SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH VERB ‘GET’ WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS IN THE NOVEL ‘VANITY FAIR’ BY w m THACKERAY

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY LÊ BÍCH DIỆP SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH VERB „GET‟ WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS IN THE NOVEL „VANITY FAIR‟ BY W.M.THACKERAY ĐẶC ĐIỂM CÚ PHÁP VÀ NGỮ NGHĨA CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ „GET‟ VÀ TƢƠNG ĐƢƠNG TRONG TIẾNG VIỆT TRONG TÁC PHẨM „HỘI CHỢ PHÙ HOA‟ CỦA W.M THACKERAY M.A Thesis Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Hanoi, 2018 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY Student‟s name: LÊ BÍCH DIỆP Supervisor: Assoc Prof Dr LÊ VĂN THANH SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH VERB „GET‟ WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS IN THE NOVEL „VANITY FAIR‟ BY W.M.THACKERAY ĐẶC ĐIỂM CÚ PHÁP VÀ NGỮ NGHĨA CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ „GET‟ VÀ TƢƠNG ĐƢƠNG TRONG TIẾNG VIỆT TRONG TÁC PHẨM „HỘI CHỢ PHÙ HOA‟ CỦA W.M THACKERAY M.A Thesis Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Hanoi, 2018 STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH VERB „GET‟ WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS IN THE NOVEL „VANITY FAIR‟ BY W.M.THACKERAY submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except where the reference is indicated, no other person‟s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis Hanoi, 2018 Lê Bích Diệp Approved by SUPERVISOR Assoc Prof Dr Lê Văn Thanh Date …………………… i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Assoc Prof Dr Lê Văn Thanh, for his enthusiastic and useful guidance, insightful comment and encouragement without which this thesis would not have been completed My special thanks go to all my lecturers in Faculty of Graduate Studies, Hanoi Open University for their precious assistance, knowledgement and enthusiasm Last but not least, I am greatly indebted to my family, especially my parents and my lover for the sacrifice they have devoted to the fulfillment of this academic work ii ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to investigate the syntactic and semantics features of English verb get with reference to Vietnamese equivalent in the novel “Vanity Fair” by W.M Thackeray The study is aimed at three point: (1) finding the syntactic and semantics features of the verb get with reference to Vietnamese equivalent in the novel “Vanity Fair” by W.M Thackeray, (2) finding the similarities and differences between the verb get in English and their equivalent in Vietnamese and (3) providing some recommendation for the teaching and learning as well as translation of verb get into the target language.This study was designed as a descriptive research with the method of contrastive and componential analysis According to the data analysis, the result of the study show that the verb get coincide in their general meaning However, the verb get in Vietnamese seems to have much more meanings than that in English In practice, the study not only supplies some implications to language teaching, learning as well as translating but also raises language users‟ awareness of the differences between the verb get so that they can use them exactly and be successful in their real life communication in English iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS A Adverbial A P Adverb Phrase Adj Adjective Adj P Adjective Phrase cf compare C Complement Cs Subject Complement Co Object Complement i.e That is E.g Example N Noun NP Noun Phrase O Object Od Direct object Oi Indirect object Prep P Prepositional Phrase S Subject iv V Verb VP Verb Phrase Vtr Transitive phrasal verbs (Vintr) Intransitive phrasal verbs Ø Zero v LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Sentence partern……………… …………………… ………….… p10 Table 2.2 Classification of transitive verb……………… …….………… … p13 Table 2.3 Summary of syntactic feature of verb „get” and their Vietnamese equivalent ………… ………………………………… ….…… …p15 Table 2.4 Summary of syntactic feature of verb „get” and their Vietnamese equivalent……………………………………………… …….……p15 Table 2.5 Summary of syntactic feature of verb „get” and their Vietnamese equivalent………………………………………… ………….……p16 Table 2.6 Summary of syntactic feature of verb „get” and their Vietnamese equivalent……… ………………………………… ………….……p17 Table 2.7 Summary of meaning of verb “get”……………………….