SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF VERBS OF POSSESSION IN ENGLISH AND IN VIETNAMSE

65 15 0
  • Loading ...
1/65 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 17/09/2019, 23:22

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY TRAN THI THU HANG SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF VERBS OF POSSESSION IN ENGLISH AND IN VIETNAMSE (ĐẶC ĐIỂM CÚ PHÁP VÀ NGỮ NGHĨA CÁC ĐỘNG TỪ DIỄN ĐẠT SỞ HỮU TRONG TIẾNG ANH TƢƠNG VÀ TIẾNG VIỆT) M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Hanoi, 2018 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY TRAN THI THU HANG SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF VERBS OF POSSESSION IN ENGLISH AND IN VIETNAMSE (ĐẶC ĐIỂM CÚ PHÁP VÀ NGỮ NGHĨA CÁC ĐỘNG TỪ DIỄN ĐẠT SỞ HỮU TRONG TIẾNG ANH TƢƠNG VÀ TIẾNG VIỆT) M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Supervisor : Dr DANG NGOC HUONG Hanoi, 2018 STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF VERBS OF POSSESSION IN ENGLISH AND IN VIETNAMSE submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except where the reference is indicated, no other person‟s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis Approved by SUPERVISOR (Signature and full name) Date:…………………… Ha noi, 2018 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Objectives of the study 1.3 Research questions 1.4 Methods of the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Significance of the Study 1.7 Design of the study Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Previous studies 2.2 Theoretical background 2.2.1 Overview of syntax 2.2.2 Overview of semantics 12 2.3 An overview of English Verb 14 2.3.1 Stative verbs 16 2.3.2 Dynamic verbs 17 2.4 Verbs of possession in English and their Vietnamese equivalents 18 2.4.1 An overview of possession in English 18 2.4.2 A brief description of verbs denoting possession in Vietnamese 19 2.5 Summary of the chapter 20 Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY 21 3.1 Research methods 21 3.2 Subjects 22 3.3 Research procedure 22 3.4 Data collecting instruments and analysis 23 3.4.1 Summary of findings 23 3.4.2 Discussions about findings 24 3.5 Summary of the chapter 30 Chapter 4: POSSESSIVE VERBS IN ENGLISH AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS IN VIETNAMESE 31 4.1 The syntactic features of POSS-verbs and their Vietnamese equivalents 31 4.1.1 The verb TO HAVE 31 4.1.2 The verb TO OWN 32 4.1.3 The verb TO POSSESS 33 4.1.4 The verb TO BELONG TO 34 4.1.5 Syntactic comparison between POSS-verbs in English and their Vietnamese equipvalents 34 4.2 The semantic features of POSS-verbs and their Vietnamese equivalents 35 4.2.1 The verb TO HAVE 35 4.2.2 The verb TO OWN 37 4.2.3 The verb TO POSSESS 38 4.2.4 The verb TO BELONG TO 39 4.2.5 Semantic comparison between POSS-verbs in English and their Vietnamese equipvalents 40 4.3 Suggestions for learning POSS-verbs for Vietnamese learners of English 40 4.3.1 Suggestions for teaching POSS-verbs for Vietnamese learners of English 40 4.3.2 Suggestion on improving grammar points related to POSS-verbs 41 4.3.4 Suggestions for translating POSS-verbs for Vietnamese learners of English 43 4.4 Summary of the chapter 44 Chapter 5: CONCLUSION 45 5.1Summary of Findings 45 5.2Concluding remarks 45 5.3Recommendation for further study 47 REFERENCES 48 APPENDICES 52 LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 The common types of English verbs 16 Table 2.2 Vietnamese verb types according to Le Dinh Tu 19 Table 3.1 Common errors made by English learners when using POSS-verbs 23 Table 4.1 Summary of the Semantic Features of TO HAVE (as a POSS-verb) 36 Table 4.2 Vietnamese Translational Equivalents of TO HAVE 37 Table 4.3 Vietnamese Translational Equivalents of TO OWN 38 Table 4.4 Summary of the Semantic Features of TO POSSESS 39 Table 4.5 Vietnamese Translational Equivalents of TO POSSESS 39 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4.1 The Schema of the Sentences with Have 31 Figure 4.2 The Core Image-Schema of Have (Tanaka et al 1989:215) 35 ABSTRACT In English studies, there have been a great number of books and research works on possessive case in English and on English expressions of possession so far However, the analysis of verbs expressing possession: to have; to own; to possess and to belong to in particular is barely touched upon This thesis aims to describe and analyze on the grammatical structures and semantic characteristics of those verbs in comparision with their Vietnamese equivalents By employing a number of qualitative research methods: the descriptive method, the comparative method and survey methods, the thesis has found out the basic syntactic and semantic features of English verbs of possession, the similarities and differences between them with their Vietnamese equivalents The author has detected some common mistakes in using and translating the verbs to have; to own; to possess and to belong to Vietnamese learners of English may make Based on the language