Internet advertisement who actually click on the corresponding hyperlink which takes them to the company’s Web site © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: click-through rate CTR PTS: REF: p 249 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 10 A panel of consumers using a special ID card whenever they purchase items from their local supermarket so that purchase behavior is matched with the demographic dimensions of each household is participating in a(n) panel ANS: scanner-based consumer PTS: REF: p 250 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 11 A mechanical device that is used to track eye-movements during television commercials is called a(n) monitor ANS: eye-tracking PTS: REF: p 251 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 12 A mechanical device that is used to record changes in the diameter of a pupil in a subject is called a(n) ANS: pupilometer PTS: REF: p 252 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 13 A mechanical device that measures a subject's galvanic skin response (GSR) is called a(n) ANS: psychogalvanometer PTS: REF: p 252 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology 14 A mechanical device that measures voice frequency as a measure of emotional reactions is called a(n) analysis ANS: voice pitch PTS: REF: p 252 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Technology ESSAY Discuss the role of observation as a research method and list the types of observable phenomena, giving an example of each © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: In business research, observation is a systematic process of recording actual behavioral patterns of people, objects, and events as they happen Observational studies gather a wide variety of information about behavior Eight kinds of observable phenomena are listed in Exhibit 10.1: (1) Physical activities - shopping patterns or television viewing; a worker’s movement during an assembly process (2) Verbal behavior - sales conversations (3) Expressive behavior - facial expressions (4) Spatial relations and locations - traffic patterns; proximity of managers’ offices to production floor (5) Temporal patterns - amount of time spent shopping; time it takes to execute a stock purchase order (6) Physical objects - amount of newspaper recycled (7) Verbal and pictorial records - content of advertisements; number of illustrations in a training booklet The examples are only suggestions, and students’ examples will vary PTS: REF: p 239 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Compare and contrast direct observation and contrived observation ANS: Direct observation is a straightforward attempt to observe and record what naturally occurs Every effort is made for the interviewer not to interject him- or herself into the situation The investigator does not create an artificial situation Contrived observation occurs when the investigator intervenes to create an artificial environment to test a hypothesis If situations were not contrived, the research time spent waiting and observing would expand considerably PTS: REF: pp 242-244 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Discuss the ethical issues particular to research using observation What should a researcher consider when collecting observational data? ANS: Observation methods introduce a number of ethical issues Hidden observation raises the issue of the respondent’s right to privacy If the researcher obtains permission to observe someone, the subject may not act naturally So, at times there is a strong temptation to observe without obtaining consent or gaining input from an IRB (Institutional Review Board) A researcher can ask him- or herself these questions when considering using observation: (1) Is the behavior being observed commonly performed in public where it is expected that others can observe the behavior? (2) Is the behavior performed in a setting in which the anonymity of the person being observed is assured (meaning there is no way to identify individuals)? (3) Has the person agreed to be observed? Also, some might see contrived observation as unethical based on the notion of entrapment, which means to deceive or trick into difficulty That is clearly abusive However, if no possibility of harm exists, then the researcher can likely proceed, although this particular instance should be done under the auspices of an IRB PTS: REF: p 245 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 4 Explain the observation of physical objects and message content ANS: Physical phenomena may be the subject of observation study Physical-trace evidence is a visible mark of some past event or occurrence Content analysis obtains data by observing and analyzing the contents or messages of advertisements, newspaper articles, television programs, and the like Content analysis studies the message itself and involves the design of a systematic observation and recording procedure for quantitative description of the manifest content of communication This type of analysis often counts the frequency of themes or occurrences within the hermeneutic unit being studied PTS: REF: pp 245-246 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Name and define the techniques for measuring physiological reactions ANS: Four major categories of mechanical devices used to measure physiological reactions are: (1) Eye-tracking monitor - measures unconscious eye movements (2) Pupilometer - observes and records changes in the diameter of a subject’s pupils (3) Psychogalvanometer - measures galvanic skin response (GSR), which is a measure of involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skin (4) Voice-pitch analysis - gauges emotional reactions as reflected in physiological changes in a person’s voice PTS: REF: pp 251-252 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication| AACSB: Technology © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ... Thinking REF: p 244 14 When the investigator intervenes to create an artificial environment to test a hypothesis, this approach is called artificial observation ANS: F This is called contrived... Contrived observation occurs when the investigator intervenes to create an artificial environment to test a hypothesis If situations were not contrived, the research time spent waiting and observing
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