… ……p18 vi TABLE OF CONTENT STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iv LIST OF TABLES vi TABLE OF CONTENT vii CHAPTER INTRODUCTION .1 1.1 Rationale for the Study 1.2 Aims and objectives of the study 1.3 Research question 1.4 Scope of the study 1.5 Significance of the Study 1.6 Design of the study CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Previous study .4 2.2 Theoretical background 2.2.1 Theory of syntax 2.2.2 Theory of semantic 2.2.3 Overview of English verb 2.3 Theoretical framework 14 vii 2.3.1 Syntactic feature of verb “get” 14 2.3.2 Semantic feature of verb “get” 18 2.4 Summary .19 CHAPTER METHODOLOGY 21 3.1 Subject 21 3.2 Instruments 21 3.3 Procedure 22 3.4 Statistical analysis .23 3.5 Summary .24 CHAPTER SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH VERB „GET‟ WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS IN THE NOVEL „VANITY FAIR‟ BY W.M.THACKERAY 25 4.1 The syntactic and semantics features of the English verb “Get” with reference to Vietnamese equivalent in the novel “Vanity Fair” by W.M Thackeray .25 4.1.1 Syntactic feature of verb “get” 25 4.1.2 Semantic feature of verb “get” 34 4.2 The similarities and differences between English verb “get” in the novel “Vanity Fair” by W.M Thackeray and their Vietnamese translation versions 40 4.2.1 Similarities 40 4.2.2 Differences .42 4.3 Some recommendation for the teaching and learning as well as translation of verb “Get” into the target language 44 4.4 Summary .47 viii In addition to the six basic groups of meaning, get is sometimes used to denote the act of managing to something or having a chance / opportunity to something, as in: [47] When I did get a chance to go out with her, she was sleepy and didn‟t seem to notice me Khi tơi có dịp với nàng nàng lại uể oải dường khơng ý đến tơi [34:p172] or refer to the ability to understand / remember something, e.g a joke or somebody's point ( informal ): [48] I don't get what you are saying Tơi khơng hiểu ý anh định nói All the examples above can be formulated as follows: English Vietnamese to receive / obtain something đạt, đƣợc, giành đƣợc, kiếm đƣợc to fetch something lấy, kiếm, tìm, bị, mắc phải ( bệnh ) S + V form of get + O to catch illness to use form of transportation , sử dụng ( phƣơng tiện ) to revenge on somebody giết, tóm, bắt, … to buy something mua, kiếm, có, … 39 4.2 The similarities and differences between English verb “get” in the novel “Vanity Fair” by W.M Thackeray and their Vietnamese translation versions 4.2.1 Similarities It is noticeably realized that the English pattern “S + Vget + O” is similar to the Vietnamese one nearly in every way It is due to the polysemantic feature leading to different ways of translating into Vietnamese The two sentences below serve as examples: [1] “Go and get another chair from the kitchen, Tinker, if you want to sit down; and then we‟ll have a bit of supper.” Tinker, mụ muốn lấy thêm ghế bếp đây, ta ăn [25:p128] [2] So he used to get drunk every night: to beat his pretty Rose sometimes: to leave her in Hampshire when he went to London for the parliamentary session, without a single friend in the wide world Bởi đêm lão nốc rượu vang, để lại đánh cô Rosa xinh đẹp lão trận, để bỏ mặc cô Hampshire lẻ loi đời mênh mông, không bạn bè mời lão Luân Đôn họp Quốc hội [25:p155] [3] We‟ll get her a better conveyance Chúng ta kiếm cho chị phương tiện vận chuyển tốt [25:p470] The English pattern “S + Vget + A” approximates to the Vietnamese one Let‟s take a look at these following: [4] „To the health of your master and mistress, Trotter,‟ Mr Sedley said, „and 40 here‟s something to drink your health when you get home, Trotter.‟ Bác Trotter, uống mừng sức khỏe cho ông chủ bà chủ bác Và đây, bác cầm lấy gọi để nhà uống chút rượu cho ấm bụng [25:p506] [5] You give an old fellow no rest until you get there Bà chưa đến chơi có người chưa ăn ngon ngủ n đâu [25:p967] The English pattern “S + Vget + C” rather resemble the Vietnamese one [6] A poor match But Mrs O is getting old, and I saw a great deal of grey in her hair Vả chị Osborne „đang toan già”… em thấy chị có khối tóc sâu [25:p880] [7] Louis the Desired was getting ready his portmanteau in that city, too Louis thứ mười tám soạn sửa tủ áo rời bỏ thành phố [25:p638] [8] „Rawdon is getting very fat and old, Briggs,‟ she said to her companion Bà nói với bà Briggs:”Trơng thằng Rawdon béo già nhiều nhỉ” [25:p498] The pattern “S + Vget + O + O” is quite similar to Vietnamese one According to Nguyen Kim Than, the above Vietnamese sentences use the