theory and practical experiences of the writer as an English teacher, this thesis would draw out some solutions for avoiding making mistakes in teaching, learning and translating these possession verbs Some practical suggestions to amend the situation will also be proposed This study expects to contribute, to some extent, to further colouring the language learning picture by adding some findings and analyses in the verbs denoting possession Furthermore, this thesis also proposes some comparison with the Vietnamese equivalents of verbs denoting possession, which is helpful for learning and translating those words in context Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale According to Gentner in 1982 when he considered all parts of a sentence in general, it is the verb that has a tendency to be hypothesized to be the semantic variant in linguistics The verbs to describe the state of possession are of no exception However, since there are a number of findings and research on expression of possession in particular; this thesis will extend the scope to how the semantic variant in linguistics of expression possession express itself in the form of verbs, nouns and clauses and have some comparison with their equivalent in Vietnamese Apart from discovering the semantic differences in a variety way to express possession in English, this thesis also put an emphasis on the grammatical structure and semantic characteristics in a wide range of words to have an insight into the internal organization of both literal and figurative meaning of expression of possession Linguistic characteristics should never be the mere factor to be taken into account when the writer works on this thesis Apart from the observation of linguistic characteristics, the writer also puts her focus on the clarification of the field in sociology with the comparison between English expression of possession and its equivalent in Vietnamese It has been recorded that there are no precedent hypotheses on the interaction between the semantic structure of expression of possession and the ecological context in which the expression is used between Vietnamese and English Hence, it is important to emphasize on this thesis‟s new finding on a concrete relationship between the cultural factors and linguistics ones related to varying ways to express possession in English and Vietnamese The issues between grammatical form and lexical meaning of any English expression are always such a challenge for both language students and experts in the field Although words and clause to express the state of possessing lying in one of the most common expression used in English speaking countries (de Leon, 2001), there are still a number of mistakes in usage due to different meaning that the expression carries and multiple ways to express it There are two common problems The first one is making mistakes when using the expression of possession whose meaning is different from what one wants to express The second one is choosing the expression of possession which has two meanings or more that can be applied in the immediate context Other than the nature of the complex relationship between semantic structure and meaning, it is the confusion of the speaker itself that is at fault Therefore, this thesis is necessary in the sense that it could help English speakers, especially those who are using English as a second language, to have an insight into the meaning and usage of expression of possession in order to decide the exact words they need to use In the scope of the thesis, it will be useful particularly to Vietnamese learners of English In recent time, with the increasing popularity of internet and its helpful services, people are joining a communication net at a global level with a constant use of English However, it is still difficult for English speakers when they have to choose appropriate words to apply in the immediate context in order to exactly transfer their thought and feelings from their mother tongue to English and vice versa While Vietnamese language seems to focus on the verb, English has tendency to put an emphasis on nouns and noun phrases (McDonough, C et al, 2011) While there has been studies on expression of possession in noun phrase, its aspect of verb phrase and clause remains virtually untouched Thus in this writing, the author would broaden her research by not only studying the expression of possession in nouns but also considering it in verbs in both English and Vietnamese While there is a wide range of ways to express possession, this thesis would focus on three specific ways which are the three verbs “TO HAVE”, “TO OWN”, “TO POSSESS” Throughout this writing, the author would refer to these three focused as POSS-verb Being aware of other alternatives such as compound possessive (example: “The Queen castle”) and the double possessive (example: “the castle of the Queen‘s”), the clinic “‟S” and the possessive word “OF” the author recommends reading work of Koptjevskaja-Tamm and Payne to