Test bank herman aguinis – performance management ch09

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Chapter 9—Survey Research: An Overview TRUE/FALSE The purpose of survey research is to collect secondary data ANS: F The purpose of survey research is to collect primary data PTS: REF: p 186 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking All survey research is conducted with consumers ANS: F Studies also focus on wholesalers, retailers, industrial buyers, or within the organization itself PTS: REF: p 186 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Most survey research is descriptive research ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 186 Some aspects of surveys may be qualitative ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 186 Surveys provide a quick, often inexpensive, efficient, and accurate means of assessing information about a population ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 187 Survey research techniques and standards are still quite unscientific ANS: F Survey research techniques and standards have become quite scientific and accurate PTS: REF: p 187 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Two major sources of survey error are random sampling error and systematic error ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 188 Unless sample size is increased, random sampling errors are unavoidable in survey research ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 188 Systematic errors are also called nonsampling errors © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 189 10 A sample bias exists when the results of a sample show a persistent tendency to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 189 11 Two general categories of systematic error are Type I errors and Type II errors ANS: F The two general categories of systematic error are respondent error and administrative error PTS: REF: p 189 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 12 Nonresponse is a type of respondent error ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 189 13 In evaluating the value of survey research, the researcher should be sure that those who did not respond to the survey are representative of those who did respond to the survey on important characteristics ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 190 14 The number of "no contacts" in survey research has been decreasing because of the increased use of telephone answering machines by consumers ANS: F The number of no contacts in survey research has been increasing because of the proliferation of answering machines, mobile phones, and the growing use of caller ID to screen calls PTS: REF: p 190 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 15 No contacts occur when people are unwilling to participate in the research ANS: F This type of error is referred to as refusals No contacts are people who are not accessible on the first and second contact PTS: REF: p 190 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 16 Self-selection biases in survey research overrepresent indifferent responses and underrepresent extreme consumer positions ANS: F Self-selection biases in survey research underrepresent indifferent responses and overrepresent extreme consumer positions PTS: REF: p 191 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 17 A response bias occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 191 18 The categories of response bias are mutually exclusive from one another ANS: F These categories overlap and are not mutually exclusive PTS: REF: p 192 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 19 When a respondent "puffs up" his answers in an interview in order to make a favorable impression on the interviewer, this is an example of exaggeration bias ANS: F This is social desirability bias PTS: REF: p 193 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 20 When an interviewer is not able to write fast enough to record the respondent’s answers verbatim, this is an example of interviewer cheating ANS: F This is an example of interviewer error PTS: REF: p 194 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 21 Surveys may be classified based on the method of communication, the degrees of structure and disguise in the questionnaire, and the time frame in which the data are gathered ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 195 22 When the same respondents are questioned several times over a period of months, this is an example of a longitudinal study ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 197 23 A longitudinal study that gathers data from the same sample of individuals or households over time is called a cohort study ANS: F This is a consumer panel Cohort studies survey several different samples at different times PTS: REF: p 198 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 24 Total quality management is a business strategy that emphasizes market-driven quality as a top priority ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 198 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 25 Implementing a total quality management program requires considerable survey research ANS: T PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 199 MULTIPLE CHOICE The people who answer survey questions are referred to as: a researchers b clients c respondents d users ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 186 A survey can collect information using which of the following techniques? a telephone b face-to-face interviews c mail d all of the above ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 186 Which of the following can be the target of survey research techniques? a wholesalers b employees c consumers d all of the above ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 186 All of the following are advantages of survey research EXCEPT: a inexpensive b random c efficient d accurate ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 187 When a research study is not conducted according to the plan in the proposal for the research study, what kind of error has occurred? a random sampling error b systematic error c respondent error d implementation error ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 189 Systematic errors are also called: © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part a b c d random sampling error interviewer error nonresponse error nonsampling errors ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 189 Systematic error is divided into which two general categories? a respondent error and administrative error b random sampling error and administrative error c response bias and interview error d primary error and secondary error ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 189 People who are not contacted or who refuse to cooperate are called: a random errors b biased respondents c sample selection errors d nonrespondents ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 190 Barbara received a phone call asking her to participate in a survey She told the interviewer that she was too busy and could not participate This is an example of: a random sampling error b administrative error c nonresponse error d interviewer error ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 190 10 People who are unwilling to participate in a research project are referred to as: a refusals b deviations c no contacts d random errors ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 190 11 In a research study, a potential respondent who is not at home at either the first or second attempt to reach this person by phone is called a(n): a sample bias b no contact c interviewee d random sampling error ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 190 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 12 When a hotel customer decides to fill out a customer satisfaction survey to complain about having to wait an hour for room service to deliver his dinner, this is an example of: a random sampling error b self-selection bias c auspices bias d social desirability bias ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 190 13 Which of the following occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant? a interviewer bias b self-selection bias c self-preservation bias d response bias ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 191 14 When a respondent tells an interviewer that his annual income last year was $50,000 (because he is embarrassed to admit that it was $25,000), this is an example of: a nonresponse error b auspices bias c interviewer cheating d deliberate falsification ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 191 15 The tendency for respondents to agree with most questions in a survey is known as: a auspices bias b interviewer bias c extremity bias d acquiescence bias ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 192 16 When a respondent tells the interviewer that he reads The Wall Street Journal on a daily basis so that he can impress the interviewer, this is an example of: a interviewer bias b auspices bias c administrative bias d acquiescence bias ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 193 17 Which type of bias occurs when a respondent wishes to create a favorable impression or save face in the presence of an interviewer? a random sampling bias b social desirability bias c administrative bias d interviewer cheating ANS: B PTS: REF: p 193 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 18 When a research company pulls a random sample of people from a phone book and that sample does not include people with unlisted numbers or who not have landline telephone service, we say that the sample contains: a sample selection error b acquiescence bias c social desirability error d auspices bias ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 194 19 When an interviewer unintentionally and mistakenly checks the wrong response on a checklist during an interview, this is an example of: a interviewer cheating b auspices bias c interviewer error d social desirability bias ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 194 20 When an interviewer fails to write the respondent's answer to a question verbatim because the respondent talks faster than the interviewer can write, this is an example of: a acquiescence error b interviewer error c auspices bias d interviewer cheating ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 194 21 Which term is sometimes used to refer to interviewers filling in responses for respondents that not really exist? a curb-stoning b auspices bias c sugging d mere-measurement effect ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 195 22 Surveys are classified based on all of the following EXCEPT: a number of questions b method of communication c degrees of structure and disguise in the questionnaire d time frame in which the data are gathered ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 195 23 When an interviewer asks the respondent to state which of six salary categories represents his gross income the previous year, this is an example of a(n): a unstructured question © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part b social desirability question c structured question d disguised question ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 195 24 When an interviewer asks a respondent: "Why you shop at Macy's department store?", this is an example of a(n) a structured question b disguised question c unstructured question d curb-stone question ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 196 25 Data collected at a single point in time represent a: a longitudinal study b point study c static study d cross-sectional study ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 196 26 Lori is participating in a research study in which she completes a questionnaire every year She has been doing this for the past five years, and the purpose of the research is to study how consumers’ attitudes and preferences toward various food products change as they age This type of study in which respondents are questioned at multiple points in time is called a: a cross-sectional study b longitudinal study c permanent study d structured study ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 197 27 Longitudinal studies that survey several different samples at different times are called: a cohort studies b structured studies c segmented studies d linked studies ANS: A PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 197 28 One research firm uses successive samples the week following the Super Bowl each year to compare trends and identify changes in consumers’ awareness of and attitudes towards Super Bowl advertising This type of longitudinal study is called a: a consumer panel b progressive study c subsequent study d tracking study ANS: D PTS: REF: p 198 © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 29 Which of the following is a type of longitudinal study that gathers data from the same sample of individuals or households that record their purchases over time? a cross-sectional b cohort c consumer panel d tracking study ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 198 30 Which of the following is a business strategy that emphasizes market-driven quality as a top priority? a inside-out management b outside-in management c total quality management d benchmark management ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 198 31 What is the first stage of the total quality management process? a benchmarking stage b continuous quality improvement stage c initial quality improvement stage d commitment and exploration stage ANS: D PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 200 32 All of the following are stages in the total quality management process EXCEPT: a benchmarking stage b testing and revising stage c continuous quality improvement stage d commitment and exploration stage ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 200 33 In which stage of the total quality management process does research establish quantitative measures that can serve as points of comparison against which to evaluate future efforts? a exploration stage b initial quality improvement stage c benchmarking stage d continuous quality improvement stage ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 201 34 Which dimension of quality is being studied for a Honda lawnmower when customers are asked to rate its ability to start on the first or second try? a aesthetic design b reliability c serviceability d competence © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 202 35 Which dimension of quality is being studied for a Harley motorcycle when a survey asks them to record the number of years that they have owned that particular Harley? a serviceability b durability c reliability d features ANS: B PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 202 COMPLETION The person who answers questions in a mail survey is called a(n) ANS: respondent PTS: REF: p 186 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When primary data are collected by asking respondents questions, these data are generated by a(n) ANS: survey PTS: REF: p 186 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking Chance variations in sampling due to the elements selected in the sample are called error ANS: random sampling PTS: REF: p 188 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When