pattern N1 + V + N2 + N3 in which N1 is the first noun, N2 is the second noun and N3 is the third noun of the sentence and V is the verb of sentence 41 [9] Pay the bills and get me a cigar Trả hóa đơn lấy xì gà cho tơi [25:p137] [10] “Get me a situation—we hate each other, and I am ready to go.” Bà tìm việc làm cho tơi đi…tơi với bà chẳng ưa đâu; tơi sẵn sàng rời bỏ nơi [25:p29] [11] We‟ll get her a better conveyance Chúng ta kiếm cho chị phương tiện vận chuyển tốt [25:p470] [12] His man should get her a coach and go with her Đã có thằng hầu George lo thuê xe ngựa đưa cô thăm nhà [25:p503] [13] Ruined! Fiddlede-dee! I will get you a good place before that; Phá sản! nói chơi thôi: em lo cho anh địa vị tử tế, không sợ! [25:p747] 4.2.2 Differences On the part of the lexical verb get itself, it is monosyllable However, it is tantamount to two-word verb in Vietnamese, such as “biến thành”, “trở nên” or “hóa ra” [14] This last rumor gradually got strength Lời đồn cuối lúc trở nên đáng tin cậy [25:p631] 42 [15] “Pitt‟s got fat, too, and is doing the thing handsomely.” Pitt dạo trở nên phát phì, cơng việc làm ăn khấm [25:p830] Moreover, get in the English structure “S + Vget + C” is normally deleted in the Vietnamese equivalent structure “S + Ø + C” There are some examples to illustrate: [16] “You ain‟t got young,” John said, calmly surveying his friend of former days “Ơng khơng Ø trẻ nhỉ”-Bác John bình thản quan sát ơng bạn cũ [25:p1167] [17] He ain‟t got manners, but there‟s something about him Anh chàng không Ø lịch tay tầm thường đâu [25:p1161] [18] Your friendship for Dives is about as sincere as the return which it usually gets Tình bạn Dives chân thành đáng mức với số tiền Ø [25:p263] Besides, in the English pattern “S + Vget”, get often goes with other particles in phrase verbs, which leads to the different meanings basing on its combination Therefore, it seems impossible to find the Vietnamese equivalents if only focusing on the lexical verb get In this case, the whole phrases should be looked up into a good dictionary when translating into Vietnamese [19] Rebecca easily found a means to get rid of Briggs Rebecca dễ dàng tìm cách trốn bà Briggs 43 [25:p300] [20] „You‟re sure to get us out of the scrape Chắc chắn em tìm cách cho khỏi chỗ bế tắc [25:p300] [21] Get out of my house, you fool, you idiot—you stupid old Briggs—how dare you? Cút hết khỏi nhà tôi, bà đồ ngu, đồ xuẩn Bà Briggs, bà ngu lắm; bà dám ah? [25:p311] 4.3 Some recommendation for the teaching and learning as well as translation of verb “Get” into the target language 4.3.1 Recommendations for teaching English Learners‟ development is not simply concerned with telling them to read more, use their dictionaries, and their homework; and it is not, and should not be treated as, a skill But what more important is the continuous nurturing or self-awareness and self-development in the learners This must be the active responsibility of the teachers It is said that “Learners are afraid of making mistakes Thus, they try to make no mistakes by writing nothing” So, obviously, if the teachers not want to see any of the learners‟ misuse they simply teach nothing The teachers are in charge of studying the learners‟ difficulties not only to find out the causes but also to discover how they learn the verb get, what types of problems they usually make or where they are on the learning progress To deal with situations, some possible recommendation may be suggested as follows: In order to help the learners avoid making mistakes in distinguish intransitive or transitive, separable or inseparable the verb get, the teachers should give learners the suitable exercises concerning about intransitive or transitive separable or inseparable „take‟ phrasal verbs as well as concrete examples, which are carefully analyzed so that the learners can remember and put them into practice As a matter 44 of fact, it could be easier for the learners to remember the verb get by concrete examples in contexts The course book alone is not enough for learners; teachers have to make use of supplementary material to fulfill the learners‟ learning needs and to prepare more exercises for them to practice verb get Reading comprehension can be considered as a very effective way to help learning it with lexical and grammatical components When teaching new words, teachers should introduce not only the meaning of the words but also its phrasal verbs or collocation For example, there is no point in knowing the word make to