study more about these alternatives As in other Germanic languages, English offers its speakers a number of ways to express the state of possessing something The issue here is to determine the factors that have the most substantial influence on the speaker‟s choices of ways to expression the state of possessing In other words, what is being mentioned at the moment is the preferred word order that a language speaker would choose In English and many other languages, the length of the constituents of a word or a phrase may have a great effect on what the word order would be The same thing is applicable to clausal word order According to “Expression of possession in English: The significance of the right edge” (Borjars, K et al, 2013) in a model that has a random variable, parts of knowledge of grammar of the native speakers are attributed to be formed by these preferences To advocate this statement, people can look at the fact that some languages categorize the same weight constraint but in other languages, it only represents preferences A wealth of literature relevant to this matter can be easily found The work of Givón in 1979 is an early study in this field Other more recent works are Bresnan, Dingare & Manning in 2001, Bresnan & Nikitina in 2009, Bresnan & Ford in 2010 and Wasow in 2002 Tendencies relating to the distribution of POSS-S in English parallel categorical grammaticality in other languages Therefore, it is safe to say that there are various factors affecting the choice of speakers when they have to consider among “TO HAVE”, “TO OWN”, “TO POSSESS”, “S” and “OF” In the scope of this thesis, the author would rely on convincing reasoning and document base to propose feasible factors From that, the author would draw out some suggestions to help Vietnamese learners of English improve their proficiency in this particular matter On account of all the aforementioned reasons, the author has decided on the topic for her thesis as “Syntactic and semantic features of verbs of possession in English and in Vietnamese” The thesis is aimed at syntactically and semantically analyzing English expression of possession (POSS-verbs) with their Vietnamese equivalents With the explanation about the language characteristics as well as recommendation on expression of possession in English, the thesis is also expected to offer Vietnamese users of English with better understanding of appropriate application of words, phrases and clauses to expression possession and comprehensive insight to usage of these words for an effective and correct translation 1.2 Objectives of the study The aim of this thesis, as suggested from the tittle, is to analyze the syntactic and semantic features of English expressions of possession (POSS-verbs) with reference to their Vietnamese equivalents so that Vietnamese users and translators can draw out meaningful implications to apply those expressions in an effective and correct way To achieve the aforementioned objectives, this study focuses on the following goals:  Analyzing the syntactic features of poss-verbs in English with reference to their Vietnamese equivalents Chapter 5: CONCLUSION 5.1 Summary of Findings The author has recapitulated students‟ common errors when using POSSverbs In terms of grammar errors related to verb tenses and structure, there are four common types which are Subject-Verb Agreement Errors, Verb Tense Errors, Verb Form Errors and Sentence Structure Errors Regarding vocabulary errors related to word choice, there are Word Form Errors and Word Choice Errors When it comes to translation errors related to meanings of words in English and Vietnamese, there are Context and style errors and Word choice errors The thesis brings some suggestion about the causes of students‟ common errors when using POSS-verbs First, with causes of grammar errors related to verb tense form, the reason is probably because English learners merely focus on the meaning of each word in the sentence without being aware that each English word in a sentence must be in line with others in terms of English grammar In addition, the nature of Vietnamese grammar does not require Vietnamese speakers to conjugate the main verb to be compatible with the subject For errors in word choice, those students may choose synonyms without paying attention to the context These problems have a high chance to be the consequences of inappropriate teaching and learning methods that the students have experienced in which learners are taught the different usages of POSS-verbs separately For errors in translation, it might have its root from students‟ unfamiliarity with targeted language, cultural context and translating skills 5.2 Concluding remarks It is concluded that the POSS-verbs themselves (TO HAVE, TO OWN, TO POSSESS and TO BELONG TO in particular) can be generalized as holding a wide range of meanings and usages in both English and Vietnamese Furthermore, in many other cases, these POSS-verbs can combine with other words to form different