a mistake in the implementation of the design of a research study is made, we say that the study has error ANS: systematic PTS: REF: p 189 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When the results of a sample deviate in a significant way from the true value of the population mean, we say that the study has bias ANS: sample PTS: REF: p 189 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking When the people who answer a mail survey are different in important ways (e.g income level) from the people who did not answer the survey, the survey is said to have error ANS: nonresponse © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part PTS: REF: p 189 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking People who are not contacted or who refuse to cooperate are called ANS: nonrespondents PTS: REF: p 190 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking A person who is not at home when an interviewer calls is called a(n) ANS: no contact PTS: REF: p 190 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking A person who hangs up the phone when he is asked to answer a few questions about his television viewing habits because he is not interested in participating in the study is called a(n) ANS: refusal PTS: REF: p 190 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 10 If the interviewer’s presence influences respondents to give untrue or modified answers, the survey will be marred by ANS: interviewer bias PTS: REF: p 193 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 11 When a mistake is made in carrying out the design of a research study, this is called error ANS: administrative PTS: REF: p 194 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 12 When an interviewer does not record the respondent's answers correctly, this is an example of error ANS: interviewer PTS: REF: p 194 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 13 When a respondent is asked to check his or her gender as Male or Female, this is an example of a(n) question ANS: structured PTS: REF: p 195 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 14 When an interviewer asks a respondent, "Why you use that brand of dish soap?", this is an example of a(n) question © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ANS: unstructured PTS: REF: p 196 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking 15 A group of consumers who participate in a longitudinal study in which they record their shopping behavior for food items is called a(n) ANS: consumer panel PTS: REF: p 198 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking ESSAY Define surveys and describe the type of information that may be gathered in a survey ANS: A survey is defined as a method of collecting primary data based on communication with a representative sample of individuals The type of information gathered in a survey varies considerably depending on its objectives Typically, surveys attempt to describe what is happening, what people believe, what they are like or to learn the reasons for a particular activity More specifically, surveys gather information to assess consumer knowledge and awareness of products, brands, or issues and to measure consumer attitudes and feelings Surveys can describe consumer characteristics including purchasing patterns, brand usage, and descriptive characteristics including demographics and lifestyle Not all survey research is conducted with the ultimate consumer - some focus on wholesalers, retailers, or industrial buyers Although most surveys are conducted to quantify certain factual information, some aspects of surveys may also be qualitative PTS: REF: p 186 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Explain the advantages of surveys ANS: Survey research presents numerous advantages They provide a quick, often inexpensive, efficient, and accurate means of assessing information about a population Researchers can apply fairly straightforward statistical tools in analyzing sample survey results PTS: REF: p 187 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Name and describe the types of response bias ANS: Responses bias falls into four specific categories: (1) Acquiescence bias - a tendency to agree with all or most questions (2) Extremity bias - results because some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions (3) Interviewer bias - occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences respondents’ answers (4) Social desirability bias - may occur either consciously or unconsciously because the respondent wishes to create a favorable impression or save face in the presence of an interviewer PTS: REF: pp 192-194 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part 4 Compare and contrast cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies ANS: Although most surveys are for individual research projects conducted only once over a short time period, other projects require multiple surveys over a long period A cross-sectional study is one in which various segments of a population are sampled and data are collected in a single moment in time Most research surveys fall into this category In a longitudinal study, respondents are questioned at multiple points in time The purpose is to examine continuity of response and to observe changes that occur over time Some longitudinal studies are similar to cross-sectional studies in that they survey different samples every time the study is conducted (e.g., cohort study) However, other longitudinal studies gather data from the same sample of individuals over time (e.g., consumer panel) PTS: REF: pp 196-197 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication Discuss the stages in the total quality management process and the importance of survey research at each stage ANS: Total quality management is a business strategy that emphasizes market-driven quality as a top priority Research is important at each of the following stages: (1) Commitment and exploration stage - exploratory study to determine the quality of customer wants, discover customer problems, and identify the importance of specific attributes Exploratory study is also useful to determine employees’ awareness of quality standards for their job (2) Benchmarking stage - conduct a study to measure overall satisfaction and quality rating of specific attributes and to measure employees’ actual performance and perceptions about performance (3) Initial quality improvement stage - tracking wave measures trends in satisfaction and quality ratings and comparing what is actually happening with what should be happening Research is also conducted to establish whether the company is conforming to its quality standards (4) Continuous quality improvement stage - tracking wave measures trends in satisfaction and quality ratings and trends in quality improvement PTS: REF: pp 198-201 NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking| AACSB: Communication © 2010 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part ... inside-out management b outside-in management c total quality management d benchmark management ANS: C PTS: NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking REF: p 198 31 What is the first stage of the total quality management. .. Thinking REF: p 200 32 All of the following are stages in the total quality management process EXCEPT: a benchmarking stage b testing and revising stage c continuous quality improvement stage d commitment... Communication Discuss the stages in the total quality management process and the importance of survey research at each stage ANS: Total quality management is a business strategy that emphasizes market-driven
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