some extent, but when it goes with get rid of, get into, get out of… it is more useful for students because they know the common combinations of a new word The idea here is that when teaching a new word, teachers should teach some of its most common collocations at the same time It is the role of the teacher to emphasize that they not really “know” the word unless they also know how that word is used We can use these ways to present collocations like listing, making a comparison of collocations of synonyms, using a collocational grid or translation and learners also learn word in chunks, not individual words 4.3.2 Recommendations for learning English As mentioned at the beginning of the study, a large number of English learners have a lot of difficulties when they acquire the biggest component of any language course especially learning vocabulary Because learning vocabulary has not received the recognition it deserves in classroom Or when they make sentence in English they usually apply Vietnamese to interpreting English ones without paying attention to the differences in grammatical and semantic features between the two languages It is clearly that by this way learners have not known yet how to use vocabulary perfectly in different context and they have found difficult to turn the new vocabulary into their long- term memory Therefore, basing on the study, we would like to suggest some useful ways of language learning Learners should be aware of the important role of the verb in understanding their future job‟s documents They ought to stop wasting time on complaining, worrying and being unconfident Without learners‟ internal effort, how could the innovation of teachers‟ methods help improve their studying result? Learners should become 45 more active in every language lesson, participate more in class activities, keep selfteaching and exchanging their knowledge of verb get with other verbs In other words, all of the activities and effort made by the teachers might be in vain if the learners not lend themselves in the activities The learners are the most effective tools that can best propel themselves in learning They must be active in their learning process Once, they see the important role of the verb in their current learning and the future jobs, they will learn it with their enthusiasm and great motivation The more the learners master in the verb get , the more effectively they use Vietnamese equivalents 4.3.3 Recommendations for translation from English to Vietnamese and Vice Versa Translation is a process of interpreting a text either in the form of speech or writing from one language (the source language) into another language (the target language) into an equivalent text To achieve the best translation equivalence, translators must take into account the context of the text, the grammatical rules of the two languages, their writing conventions, their collocations etc In the case of translating the verb get we should attend to the following points : First, to find out the best equivalents for verb get, translators should master all possible semantic features Because the verb get can have differences meanings when translated into Vietnamese and vice versa and in order to know which meaning is suitable, translators should take the context of the text into account Secondly, when translating, translators should consider the meaning the whole expressions Never translate word for word Last but not least, it is thought that for every word and phrase in one language, there is a corresponding word or phrase In fact, it is very difficult to translate Vietnamese collocations into English without loosing any shades of their meanings The translator should be careful about this difference The result of the contrastive analys is done in the previous chapter makes it possible to predict the following errors that Vietnamese students may commit when learning 46 structures with get These errors which mainly relates to word usage are described below Together with the problems, some possible solutions will also be suggested 4.4 Summary This chapter focus on some specifically syntactic and semantics features of verb get in the novel “Vanity Fair” by W.M Thackeray and their equivalent in its translation “Hội chợ phù hoa” translated by Trần Kiệm as well as indicating the similarities and differences between them The two features of verb should be focused are syntactic and semantic ones The syntactic features showing the constitute elements that are used