lexicon-grammatical structures to manifest various meanings In terms of syntactic aspect, in the capacity of the analysis in this work, except TO BELONG TO being an intransitive verb, the three other POSS-verbs are transitive ones, calling for direct objects All POSS-verbs are stative verbs in English and all of their Vietnamese equivalents are verbs of existential in Vietnamese One difference of POSS-verbs and their Vienamese equivalents would be about progressive tense POSS-verbs in English are never used in the progressive 45 tenses but their translational words in Vietnameese can be added adverb “đang” frontwards to illustrate a continuous or unfinished action Apart from conveying the tense, “đang” also modifies the mood and attitude of the speech With regard to semantic aspect, it is reasonable for the author to claim that differences in meaning between English POSS-verbs and Vietnamese equivalents are not great In addition, the choice of these four English POSS-verbs, which include TO HAVE, TO OWN, TO POSSESS and TO BELONG TO is based not only on the semantic meanings but also on the special relation between Subjects and Objects and especially the usages in that immediate situation to decide which word is suitable to transfer the idea However, it is agreed that each POSS-verb in English can easily find its equivalent in Vietnamese that contains its core meaning, thanks to the diversity of Vietnamese Analzying syntactic and sementic features of POSS-verbs and Vietnamese equivalents requires the author to a survey on the students aged ranging from 16 years old to 18 years old at intermediate level at Le Quy Don High School.This survey includes test questions and translation tasks which are done in test papers Descriptive statistics and figures from the survey enable the author to detect two types of common errors on verb tenses and word choices in using POSS-verbs Causes of those errors and some solutions to amend the situation and consolidate student‟s knowledge have been carefully delivered It is recommended that both learners and teachers make their medthods of learning and teaching more connected and coherent to the whole picture of usages and meanings of POSS-verbs It is also critical that the learners have to focus on self-study and finding personal effective learning methods It would be much more beneficial if they invest time in investigating carefully the source language text, doing analysis of it, and then looking for the equivalent way in which the same message is expressed naturally in the receptor‟s language At that time their proficiency in English language will become more and more adequate and appreciate, making them competent users of English Additionally, it is worth remembering that literalisms and word-by-word translation should be avoided when it comes to idiomatic expressions in receptor‟s language text A sensible learner would be able to read between the lines and comprehend the real meaning 46 5.3 Recommendation for further study In this paper the researcher attempts to analyze English POSS-verbs and their Vietnamese equivalents in terms of syntactic and semantic features Despite the author‟s effort to cover the related areas, there are still shortcomings that have been mentioned in the previous part Each facet of the weaknesses in the study bears further investigation whose unaddressed questions can become an object of scrutiny for other researchers Most obviously, other than verbs denoting possession; expressions, nouns and clauses that expressing possession can be analyzed The next aspect would be about pragmatic features of verbs denoting possession These facets, when studied, will speak to how the programmatic view cited above can become increasingly empirically grounded 47 REFERENCES IN ENGLISH: 1) Alexander, L.G 1994 Right Word Wrong Word: Words and Structures Confused and Misused by Learners of English Longman English grammar series 2) Ando, S (2005) Gendai Eibunpou Kougi [Lectures on Modern English Grammar.] Tokyo: Kaitakusha 3) Baker, J (1992) Swedish verbs of perception from a typological and contrastive perspective In Gómez-González, M A., Mackenzie, J L., & Álvarez, E M (Eds.), Languages and cultures in contrast and comparison (pp 123-172) Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 4) Bendix, E.H 1966 Componential analysis of general vocabulary: the semantic structure of a set of verbs in English, Hindi, and Japanese The Hague: Mouton 5) Biber, D., Stig J., Geoffrey,L., Susan C.,and Edward F., 1999.Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English Harlow: Pearson Education Limited 6) Biber (1998) Seven major semantic domains of verbs, 45-46 7) Borjars, K., Denison, D., Krajewski, G and Scott, A (2013) Expression of possession in English: The significance of the right edge English Language and Linguistics 8) Carroll, Lewis 1865 Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 9) Carroll, Lewis Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Alice in Mirrorland (Vietnamese Translation by Le Thi Oanh) Literature Publishing House 2016 10) De Leon, L (2001) Finding the richest path: Language and cognition in the acquisition of verticality in Tzotzil (Mayan) In M Bowerman & S C Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development (pp 544–565) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 11) Eastwood, J (1994), Oxford Guide to English Grammar Oxford: Oxford University press 12) Enfield, N.J 2003 Linguistic epidemiology Semantics and grammar of language contact in mainland Southeast Asia London & New York: Routledge Curzon 13) English-English-Vietnamese Dictionary (2008) Hong Duc Publishing House 14) Frank, Marcella 1972 Modern English: A Practice Reference Guide: New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc 48 15) Fujiwara, T., Akahane, Y., Wakibuchi, R., Hayano, Y., Hanazaki, M., Hanazaki, K (2014) An analysis of causative verbs Have from the cognitive linguistic as well as the contrastive linguistics perspective, Shinishu University Graduate School Hawaii University International Conferences Arts, Humanities & Social Sciences 4-5-6/1/2014 16) Gentner, D (1982) Why nouns are learned before verbs: Linguistic relativity versus natural partitioning In S Kuczaj (Ed.), Language development: Language, cognition, and culture (pp 301–334) Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum 17) George A Miller 1990 WordNet: An online lexical database International Journal of Lexicography 18) Geoffrey N, Leech (1981) Semantics: The Study of Meaning A pelican original Edition Penguin education 19) Heine, B 1997 Possession Cognitive sources, forces, and grammaticalization Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 20) Hopper, Paul J., Thompson, Sandra A (1980) Transitivity in Grammar and Discourse Language 21) Hopper, Paul J (2000), A short course in grammar New York: W W Norton 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) & Company Huddleston, J and Pullum,B (2002) Semantics: A Coursebook UK: Cambridge University Press Joos, D (1964) Introducing linguistics London: Penguin Lauren Posey (2015) Stative Verbs: Definition & Examples UK: Cambridge University Press Levin, B., (1993) English Verb Classes and Alternations Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press Lyons, J (1977) Language Arts & Disciplines Cambridge University Press 27) London, Jack (1903) The Call of the Wild 28) London, Jack (1903) The Call of the Wild (Vietnamese Translation by Nguyen Cong Ai and Vu Tuan Phuong) Labor Publishing House 29) Lyons, J (1977) Language Arts & Disciplines Cambridge University Press 30) Maclin, A (1992) Reference Guide to English- A Handbook of English as a Second Language The Office of English Language Programs, US Department of State 31) Moot, R., Retore, C (2012) The Logic of Categorial Grammars, LNCS 6850 49 32) Miller, G.A & P Johnson-Laird 1976 Language and perception Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 33) Mitchell, Margaret (1936) Gone With The Wind Macmillan Publisher House London 34) Mitchell, Margaret Gone With The Wind (Vietnamese Translation by Duong Tuong) Literature Publishing House.1987-1988 35) Neurbert (1999) The Practice of Critical Discourse Analysis: An Introduction, 3rd ed Hodder Arnold 36) Newman, J (1996) Give A cognitive linguistic study Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter 37) Newman, J.(ed.) 1997 The linguistics of giving Amsterdam: Benjamins - (ed.) 2002 The linguistics of sitting, standing, and lying Amsterdam: Benjamins - (ed.) 2009 The linguistics of eating and drinking Amsterdam: Benjamins 38) Quirk, Randolph, S Greenbaum, G Leech, and J Svartvik 1985.A comprehensive grammar of the English language London: Longman 39) Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary 7th Edition Oxford University Press 40) Quirk, Randolph, S Greenbaum, G Leech, and J Svartvik 1985.A comprehensive grammar of the English language London: Longman 41) Stassen, L 2009 Predicative possession Oxford: Oxford University Press 42) Tanaka S and S Kawade (1989) Doushi-ga Wakareba Eigo-ga Wakaru [Understanding Verbs is Understanding English.] Tokyo: Japan Times 43) Van der Meer, G 1994 “Verbs of perception and their complementation” English studies, 75, 468-480 44) Viberg, Å 1981 Studier i kontrastiv lexikologi (Studies in contrastive lexicology In Swedish) Ph.D dissertation SSM Report 7-8 Dept of linguistics, Stockholm University - 2002a Polysemy and disambiguation cues across languages The case of Swedish få and English get In : Altenberg, B & S Granger (eds.), 119-150 - 2006a Towards a lexical profile of the Swedish verb lexicon In : Viberg, Å (guest ed.) The typological profile of Swedish Thematic issue of Sparachtypologie und Universalienforschung 59(1): 103-129 50 45) Viberg, Å (1984) The verbs of perception: A typological study In Butterworth, B., Comrie, B., & Dahl, O (Eds.), Explanations for Language Universals, (pp 123– 162) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter 46) Viberg, Å (1993) Cross-linguistic