Lồng ghép liên văn hóa vào giảng dạy tiếng anh ở trường phổ thông ở trà vinh, việt nam

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HUE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES CHÂU THỊ HOÀNG HOA INTEGRATING CULTURE INTO TEACHING ENGLISH AT UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TRA VINH, VIETNAM DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY THESIS IN THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING HUE, 2019 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HUE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES CHAU THI HOANG HOA INTEGRATING CULTURE INTO TEACHING ENGLISH AT UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TRA VINH, VIET NAM CODE: 14 01 11 DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY THESIS IN THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING SUPERVISOR: ASSOC PROF TRUONG VIEN, PHD HUE, 2019 BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO ĐẠI HỌC HUẾ TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ CHÂU THỊ HỒNG HOA LỒNG GHÉP LIÊN VĂN HĨA VÀO GIẢNG DẠY TIẾNG ANH Ở TRƯỜNG PHỔ THÔNG Ở TRÀ VINH, VIỆT NAM LUẬN ÁN TIẾN SĨ LÝ LUẬN VÀ PHƯƠNG PHÁP DẠY HỌC BỘ MÔN TIẾNG ANH MÃ SỐ: 14 01 11 HUẾ, 2019 This study was completed at: University of Foreign Languages, Hue University Supervisor: Assoc Prof Truong Vien, PhD Reviewer 1: Prof Nguyen Hoa, PhD Reviewer 2: Assoc Prof Nguyen Van Long, PhD Reviewer 3: Assoc Prof Nguyen Quang Ngoan, PhD This doctoral dissertation will be defended at the Thesis Examination Council of Hue University, at 03, Le Loi Street, Hue city at …………am/pm on ………………………/………………………/…………… …………… This dissertation can be found in the National Library and the Library of University of Foreign Languages, Hue University, at 57, Nguyen Khoa Chiem Street, Hue City, Thua Thien Hue Province i Cơng trình hồn thành tại: Trường Đại học Ngoại ngữ, Đại học Huế Người hướng dẫn khoa học: PGS TS Trương Viên Phản biện 1: GS TS Nguyễn Hòa Phản biện 2: PGS TS Nguyễn Văn Long Phản biện 3: PGS TS Nguyễn Quang Ngoạn Luận án bảo vệ Hội đồng chấm luận án cấp Đại học Huế, họp tại: Số 03, Lê Lợi, Thành phố Huế Vào hồi ngày tháng năm 2019 Có thể tìm hiểu luận án thư viện: Thư viện Quốc gia Thư viện trường Đại học Ngoại ngữ, Đại học Huế, Số 57, Nguyễn Khoa Chiêm, Thành phố Huế, Tỉnh Thừa Thiên Huế ii STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP It is certified that the PhD thesis entitled “INTEGRATING CULTURE INTO TEACHING ENGLISH AT UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TRA VINH, VIETNAM” for the degree of Doctor of Education is the result of my own work This work has not been submitted elsewhere for a higher degree at any other institutions To the best of my knowledge, the thesis contains no material previously published or written by other people except where the references are made in this thesis Hue, 2019 Chau Thi Hoang Hoa iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To conduct and complete this thesis, I received plenty of support and assistance from my colleagues, the academic panelists, professors, my supervisor, educational managers, teachers, students, and my family To Tra Vinh University, Assoc Prof Dr Pham Tiet Khanh, the president; Ms Nguyen Thi Mai Khanh, the director of International Collaboration Office, and all of my colleagues, I owe them a lot for approving me to pursue my doctorate and shouldering my work during my study To the professors at University of Foreign Languages, Hue University, I am grateful to my professors, Assoc Prof Dr Pham Thi Hong Nhung, Dr Truong Bach Le, Assoc Prof Dr Le Pham Hoai Huong, Dr Ton Nu Nhu Huong, Assoc Prof Dr Tran Van Phuoc, Dr Bao Kham, Dr Nguyen Ho Hoang Thuy, Dr Ho Thi My Hau, and many other academic panelists who spent a great deal of time reading and giving valuable comments to improve my thesis And most importantly, to my supervisor, Assoc Prof Dr Truong Vien, I would express my wholehearted thanks to him for his emotional, mental, and academical support I am very grateful to the local educational administrators of Provincial Department of Education and Training and many principals of upper secondary schools in Tra Vinh for their kind support Especially, I owe my thanks to all the teachers and student participants for their active participation in this study To the volunteers and interns who greatly contributed to this research as proofreaders and guest speakers, particularly Dr Liza Potvin, Mrs Justine Johnson, and Ms Georgina Alonso, I owe them a lot for sharing living experiences from their own culture and spending time reading this lengthy thesis To my father, an 88-year-old farmer, who gave me the greatest encouragement and desire to study; to my husband and two daughters who are also by my side for every sweet or hard moment during my study and in my life Again, I am deeply indebted to them all for their assistance and encouragement iv ABSTRACT Integrating culture into teaching a foreign language involves not only the transmission of intercultural knowledge but also the engagement of learners into social interaction and reflection on intercultural issues On that basis, this thesis is conducted (1) to investigate the teachers’ practice of intercultural integration and identify possible problems regarding this issue and (2) to try and propose an intercultural language teaching approach, the Intercultural Language Learning and Teaching (IcLLT) model of construction – connection – interaction – reflection extension to diversify teachers’ practice of intercultural integration to build students’ intercultural competence (IC) This thesis embraced action research design with two phases: (1) problem identification and (2) suggestions for solutions Phase 1, the pre-action phase, is an investigation of the current practice of intercultural integration of upper secondary English teachers in Tra Vinh, Vietnam In this phase, teachers’ perceptions and practices were reflected from questionnaire responses of 101 teachers and six classroom observations Phase 2, the action phase, was the trial implementation of IcLLT in two different classes of Grade 10, of which one class (Class 10E), involving one teacher and 22 students, used the pilot coursebook; the other (Class 10C), involving one teacher and 32 students, used the standard coursebook The applicability of the IcLLT model was judged from the perceptions and engagement of the teachers and students in two Communication and Culture lessons (in the pilot coursebooks) and two skill lessons (in the standard coursebooks) through the triangulation of data collected from (1) class observations, (2) students’ evaluation sheets and (3) teacher interviews Findings from Phase proved that teachers in upper secondary schools were willing to incorporate culture in teaching English to facilitate students’ language learning and build their intercultural knowledge, but not yet to target their IC The teachers’ practices were described as teacher-centered, knowledge-based, and coursebook-driven In Phase 2, the feasibility of the IcLLT model was approved The teachers could specify intercultural objectives and design relevant intercultural language activities Through these activities, the students were engaged in social interaction and critical reflection at different levels Compared to the skill lessons in the standard coursebook, the Communication and Culture lessons were more compatible with IcLLT due to the provided specific cultural input Nevertheless, the two types of lessons should be subjected to some modifications to foster students’ comprehensive IC The findings suggested that the representation of specific cultural input, the recognition of intercultural objectives, and students’ engagement in intercultural interaction and critical reflection are the key to the success of the IcLLT model v ABBREVIATIONS ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations CC: Communicative Competence CLT: Communicative Language Teaching EFL: English as a Foreign Language ELT: English Language Teaching FL: Foreign Language Freq: frequency IC: Intercultural Competence ICC: Intercultural Communicative Competence IcLL: Intercultural Language Learning IcLLT: Intercultural Language Learning and Teaching iCLT: Intercultural Communicative Language Teaching IcLT: Intercultural Language Teaching KMO: Kaiser - Meyer - Olkin L1: the first language L2: the second language PDOET: Provincial Department of Education and Training Project 2020: National Foreign Language Project 2020 SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Sciences The UK: The United Kingdom The US(A): The United States of America TVLS: Tra Vinh Laboratory School (Trường Thực hành Sư phạm Trà Vinh) TVU: Tra Vinh University ZPD: Zone of Proximal Development vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv ABSTRACT v ABBREVIATIONS vi TABLE OF CONTENTS vii LIST OF TABLES xi LIST OF FIGURES xii LIST OF APPENDICES xiii CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Research aims and research questions 1.3 Research scope 1.4 Research significance 1.5 Thesis organization 1.6 Term definitions 1.7 Summary CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Defining culture 2.2 Culture and language relationship 2.3 Intercultural competence 2.3.1 Defining intercultural competence 2.3.2 Intercultural competence and related terms 10 2.3.2.1 From communicative competence towards intercultural competence 10 2.3.2.2 Intercultural competence versus intercultural communicative competence 12 2.3.3 Structures and models of intercultural competence 13 2.3.3.1 Byram’s model of intercultural competence (1997) 13 2.3.3.2 Fantini’s model of intercultural communicative competence (2000) 15 2.3.3.3 Liddicoat’s model of intercultural competence acquisition (2002) 16 2.4 Intercultural competence in language education 17 2.4.1 The integration of culture into language education: theory and practice 17 2.4.2 Intercultural approaches to integrating culture into language education 19 2.4.3 Social constructivism in intercultural language teaching 22 vii Activities Videos Pictures Games Tasks/ Other IcLLT activities I watch video clips and Pictures and clips are not pictures (interesting, enough (1) related to the topic) (15) The pictures in the coursebooks are not Total: 15 catchy (1) Total: More pictures and video clips in classes (1) I like the games (4) I like the fact that our group won the game (1) Total: Add more games related to the lesson (3) Total: Total: Some questions are difficult (4) I don’t like homework (1) Total: 199 I would like to explore more about cultures (1) I love to have more extracurricular activities (1) I think there should be more interactive activities (1) Total: Appendix Q Students’ responses to cultural exchange activities A Summary of students’ perceptions of cultural exchange activities Perceptions Subcategories Building IC knowledge Building IC Introducing cultures Exploring cultures Building intercultural attitudes/skills Freq 28 Building CC Language development 12 Social relationship Social relationship Enjoyment Enjoyment Total Examples “I really like to join in cultural exchange activities, because they help me to improve my knowledge.” “I know more about the cultures in Vietnam and other countries.” “I like joining because I can show my culture to foreign teachers.” “… I can help foreigners to know more Vietnamese traditions and cultures.” "… cultural exchange activities help me to discover different cultures and religions of countries in the world." “…I can improve my communication and culture ability…” “… I have many opportunities to exchange culture, learn many things for my future.” “…I can communicate with foreigners.” “…I can improve my speaking and listening skills.” “Yes, because I will have new friends.” “Yes, I can meet many people and friends.” “Yes, because it is fun.” “Yes, because it is very interesting.” 67 B Evidence of students’ engagement in cultural exchange activities Communication Subcategories A variety of cultural aspects in general Sharing local culture Common cultural practices Freq 32 14 Examples I shared the traditions, traditional food, and custom I shared traditions, celebrations, and others I shared the culture of my country I have shared foods and southern lion dance in Tet I told them about the special cakes in Tet’s holiday like Chung cake, Day cake, and some fruits, flowers, and customs in New Year I have shared my activities on Tet's holiday like helping my family The meaning of giving lucky money: maybe, 200 Cultural values of Moon and Tet festivals Moon festival in Khmer culture Teaching Vietnamese Learning from other cultures Common cultural practices Ways of communicati on 1 15 it brings good luck for everyone I shared some popular activities which happen in during Tet’s holiday like Southern Lion Dance I have shared traditional foods and popular flowers on Tet's holiday I shared that Tet holiday is the best celebration in Vietnam because it is family reunion: all people in the family will come back home I shared activities at Moon festival and the story about the rabbits' life in the moon I shared how Tet Viet means to us, how we worshipped and arrange the fruits on the altars to show our respects to our ancestors in Tet holiday It was about cultural celebrations in Vietnam, especially in my culture: Ok-om-bok festival I taught a teacher how to say New Year greetings and wishes I learn the culture of France about the new year: at Eve, people will shut up gold coins pray for wealth I know Moon Festival in Taiwan, having to eat Moon cake and opening barbecue It is interesting that we are similar A French teacher told me that s she went camping with her family in New Year celebration I know more the flowers in the spring and traditional clothes in Taiwan I know a typical culture – tea drink of Japan I can know more Korean bands, buildings, foods, … I learned that our foreign teachers were very friendly with everyone; they didn't treat me like a child but as an adult person They are nice I like the polite way when we communicate together They try to make us understand politely 201 Appendix R The teachers’ responses of the IcLLT model Themes Excerpts Interpretations Representations of culture in teaching Teacher E: No, no session for culture is included It has sessions such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, and language focus The texts about Vietnam or other countries not appeal the students because they lack comparison and personalization The representation of intercultural contents and activities in the two coursebooks are different Teacher C: To the official curriculum and Language is the focus of coursebooks, teaching focuses on language In my the standard coursebooks teaching, I focus on teaching language because it is overwhelming, still related to culture but rarely introduced, so I mainly teach language Teacher C: It would be great if more cultural contents were included in my coursebooks Vietnam and other ASEAN countries share many cultural practices, which are familiar to the students’ prior knowledge It is easier and more interesting for the students to compare cultures Benefits of including ASEAN cultures and teaching the similarities in comparing cultures Perceptions of the IcLLT implementation Teacher E: The most challenging step to apply is the The feasibility of reflection If it is a kind of interactive activities in reflections is unproven class, the students like it But when it is in written assignments, the students feel under pressure Teacher E: The students like interaction because they The feasibility can talk to their friends and teachers They also interaction is proven prepare some questions about the topic We should give them opportunities to share their own culture Teacher C: In my lessons, I always try to ask my students to think critically, understand the discussion and give their own opinions It does not follow what is fixedly presented in the coursebook; reading the text and answering the questions By this way, the students learn new knowledge and how to show their own reflections on it It is interesting, partly because 202 of The novelty and merit of reflection: involving the students’ engagement and critical thinking it is new, and they learn in a different way Teacher E: For the extension step, it is a great one In this step, the students engaged in intercultural practices; they could present their own ideas, studied by themselves; as far as the students were concerned, they had positive attitudes towards this step The extension invokes students’ practice in genuine intercultural interaction Teacher C: if I have enough time, I will apply the two Reflections and extension last steps in the coming school year If the lesson are more likely to be content is suitable for teaching cultures, I will apply maintained all of the steps of IcLLT to help the students get used to a new way of learning Teacher E: IcLLT includes cultural objectives; but in usual classes, this is an extension part presented by the teachers However, there is a difference between what is being presented by the teachers and selfconstructed by the students through critical questions If the teacher presents an educational lesson, the students listen but we are not sure whether they understand or not If the students can draw out their own lesson, they understand it Students actively constructed their own IC to achieve intercultural objectives Suggestions for the extension of the IcLLT implementation Teacher C: I think the students should be introduced The students should be with this model earlier to get used to its activities oriented with learning They need time to build up their learning habits I strategies think we need to instruct them on how to work in each step how to search for related recourses Teacher E: As long as the activities were at the The reasoning ability and students’ reasoning ability and language level, it will language level of the be OK students was important 203 OUTPUTS OF DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS SUPPORTING QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Table 4.1 Teachers’ beliefs, perceived practices, and practices Descriptive Statistics Clusters N Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Mean Aa * 101 2.50 5.00 4.27 48927 Mean Ab ** 101 2.29 5.00 3.82 44703 Mean B *** 101 1.63 3.75 2.76 46517 Valid N (listwise) 101 Notes: (*) Aa: Teachers’ beliefs (**) Ab: Teachers’ perceived practices (***) B: Teachers’ practices Between-groups ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square Between Groups 150.362 50.121 Within Groups 130.485 400 326 Total 280.847 403 204 F 153.644 Sig .000 Table 4.2 Correlations between teachers’ beliefs, perceived practices, and practices Mean of cluster Aa Mean of cluster Ab 606** 346** 000 000 101 101 101 606** 407** Mean of Pearson cluster Aa Correlation Sig (2-tailed) N Mean of Pearson cluster Ab Correlation Mean of cluster B Mean of cluster B Sig (2-tailed) 000 N 101 101 101 346** 407** Sig (2-tailed) 000 000 N 101 101 Pearson Correlation 000 101 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) Table 4.3 Teachers' beliefs about intercultural integration objectives Items N Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation A1 A2 A6 A8 Valid N (listwise) 101 101 101 101 101 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.53 4.21 4.18 4.15 60933 71560 82113 71739 205 Table 4.4 Teachers’ perceived practices of intercultural integration Items N Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation A3 101 1.00 5.00 4.00 74833 A5 101 1.00 5.00 3.98 72084 A7 101 1.00 5.00 3.86 86058 A9 101 1.00 5.00 3.70 74222 A10 101 1.00 5.00 3.68 83583 A11 101 1.00 5.00 3.94 69024 A12 101 2.00 5.00 3.55 76779 Valid N 101 (listwise) 206 Table 4.5 Mean scores of teachers’ intercultural integrating practices Items N Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation B1 101 3.00 5.00 3.48 59320 B2 101 2.00 5.00 3.59 55097 B3 101 3.00 5.00 3.72 53139 B4 101 1.00 4.00 3.27 63073 B5 101 1.00 5.00 3.08 91305 B6 101 1.00 5.00 2.58 79079 B7 101 1.00 4.00 2.68 72015 B8 101 1.00 4.00 2.42 82786 B9 101 1.00 4.00 1.57 80432 B10 101 1.00 4.00 1.88 88642 B11 101 1.00 5.00 3.17 81326 B12 101 1.00 5.00 3.36 74275 B13 101 1.00 4.00 2.8 82546 B14 101 1.00 4.00 2.52 83203 B15 101 1.00 5.00 2.42 85167 B16 101 1.00 4.00 1.62 79814 Valid N 101 (listwise) 207 Table 4.6 Factors contributing to the practices of integrating culture into EFL teaching ANOVA Impact of teachers’ teaching experience (based on coursebook teaching) on their intercultural teaching practices Sum of Squares Between Groups df Mean Square 076 076 Within Groups 21.562 99 218 Total 21.638 100 F Sig (p) 351 555 ANOVA Impact of teachers’ international experience on their intercultural teaching practices Sum of Squares Between Groups df 323 Within Groups 21.315 99 Total 21.638 100 Mean Square F 1.501 323 Sig (p) 223 215 ANOVA Impact of teachers’ educational degree on their intercultural teaching practices Sum of Squares Between Groups df Mean Square 944 944 Within Groups 20.694 99 209 Total 21.638 100 Note: * p
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