to form the verb, while the semantic features indicate the various meaning of verb in different sentence contexts Besides, the research tries to give some recommendation for the teaching and learning as well as translation of verb get into the target language with the aim to help teachers, learners and translators to know how to use verb get effectively 47 CHAPTER CONCLUSION 5.1 Summary of Findings In the study, the author has studied the following key points: General background of English verbs, which consist of definition defined by different linguistic, classification classified in terms of their function, forms, meaning and especially complementation Syntactic and semantic features of verb get is shown with examples in English and equivalents in Vietnamese In term of syntactic, verb get can be transitive, taking a direct object, or intransitive, without any object Verb get also can be a single verb or verbal phrase In term of semantics, verb get conveys the meaning of receiving / obtainning something, fetching something, catching illness, using form of transportation, revenging on somebody and buying something “Get” phrasal verbs has non-idiomatic, idiomatic meaning as well as metaphoric meanings As verb „Get‟ have specific semantics features, they normally not have exactly equivalent translations in Vietnamese, but there can be found some similar expressions in terms of meaning However, each of their Vietnamese equivalents can show only one kind of those meanings There is not a clear regulation for each structure These findings can lead to the conclusion that different meanings created by one lexeme are caused by different contexts This proves the fact that providing students with meanings of each verb must be clearly given in concrete contexts with proper Vietnamese references The obvious conclusion to be drawn is one where by the questions and goals of this study seem to have been answered in the course of linguistic investigations Especially, the result of this research is also pointed out the similarities and differences of the verb get in English as well as in Vietnamese through the examples collected from the novel “Vanity Fair” and its translation version In sum, it is believed that the research goals have been met, thus contributing to a more insightful understanding of the inner nature of academic spoken English in respect of the usage of the verb get Similarities and differences between verbs of two languages are highlighted via analysis of structures and pattern in which verb get are used, with the help of theory and concepts of English and Vietnamese linguist and grammarians Clear examples in both languages are of great help to make contribution to the analysis of similarities and differences and 48 give some recommendation for the teaching and learning as well as translation of verb get into the target language 5.2 Conclusion In conclusion, based on the theoretical background and the analysis of a huge samples taken from such sources as novels, short stories, dictionary, books, the study has discussed the syntactic and semantic features of verb get, pointed out the similarities and differences between English verb get and their Vietnamese equivalents though the novel “Vanity Fair” and also found out the frequency of these verbs and expressions in different discourses After collecting the data and examining the statistics on the frequency of the verb get, we have the conclusion that the verb get, with difference form, appears 321 times in the novel “Vanity Fair” Syntactically, verb get has the same function as other common English verbs They can be transitive, taking a direct object, or intransitive, without any object and also can be a single verb or verbal phrase, etc Owing to the division and classification of these clause types in English presented by Quirk et al (1972:343), it is convenient to classify structures related to get in terms of clause elements: S, V, O, C, A Therefore, no matter how complex structures related to get are, we can favourably identify to what clause types they belong Within each of these patterns, clear examples in both languages are of great help to make contribution to the analysis of the similarities and differences The classification, analysis and the set-up of fixed formulas related to get also make favourable conditions for learners to grasp the operations of get comprehensively Semantically, the meaning of verb get are very plentiful, it conveys the meaning of get conveys the meaning of receiving / obtainning something, fetching something, catching illness, using form of transportation, revenging on somebody and buying something Besides, there are many cases in which combinations with get must be interpreted idiomatically and each individual meaning depends on the context In the presentation, the following areas have been taken into account: general background of English and Vietnamese verbs as well as verb phrases with the help of theory and concepts of English and Vietnamese linguists and grammarians, and different meanings of get in seven basic patterns are exemplified Due to their concrete 49 context in each sentence, they could have different translational meanings However, each of their Vietnamese equivalents can show only one kind of those meanings There is not a clear regulation for each structure By conducting the survey among target participants of students at High School, some major difficulties when using verb get have been found: (i) Facing with difficulties in distinguishing intransitive or transitive verbs, separable or inseparable in phrasal verbs (ii) Failing to choose the correct particles (omission of particles, misselection of particles, and application of unnecessary particle) (iii) Lacking knowledge in semantic features of verb get leading to misordering and dogmatic application of passive transformation To deal with these problems some possible recomendations have been proposed and also help the teachers in teaching verb „get‟ in an effective way such as supplementing exercises, practice frequently and teaching verb „get‟ via learning vocabulary building, reading comprehension and translation It is hoped that the features of verb „get‟ have been pointed out and the possible implications for mastering them could be useful not only for High Shool learners but also for those who expect to acquire English as their second language i.e it helps Vietnamese learners develop habits of correct usage of the lexical verb get in order to avoid making incorrect sentences with it Furthermore, the mastering of the characteristics of get is also beneficial to learners in translating structures related to get especially the idiomatic expressions in English and vice versa 5.3 Suggestions for a further study To a certain extent, some matters have not been thoroughly investigated Therefore, some recommendations for further research should be made: (i) A study on get and its synonyms (ii) A study on collocations with get as a core element (iii) An investigation into usage problems related to get and some solutions 50 REFERENCES In English Alexander L.G (1988), Longman English Grammar, Longman Group UK 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syntactic features of four English verbs: Say-Tell-Speak-Talk and their Vietnamese equivalents” M.A Thesis, Hanoi 24 Thomas Bloor and Meriel Bloor, “The Functional Analysis of English” 25 Thackeray, W.M Vanity Fair, Harvard Classics Shelf of Fiction New York: 26 Vendler, Z Linguistics in philosophy, Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press 27 William Bullokar (1785) “Brief Grammar for English” In Vietnamese 28 Diep Minh Tâm (2009), Kiêu hãnh định kiến, NXB Hội nhà văn 29 Diệp Quang Ban (1996), Ngữ pháp Tiếng Việt, Tập 2, NXB Giáo Dục 52 30 Diệp Quang Ban & Hoàng Văn Thung (1992), Ngữ pháp Tiếng Việt, Tập 1, NXB Giáo Dục 31 First News (2008), Quà tặng từ trái tim (Chicken Soup for the Soul), NXB Trẻ 32 Le Huy Bắc (2000), Ông già biển cả, NXB Văn học 33 Trần Hữu Mạnh (2007), Ngôn ngữ học đối chiếu – Cú pháp Tiếng Anh-Tiếng Việt, NXB Đại học Quốc Gia Hà Nội 34 NXB Hội nhà văn (2010), Jack London - Truyện ngắn đặc sắc, Hà Nội 35 Nguyễn Hữu Quỳnh (1980), Ngữ pháp Tiếng Việt, NXB Khoa học xã hội 36 Nguyễn Kim Thản (1977), Động từ tiếng Việt, NXB Khoa học xã hội 53 ... Fair” by W. M Thackeray The study is aimed at three point: (1) finding the syntactic and semantics features of the verb get with reference to Vietnamese equivalent in the novel “Vanity Fair” by W. M. .. SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH VERB „GET‟ WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS IN THE NOVEL „VANITY FAIR‟ BY W. M. THACKERAY submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements... analysis, the result of the study show that the verb get coincide in their general meaning However, the verb get in Vietnamese seems to have much more meanings than that in English In practice, the
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