perspectives on lexical organization and lexical progression In Hyltenstam, K., &Viberg, Å (Eds.), Progression and Regression in Language: Sociocultural, Neuropsychological and Linguistic Perspectives (pp 340-379) Cambridge, UK: University Press 47) Yatsko, Tatiana/Yatsko, Viatcheslav (2012): "The category of possession The restrictive approach" In: 48) Yule, G (2010) The study of language (4th ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press IN VIETNAMESE 49) Duc, N.T.H (2005) English Spatial Verbs and their Vietnamese Equivalents 50) Ban, D.Q (2005) Ngữ Pháp tiếng Việt Education Publishing House 51) Hanh, L.T.M (2006) A Study of Semantic and Syntactic Features of Motion Verbs in English and Their Vietnamse Equivalents 52) Hanh, T.T.P (2002) Semantic Features and Syntactic Relations Realised by 53) 54) 55) 56) Say -Tell -Speak –Talk Mai, N.T (2008) An investigation into Linguistic Features of the English Verbs „Carry‟, „Bring‟, „Take‟ in English and their Vietnamese Translational Equivalents Tam, H.V.C (2004) A study on Semantic features of state related vers in English and their Vietnamese equivalents expressions Than, N.K (1989) The formation of Vietnamese verbs and their classification Thuyet, N.M (1995) Các tiền phó từ thời, thể tiếng Việt Linguistics Magazine No.2/1995 57) Trung, N.L (2013), A research on Vietnamese nominal phrase 58) Tu, L.D (2009), Nhập môn ngôn ngữ học Social Science Publishing House Hanoi 51 APPENDICES TEST QUESTIONS I/ Identify whether the form of poss- verbs in the sentences below is correct (C) or incorrect (I) as in the example (0) I have a house (C / I ) What sort of car are you having? (C / I) Don‟t talk to your father while he is having a shave He‟ll cut himself (C / I) I must get a ticket I don’t own (C / I) I must draw some money I don’thad any (C / I) She possess three children I am not possessing a single DVD (C / I) (C / I) Who belongs to this land? Do you rent your house or you own? Do you have a job yet? 10 Are you having a driving licence? (C / I) (C / I) (C / I) (C / I) II/ Translation I English Text Extracts: Extract 1: Here is an extract from Chapter of Alice‘s Adventures in Wonderland written by Lewis Carroll, published in 1916 Read both English and Vietnamese versions and then translate the underline sentence into Vietnamese: a Extract from Chapter of Alice‟s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll: [ She was looking about for some way of escape, and wondering whether she could get away without being seen, when she noticed a curious appearance in the air: it puzzled her very much at first, but after watching it a minute or two she made it out to be a grin, and she said to herself, ―It‘s the Cheshire Cat: now I shall have somebody to talk to.‖ ―How are you getting on?‖ said the Cat, as soon as there was mouth enough for it to speak with Alice waited till the eyes appeared, and then nodded ―It‘s no use speaking to it,‖ she thought, ―till its ears have come, or at least one of them.‖ In another minute the whole head appeared, and then Alice put down her flamingo, and began an account of the game, feeling very glad she had someone to listen to her The Cat seemed to think that there was enough of it now in sight, and no more of it appeared 52 ―I don‘t think they play at all fairly,‖ Alice began, in rather a complaining tone, ―and they all quarrel so dreadfully one can‘t hear one‘s-self speak—and they don‘t seem to have any rules in particular At least, if there are, nobody attends to them—and you‘ve no idea how confusing it is all the things being alive; for instance, there‘s the arch I ‘ve got to go through next walking about at the other end of the ground—and I should have croqueted the Queen‘s hedgehog just now, only it ran away when it saw mine coming ! ‖ ] b Vietnamese translated version by Le Thi Oanh, Literature Publishing House: [ Cơ nhìn quanh để tìm cách khỏi băn khoăn khơng biết có bị nhìn thấy chạy trốn khơng lúc nhận hình bóng kì lạ xuất không trung Thoạt đầu cô ngạc nhiên sau vài phút nhìn kỹ, nhận nụ cười ―Chính mèo Cheshire! Thế có người để trò chuyện rồi!‖ Alice vui mừng nghĩ - Cô rồi? - Mèo hỏi sau miệng vừa đủ để nói Alice chờ đôi mắt mèo xuất gật đầu, cô nghĩ: ―Thật cơng nói chuyện với mà tai chưa xuất dù cái.‖ Chờ thêm phút đầu mèo đầy đủ Alice đặt hồng hạc xuống bắt đầu kể lại chơi cho mèo Cheshire nghe Cơ cảm thấy vui có người nghe nói Hình mèo cho cần đầu xuất đủ, chẳng cần phải người lên - {The sentence needs translating into Vietnamese} Và có chẳng tn thủ Bạn khơng thể hình dung chơi rối loạn mà tất dụng cụ chơi vật sống Thí dụ, hình vòng cung cuối sân đằng kìa, lẽ tơi đánh bóng, tức nhím vào rồi, lại chạy thấy bóng tơi, tức nhím, lăn đến! ] c Your translation: Extract 2: Here is an extract from Chapter of Gone With The Wind written by Margaret Mitchell, published in 1936 Read both English and Vietnamese versions and then translate the underlined sentence into Vietnamese: 53 a Extract from Chapter of Gone With The Wind by Margaret Mitchell: [ His mind was made up that he was not going to spend all of his days, like James and Andrew, in bargaining, or all his nights, by candlelight, over long columns of figures He felt keenly, as his brothers did not, the social stigma attached to those ―in trade.‖ Gerald wanted to be a planter With the deep hunger of an Irishman who has been a tenant on the lands his people once had owned and hunted, he wanted to see his own acres stretching green before his eyes With a ruthless singleness of purpose, he desired his own house, his own plantation, his own horse, his own slaves And here in this new country, safe from the twin perils of the land he had left—taxation that ate up crops and barns and the ever-present threat of sudden confiscation—he intended to have them But having that ambition and bringing it to realization weretwo different matters, he discovered as time went by Coastal Georgia was too firmly held by an entrenched aristocracy for him ever to hope towin the place he intended to have Then the hand of Fate and a hand of poker combined to give him the plantation which he afterwards called Tara, and at the same time moved him out of the Coast into the upland country of north Georgia ] b Vietnamese translated version by Duong Tuong, Literature Publishing House: [ Anh định không theo hai anh James Andrew, bỏ đời vào công việc kinh doanh, đêm cặm cụi với dãy dài số ánh nến Khác với anh trai, anh cảm thấy sâu sắc dấu chàm mà xã hội khắc lên trán kẻ hoạt động ―trong thương trường‖ Gerald muốn làm tá điền chủ {The sentence needs translating into Vietnamese}.Với tâm mãnh liệt theo đuổi mục đích nhất, anh khao khát có nhà riêng, đồn điền riêng, ngựa riêng, nô lệ riêng Và đây, vùng đất này, thoát khỏi hai nguy đất nước anh rời bở: thuế má ngốn hết mùa màng, gia súc mối đe dọa thường trực lúc bị tịch thu đột ngột – anh chí đạt mục tiêu Song với thời gian trôi qua, anh vỡ nhẽ tham vọng chuyện, thực tham vọng lại chuyện khác Miền Duyên hải Georgia tầng lớp thượng lưu cố thủ vững vàng, khiến anh khó có hy vọng chiếm vị trí nhắm khe vươn tới 54 Thế rồi, số phận kết hợp với poker đem lại cho anh đồn điền mà sau anh gọi ấp Tara, đồng thời khiến anh rời miền Duyên hải để chuyển lên vùng cao bắc Georgia ] c Your translation: Extract 3: Here is an extract from Chapter of The Call of the Wild written by Jack London, published in 1903 Read both English and Vietnamese versions and then translate the underlined sentence into Vietnamese: a Extract from Chapter of The Call of the Wild by Jack London: [ Spitz was untouched, while Buck was streaming with blood and panting har The fight was growing desperate And all the while the silent and wolfish circle waited to finish off whichever dog went down As Buck grew winded, Spitz took to rushing, and he kept him staggering for footing Once Buck went over, and the whole circle of sixt ydogs started up; but he recovered himself, almost in mid air, and the circle sank down again and waited But Buck possessed a quality that made for greatness – imagination He fought by instinct, but he could fight by head as well He rushed, as though attempting the old shoulder trick, but at the last instant swept low to the snow and in His teeth closed on Spitz‘s left fore leg Thre was a crunch of breaking bone, and the white dog faced him on three leg Thrice he tried to know him over, then repeated the tric and broke the right fore leg Despite the pain and helplessness, Spitz struggled madly to keep up He saw the silent circle, with gleaming eyes, lolling tongues, and silvery breaths drifting upward, closing in upon him as he had seen similar circles close in upon beaten antagonists in the past Only this time he was the one who was beaten ] b Vietnamese translated version by Nguyen Cong Ai and Vu Tuan Phuong, Labor Publishing House: [ Thấy Bấc kiệt lực dần, Xpít bắt đầu chuyển sang cơng, lao vào tới tấp, làm Bấc phải loạng choạng để tìm cách trụ lại đứng thẳng lần Bấc bị hất nhào, tồn vòng tròn 60 vật vội trườn tới Nhưng Bấc trụ 55 lại bị hất bổng lên khơng trung, vòng tròn lại rụt lại chờ đợi {The sentence needs translating into Vietnamese} Nó chiến đấu chiến đấu trí Nó xơng đến, làm vẻ định dùng miếng đòn hất vai trước, đến giây lát cuối rạp xuống thấp sát mặt tuyết lao vào hai hàm bập vào chân trước bên trái Xpít tiếng xương gãy giòn đánh rắc Thơi chó trắng có chân bám trụ để đối đầu với Ba lần Bấc cố tìm cách hất ngã hắn, Bấc gặp lại mưu mẹo nghiến gãy chân trước bên phải Xpít Mặc dù đau đớn hết phương cứu vãn, Xpít vùng vẫy điên cuồng để giữ cho khỏi đổ Hắn nhìn thấy vòng tròn thú lặng ngắt, với cặp mắt sáng ngời, lưỡi thè dài, giải thở đọng lại màu ánh bạc lững lờ bốc lên, vòng tròn khép dần, sán lại gần y nhìn thấy vòng tròn giống khép dần lại quanh địch thủ bị đánh bại trước Duy có lần kẻ bị đánh bại ] c Your translation: Extract 4: Here is an extract from Chapter of The Great Gatsby written by F Scott Fitzgerald, published in 1925 Read both English and Vietnamese versions and then translate the underlined sentence into Vietnamese: a Extract from Chapter of The Great Gatsby by F Scott Fitzgerald: [ I was bridesmaid I came into her room half an hour before the bridal dinner, and found her lying on her bed as lovely as the June night in her flowered dress—and as drunk as a monkey She had a bottle of sauterne in one hand and a letter in the other ‘ ‗Gratulate me,‘ she muttered ‗Never had a drink before but oh, how I enjoy it.‘ ‗What‘s the matter, Daisy?‘ I was scared, I can tell you; I‘d never seen a girl like that before 56 ‗Here, dearis.‘ She groped around in a waste-basket she had with her on the bed and pulled out the string of pearls ‗Take them downstairs and give them back to whoever they belong to Tell ‗em all Daisy‘s change‘ her mine Say ‗Daisy‘s change‘ her mine!‘ ] b Vietnamese translated version by Hoang Cuong, Literature Publishing House: [ Em phù dâu Em vào phòng Daisy trước tiệc cưới nửa giờ, thấy nàng nằm dài giường, đẹp đêm tháng Sáu áo dài hoa, say Một tay Daisy cầm chai rượu vang Sauterne tay cầm thư - Khen chị đi, – Daisy nói, – chị chưa uống rượu đâu nhé, uống ngon ghê - Daisy, chị thế? Thú thật với anh em hoảng Em chưa thấy người gái say đến - Em chị này, – Daisy mò tay vào sọt giấy đặt cạnh người giường lôi chuỗi hạt trai, {The sentence needs translating into Vietnamese}.Bảo với người Daisy đổi ý Bảo Daisy đổi ý ] c Your translation: II English Translation Please translate these following dialogues and sentences from Vietnamese into English: No Dialogues and sentences in Vietnamese - Anh có kiểu đồng hồ vậy? - Tơi có Swiss Bạn tơi có anh trai tơi khơng có Tơi phải rút tiền Tơi khơng đồng Chiếc xe thuộc Your English Translation (Source: Words and structures confused and misused by learners of English, L.G Alexander, translated by Thy Hai) 57 ANSWER KEY FOR TEST QUESTIONS I/ Identify whether the form of POSS-verbs in the sentences below is correct (C) or incorrect (I) as in the example (0) No Sentences Answers What sort of car are you having? Don‟t talk to your father while heis having a shave He‟ll cut himself I C I must get a ticket I don’t own I I must draw some money I don’thad any I She possess three children I I am not possessing a single DVD I Who belongs to this land? I Do you rent your house or you own? I Do you have a job yet? C 10 Are you having a driving licence? I II/ Translation I English text extract: Extract from Chapter of Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll: ―I don‘t think they play at all fairly,‖ Alice began, in rather a complaining tone, ―and they all quarrel so dreadfully one can‘t hear one‘s-self speak—and they don‘t seem to have any rules in particular.‖  Tôi không nghĩ họ chơi đẹp - Alice phàn nàn - Và họ cãi suốt chẳng nghe Hình nhƣ họ chẳng có luật lệ (by Le Thi Oanh, Literature Publishing House) Extract from Chapter of Gone With The Wind by Margaret Mitchell: ―With the deep hunger of an Irishman who has been a tenant on the lands his people once had owned and hunted, he wanted to see his own acres stretching green before his eyes.‖ 58  Với khao khát cháy ruột ngƣời Ireland phải làm tá điền ruộng đất xƣa thuộc quyền sở hữu cha ơng mình, anh muốn đƣợc thấy mẫu đất mình, trải xanh rờn trƣớc mắt (by Duong Tuong, Literature Publishing House) Extract from Chapter of The Call of the Wild by Jack London: ―But Buck possessed a quality that made for greatness – imagination.‖  Tuy nhiên, Bấc lại có đức tính nâng lên tầm vóc lớn: óc sáng tạo (by Nguyen Cong Ai and Vu Tuan Phuong, Labor Publishing House) Extract from Chapter of The Great Gatsby: ―Take them downstairs and give them back to whoever they belong to.‖  Em mang xuống dƣới nhà trả cho chủ (by Hoang Cuong, Literature Publishing House) III English Translation Dialogues and sentences in Vietnamese No - - English Translation Anh có kiểu đồng hồ - What sort of watch you vậy? have? Tơi có Swiss - I have a Swiss Bạn tơi có anh trai tơi khơng My friend has a brother but I don’t có have one/ but I’ve got none Tơi phải rút tiền Tơi khơng I must draw some money I don’t đồng have any Chiếc xe thuộc This vehicle belongs to me (Source: Words and structures confused and misused by learners of English, L.G Alexander, translated by Thy Hai) The end 59 ...MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY TRAN THI THU HANG SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF VERBS OF POSSESSION IN ENGLISH AND IN VIETNAMSE (ĐẶC ĐIỂM CÚ... entitled SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF VERBS OF POSSESSION IN ENGLISH AND IN VIETNAMSE submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except... semantic features of verbs of possession in English and in Vietnamese” The thesis is aimed at syntactically and semantically analyzing English expression of possession (POSS -verbs) with their
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF VERBS OF POSSESSION IN ENGLISH AND IN VIETNAMSE , SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF VERBS OF POSSESSION IN ENGLISH AND IN VIETNAMSE

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn