TRANSLATION OF ENGLISH HEALTH AND MEDICAL IDIOMS INTO VIETNAMESE a STUDY BASED ON ESP MATERIALS AT a UNIVERSITY OF NURSING

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HA NOI OPEN UNIVERSITY M.A THESIS TRANSLATION OF ENGLISH HEALTH AND MEDICAL IDIOMS INTO VIETNAMESE: A STUDY BASED ON ESP MATERIALS AT A UNIVERSITY OF NURSING (DỊCH THÀNH NGỮ Y TẾ TIẾNG ANH SANG TIẾNG VIỆT: MỘT NGHIÊN CỨU DỰA TRÊN CÁC TÀI LIỆU TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN NGÀNH TẠI MỘT TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC ĐIỀU DƯỠNG) Filed: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 Ha Noi, 2018 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HA NOI OPEN UNIVERSITY M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 8220201 TRANSLATION OF ENGLISH HEALTH AND MEDICAL IDIOMS INTO VIETNAMESE: A STUDY BASED ON ESP MATERIALS AT A UNIVERSITY OF NURSING (DỊCH THÀNH NGỮ Y TẾ TIẾNG ANH SANG TIẾNG VIỆT: MỘT NGHIÊN CỨU DỰA TRÊN CÁC TÀI LIỆU TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN NGÀNH TẠI MỘT TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC ĐIỀU DƯỠNG) VŨ THỊ THU PHƯƠNG Supervisor: Dr Tran Thi Thu Hien Ha Noi, 2018 STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled “Translation of English heath and medical idioms into Vietnamese: A study based on ESP materials at a university of nursing” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except where the reference is indicated, no other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis Hanoi, 2018 Vu Thi Thu Phuong Approved by SUPERVISOR Dr Tran Thi Thu Hien Date:…………………… i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I am indebted to Dr Tran Thi Thu Hien for her scholarly knowledge, wholehearted supervision, invaluable guidance and constructive critical feedback Without her instruction, this thesis would not have been completed My thanks then go to colleagues who have inspired, encouraged and supported me during the time I worked on this research Last but not least, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my family and beloved friends for their love, care and encouragement ii ABSTRACT In the every work of communication, nurses are required to have certain understanding of a number of health and medical idioms Nursing students, however, find it hard to study and translate such idioms due to various factions Conducting an investigation on students’ translation through their ESP materials is beneficial in building a big picture of English health and medical idioms and their translation in Vietnamese The researcher of the study selected English health and medical in ESP matierials for nursing students, then put them into the translation tasks done by three hundred second year nursing students at Nam Dinh Univeristy of Nursing This study employed quantitative methods by analyzing data collected from translation tasks assigned for nursing students; and supporting in-depth interview The translation tasks included ten parts that were assigned to nursing students after each ESP class After each week, the researcher interviewed some of the students about procedures and strategies used by them The in-depth interview was used to clarify some of the students’ procedures, strategies and common errors revealed during their translations of English health and medical idioms into Vietnamese The findings of the study showed that the students applied only some procedures taught in ESP module and their common errors were word by word translation and cultural translation Based on the findings, some suggestions were made for both teacher and the students The teachers often remind the students about the translation procesures and strategies taught in the first week; provide the students more tasks for more understanding and correct transltion; clarify the translation procedures and certain cultural knowledge iii Contents Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Aims of the study 1.3 Research questions 1.4 Methods of the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Significance of the study 1.7 Organization of the study Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Translation 2.1.1 Definitions 2.1.2 Translation equivalence 2.1.3 Translation strategies and procedures 2.1.3.1.Literal translation 10 2.1.3.2.Transference 11 2.1.3.3.Naturalisation 12 2.1.3.4.Cultural equivalent 12 2.1.3.5.Functional equivalent 12 2.1.3.6.Descriptive equivalent 12 2.1.3.7.Synonymy 13 2.1.3.8.Through-translation 13 2.1.3.9.Shift or transpositions 13 2.1.3.10.Modulation 14 2.1.3.11.Componential analysis 14 2.1.3.12 Others 14 2.2 Idioms 15 2.2.1 Definitions of an idiom 15 2.2.2 Characteristics of idioms 17 2.2.3 Types of idioms 21 2.3 Technical translation and translation of health and medical idioms 24 2.3.1 Technical style 25 2.3.2 Translation of medical and health idioms 25 2.4 Previous studies 28 iv 2.5 Summary of chapter 29 Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY 30 3.1 Setting 30 3.2 Participants 31 3.3 Research method 32 3.4 Data collection instruments 33 3.5 Data collection proceures and analysis 35 3.6 Chapter summary 35 Chapter 4: TRANSLATION OF ENGLISH HEALTH AND MEDICAL IDIOMS INTO VIETNAMESE: A STUDY BASED ON ESP MATERIALS AT A UNIVERSITY OF NURSING 36 4.1 Procedures and strategies used by the nursing students in translating health and medical idioms in ESP materials 36 4.1.1 Literal translation 37 4.1.2 Cultural equivalent 37 4.1.3 At word level 38 4.1.4 Above word level 40 4.1.5 Translating a source language idiom with a non-idiomatic expression 40 4.1.6 Translating a source language idiom with a target language idiom 44 4.1.7 Translating a source language idiom literally 48 4.1.8 Translation by paraphrase 50 4.2 Common errors of translating health and medical idioms in ESP materials 51 4.3 Implication 56 4.4 Chapter summary 57 Chapter 5: CONCLUSION 59 5.1 Recapitulation 59 5.2 Limitations of the study and further studies 60 REFERENCES 61 APPENDIX 1: TRANSLATION TASKS 66 APPENDIX 2: LIST OF ENGLISH HEALTH AND MEDICAL IDIOMS 73 v LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS OALD Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary SL Source langue TL Target language ST Source text TT Target text vi Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale Translation has become an activity of enormous importance in recent decades We live in an increasingly internationalized world where ever-growing numbers of individuals are in continuous contact with foreign cultures and languages both in their professional lives as well as in more informal contexts, usually via mass media The more internationalized the world becomes, the greater the importance of translation and qualified translators also grows Translation allows us to overcome cultural and linguistic boundaries and enables communication between different cultures Translation is, thus, an extremely topical issue in today's multicultural and multilingual world Since translation has become increasingly important on both national and global level, it is definitely a subject worth a closer study Obviously, there is a wide range of topics which could be investigated in terms of translational aspects The present study focuses on the translation of one of the most fascinating and innovative aspects of language: health and medical idioms Nowadays nursing students have a range of ESP materials that cover health and medical idioms And they are not very good at translating these idioms as the health and medical idioms seem rather new to them That’s why the researcher di this study with the hope of investigating the common errors made by nursing students and giving suggestions to help them have skills in translating health and medical idioms 1.2 Aims of the study The study aims at studying the translation of English health and medical idioms made by nursing students at a university of nursing 1.3 Research questions In order to achieve the aforement objectives, the study seeks to answer the two following questions: - What the procedures and strategies are used by nursing students in translating English health and medical idioms into Vietnamese? - What are common errors made by nursing students in translating English health and medical idioms into Vietnamese? 1.4 Methods of the study This study emplpyed quantitative method by analyzing data collected from translation tasks assigned for nursing students and in-depth interview The researcher could draw some conclusions on their procedures and strategies as well as their common errors in translating English health and medical idioms into their mother tongue 1.5 Scope of the study The study focuses on finding procedures, strategies, and common errors made by nursing students through exploring their ESP materials Other studies aim at finding out other issues of using ESP materials with students of other majors are out of the scope of this study 1.6 Significance of the study Theoretically, this research can, to some extend, contribute to the field of translation by providing suggestions about how to treat language-specific elements (in this case health and medical idioms) in translation Practically, this study may help professional translators discover new, creative means for translating problematic language-specific expressions as well as to encourage them to be innovative and creative This study is also a good reference for both teachers and students in teaching and studying English health and medical idioms 1.7 Organization of the study The study is designed into five chapters Chapter 1: Introduction presents rationale of the study, aims and objectives of the research, research questions, research methods, scope of the research, significance of the research and organization of the resreach Chapter 2: Literature Review summarizes, synthesizes and reviews critical points of relevant published works Concepts that are mentioned in the theoretical background of interpreting include: translation, idioms, technical 14 Chaume, F (2004) Film Studies and Translation Studies: Two Disciplines at Stake in Audiovisual Translation Meta: Translators' Journal , 12-24 15 Chesterman, A (ed.) 1989 Readings in translation theory Helsinki: Finn Lectura 16 Collins Cobuild idioms dictionary 2004 London: HarperCollins 17 Connolly, P (2007) Quantitative data analysis in education: A critical introduction using SPSS London & New York, NY: Routledge 18 Cowie, A.P and R Mackin 1975 Oxford dictionary of current idiomatic English Volume 1: Verbs with prepositions and particles London: Oxford University Press 19 Cowie, A.P., R Mackin and I.R McGraig 1983 Oxford dictionary of current idiomatic English Volume 2: Phrase, clause & sentence idioms Oxford: Oxford University Press 20 Fernando, C 1996 Idioms and idiomaticity Oxford: Oxford University Press 21 Gottlieb, H (1998) Subtitling.In M Baker, Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies (p.245) Routledge 22 Ingo 1990 = R Ingo, Lähtökielestä kohdekieleen Johdatusta käännöstieteeseen Juva, WSOY, Porvoo, Söderström, 1990.Komissarov 1985 = V Komissarov, The Practical Value of Translation Theory, in “Babel International Journal Of Translation”, XXXI, 1985, no 4, pp 208-212 23 Jakobson, R (1959) On Linguistic Aspects of Translation Retrieved July 15, 2012 from www.stanford.edu/~eckert/PDF/jakobson.pdf 24 Kauber, P (1986) What’s Wrong With a Science of MIS (pp 572-574)? Proceedings of the 1986 Decision Science Institute, Honolulu, HA 25 Klein, H K., & Myers, M D (1999) A set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive field studies in information systems MIS Quarterly, 23(1), 67-93 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/249410 26 Koller, W., (1989), "Equivalence in Translation Theory" in Chesterman, A (ed.) Readings in Translation, Oy Finn Lectura Ab Helsinki 62 27 Landers, C.E 2001 Literary translation A practical guide Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 28 Larson, M.L (1984) Meaning Based Translation: A Guide to Cross Language Equivalence London and New York: University Press of America 29 Le Hoai An Tương đương dịch thuật tương đương thuật ngữ Tạp chí Khoa học, ĐHQG Hà Nội, Số 2, 2005 30 Lefevere, A., (Ed.) (1992b) Translation/history/culture: A sourcebook London: Routledge.Liang, Shiqiu (1970) About the translation of Shakespeare In Liang Shiqiu et al (Eds.), Fanyide yishu [The art of translation] (pp 93-110) Taipei: Chenzhong chubanshe 31 Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture, ed D Summers, Harlow, Longman, 1992 (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 1992 32 Munday, J (2001) Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Application Routledge 33 Makkai, A 1972 Idiom structure in English The Hague: Mouton & Co N.V 34 Nida,E.A & Taber,C.R (1969) The Theory and Practice of Translation 35 Newmark, P 1995 A textbook of translation Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall international 36 Nguyen, T.N 2005.A study on the Vietnamese-English translation of exhibit labels in the Vietnam Museum of Ethnology MA thesis, College of Foreign Language, Vietnam 37 Oxford English Dictionary (1989) ( - OED), (J.A Simpson and E.Weiner eds), 2nd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press 38 Payne, G., & Payne, J (2004) Key concepts in social research London: Sage 39 Préfontaine, Y., Kormos, J., & Johnson, D E (2016) How utterance measures predict raters’ perceptions of fluency in French as a second language? Language Testing, 33(1), 53-73 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265532215579530 40 Rasinger, S M (2013) Quantitative research in linguistics: An introduction A & C Black 63 41 Richardson, A J (2012) Paradigms, theory and management accounting practice: A comment on Parker (forthcoming) “Qualitative management accounting research: Assessing deliverables and relevance” Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 23(1), 83-88 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpa.2011.05.003 42 Sanchez, D (2004) Subtitling methods and team-translation In P Orero, Topics in Audiovisual Translation (p 28) Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 43 Sokoli, S (2006).Learning via Subtitling (LvS): A Tool for the Creation of Foreign Language Learning Activities Based on Film Subtitling Paper presented at the Audiovisual Translation Scenarios 44 Strässler, J 1982 Idioms in English: A Pragmatic Analysis Tubingen: Verlag 45 Szarkowska, A (2005) The Power of Film Translation Translation Journal 46 Tabossi, P and Zardon, F (1993) Processing ambiguous words in context Journal of Memory and Language, 32,359-372 47 Taylor, C (2000) The Subtitling of Film: Reaching another community In E Ventola, Discourse and Community: Doing Functional Linguistics (pp 309-330) Gunter Narr Verlaf Tubingen 48 Tony Grice Nursing 1: Oxford English For Careers Oxford University Press 49 Tony Grice and James Greenan Nursing 2: Oxford English For Careers Oxford University Press 50 Vassiliou, A (2006) Analysing Film Content: A text-based Approach Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation: University of Surrey 51 Vehmas-Lehto, I 2002 Kopiointia vai kommunikointia? Johdatus käännösteoriaan [Copying or communication? An introduction to translation theory] Helsinki: OyFinn Lectura Ab 52 Vinay, J.P & J Darbelnet (1995) Comparative Stylistics of French and English: a Methodology for Translation John Benjamins 53 Weber, R (2004) Editor’s comments: The rhetoric of positivism versus interpretivism: A personal view MIS Quarterly, 28(1), iii-xii Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/25148621.pdf?acceptTC=true 64 54 Weinreich, U 1969 Problems in the analysis of idioms In Puhvel, J.(ed.), Substance and Structure of Language Rerkeley, California: University of California Press Pp 23-J6 55 Zhang, Y., & Liu, J (2009) Subtitle Translation Strategies as a Reflection of Technical Limitations: a Case Study of Ang Lee's Films Asian Social Science , 113-118 65 APPENDIX 1: TRANSLATION TASKS Task 1: Choose correct definition for the health and medical idioms on the left and then write Vietnamese equivalents in the brackets a bag of bones 1… a very thin (…………………………….) at death’s door 2… b feeling very happy or glorious 3… c very near death feel on top of the world (…………………………….) 4… d recovered from an illness or became physically healthy again back on her feet (…………………………….) 5… e to become sick with something, to catch an illness (…………………………….) come down with a cold (…………………………….) Task 2: Translate the sentences into Vietnamese Despite being over ninety, my grandfather is as fit as a fiddle His arm was black-and-blue after falling off his bike My doctor gave me a clean bill of health after my annual check-up My skin problem flared up when I changed soap Jane went under the knife yesterday for her spleen removed Part 3: Replace the words with the health and medical idioms in the box which have the same meaning then translate the sentences into Vietnamese it knocked him for a six | under the weather | wake-up call | fighting for his life | skin and bone |given a clean bill of health After the accident, he was in hospital, in a critical condition I’ve been declared completely well by my doctor Are you feeling alright? You look a bit unwell Has she been ill? She’s so thin! Having that heart attack was a warning signal - he now takes his health much more seriously The news really upset him - he hasn’t fully recovered from the shock vet 66 Task 4: Choose the best option that has the closet meaning to the underlined health and medical idioms by circling A, B, C, D When we arrived at the scene of the car accident the driver was near death A hanging out his shingle B drawing blood C at death's door D going under the knife After walking home in the rain I became sick with a cold A broke out in B came down with C took a turn for the worse with D blacked out with My father is healthy again after his recent illness A back on his feet B under the weather C breathing his last D having a physical Our secretary has been working too hard and is getting into poor condition A over the worst B getting a splitting headache C back on her feet D becoming run down Although the man was very sick I think that he will recover A run a temperature B throw up C pull through D flare up I went to the doctor last week and got a medical check-up A ran a temperature B had a physical C felt on top of the world D went under the knife After eating the seafood at the food court the man began to vomit A throw up 67 B pull through C flare up D break out The man was forced to go to a psychiatrist after he killed the two women A go to a head shrinker B go under the knife C breathe his last D pull through The trainer was quickly able to restore to consciousness the boxer who had fainted and fell to the floor A throw up B pull through C bring to D black out 10 Last night my grandmother became sicker A went under the knife B felt on top of the world C breathed her last D took a turn for the worse Task 5: Find and correct mistakes in the sentences then translate them into Vietnamese The old folk around here have been fighting like flies recently He really changed after his wife’s death He’s a shade of his former self I’ll have to take the day off work - I’m a bit worse for health today Apparently she was really ill - at death’s knock, in fact - but she’s fine now You’ll be pleased to know that all the new-born puppies are alive and living! Task 6: Read the text, the exercise then translate the text into Vietnamese February 6th - Britain’s sick day A recent study conducted in Britain has discovered that February 6th is the day when most Britons take the day off sick Professor Cary Cooper, who carried out the research, said absence due to fake illnesses is becoming more common on this 68 day Apparently, in early February, “many people are still feeling the need to celebrate Christmas” The study showed that over 50 percent of 4,000 interviewees took at least one fake sick day each year There was great regional variation, with Londoners skipping work an average three days a year, compared to 13 for workers in the northern city of Liverpool Most people phoning in sick pretended to cough or to have sore throats to add a touch of truth to their falsification Reasons varied for taking a sickie There was widespread disappointment at the lack of official and national holidays, even though British workers are considered lucky, compared to other nationalities across the Atlantic Other reasons cited included a need to recharge batteries, perhaps they were feeling a bit under the weather after the Christmas and New Year break Some wanted a longer weekend break and needed time to recover from a hangover or catch up on sleep Many people also expressed that they refused to use up a day from their official yearly holidays because most British workers prefer to take a two-to-five week block off, rather than divide the days here and there The good news for bosses is that the rate of workers lying to take a day off is decreasing However, there are genuine cases of real sicknesses that happen to fall on this day Some workers admitted to having called in sick because they felt they were coming down with something, especially if there was a bug going round In extreme cases, people felt like death warmed up and needed to recover fully before returning to work If a hangover was the cause of their troubles, a good rest was said to have been one solution Whatever the genuine reason for absence is, employers hope that within a short period the absent workers will be on the road to recovery, feeling as right as rain and as fit as a fiddle to resume normal productivity Look at the English health idioms, in bold, in the text above and match them to their meanings To rest until you feel energetic again Starting to get a cold or flu Feeling ill or unwell 69 Starting to feel better To take a day off work saying that you are ill In very good shape Having phoned work to tell them you are too ill to go to work Flu or virus that people catch and give to each other Felt absolutely awful 10 Feel healthy again after an illness Task 7: Choose two items in the box to match with the right meaning in column A a shadow of your former self | alive and kicking | under the weather | skin and bone/s | be fighting for your life | end it all | the worse for wear | a clean bill of heath | at death’s door | kick the bucket being well _ _ being unwell _ _ being thin _ _ almost dying _ _ dying _ _ 70 Task 8: Complete the sentences with the words given in the box death | health | life | wear | alive | end | kick | knock He lay at ‘s door for months but made a miraculous recovery After a year of illness I finally have a clean bill of My father is still and kicking at 85 She told me that she wasn’t ready to the bucket yet The man involved in the accident is fighting for his in the local hospital A minor infection can you for six if you don’t look after yourself It’s been a heavy week and now I’m feeling a bit the worse for She went through some bad times but never felt she wanted to it all Sample 9: Translate the sentences into Vietnamses focused on the translation of italic health and medical idioms The doctor decided to hang up his shingle as soon as he finished medical school Our company sent all the employees to have a physical last week The man was told to go and see a head shrinker after he threatened the woman in the store several times A nice hot bath was just what the doctor ordered My uncle was looking the picture of health when I saw him last week My grandfather is on the mend after he broke his leg last week As soon as the patient entered the operating room he was out cold because of the anesthesia My brother is over the worst since his skiing accident last month The car accident was very bad and I don't think that the driver will pull through 10 The little boy is running a temperature and should stay in bed all day Task 10: Translate the sentences into English focused on the translation of italic health and medical idioms Bác sĩ cho biết tơi có tình trạng sức khỏe tốt tơi đến khám vào tháng trước Cháu gái bị cảm lạnh đến thăm tuần trước 71 Ông đưa đến gặp bác sĩ tâm thần sau tiếp tục gây nhiều vấn đề nơi làm việc Bác sĩ định rút máu từ bệnh nhân để kiểm tra lượng đường máu Người đàn ông ngã bệnh vào mùa đơng năm ngối chưa hồi phục Các vấn đề da mẹ xuất bà bắt đầu sử dụng xà phòng giặt Ông bị mổ tối qua Giám đốc qua đời sau bị đột quỵ nghiêm trọng Mẹ hồi phục sau bị cúm hai tuần 10 Cầu thủ bóng đá bị ngất sau bị người chơi khác đánh trúng 72 APPENDIX 2: LIST OF ENGLISH HEALTH AND MEDICAL IDIOMS Health and medical idioms a bag of bones Correction người gầy trơ xương a bug going around a picture of health khỏe mạnh, cường tráng tràn đầy sức sống a shadow of his former self alive and kicking sống khoẻ mạnh at death’s door hấp hối, gần chết as fit as a fiddle khỏe vâm as pale as a ghost xanh tàu as pale as death xanh tàu as right as rain khỏe vâm as sick as a dog cảm thấy buồn nôn as weak as a kitten yếu back on the feet phục hồi sức khỏe bad shape tình trạng sức khỏe black out ngất black-and-blue thâm tím be out cold bất tỉnh đột ngột become run down bị kiệt sức break out in phát ra, lên 73 breathing his last trút thở cuối call in sick gọi điện báo nghỉ ốm clean bill of health giấy chứng nhận sức khỏe tốt come down with a cold bị bệnh cúm chết trôi Thành ngữ “Like death warmed up" (Anh - Anh) “Like death warmed over” (Anh - Mỹ) in từ điển feel like death warmed up “Soldier's War Slang” (Tiếng lóng người lính “Like death warmed up” ám người nhợt nhạt, thiếu sức sống feel off-color cảm thấy không khỏe fighting for his life đấu tranh cho sống flare up xuất get a medical check-up kiểm tra sức khỏe get a splitting headache đau đầu búa bổ go to a head shrinker đến gặp bác sĩ tâm thần green around the gills xanh xao hale and healthy khỏe mạnh hanging out his shingle mở phòng khám chết kick the bucket (đá xơ) lại ám việc chết chóc? Cho 74 đến nguồn gốc thành ngữ không rõ ràng Có người cho thời xa xưa hành hình, treo cổ người cố tình treo cổ tự tử, họ luồn dây thừng vào cổ đứng xô Khi xô bị đá ra, người tắt thở mà chết on my last legs on the road to recovery mệt mỏi dần khỏe lên on the mend on top of the world lâng lâng hạnh phúc one foot in the grave gần đất xa trời one's toes to the daisies chết, ngủ với giun over the worst vượt qua thời kỳ tồi tệ pull through qua khỏi (cơn ốm) recharge one's batteries có kỳ nghỉ ngơi, thư dãn để phục hồi lại sức khoẻ run a temperature lên sốt safe and sound bình an vơ skin and bone take a sickie Tiều tụy thảm thương, da bọc xương nghỉ ngày làm việc không thực ốm take a turn for the worse chiều hướng xấu the worse for wear mệt mỏi rã rời throw up (y học) thổ ra, nơn 75 tự kết liễu đời to end it all to kock someone for six làm phát ốm under the weather khơng khỏe (khó chịu thời tiết) wake-up call hồi chuông cảnh tỉnh weak at the knees bủn rủn chân tay went under the knife mổ 76 ... and medical idioms Nowadays nursing students have a range of ESP materials that cover health and medical idioms And they are not very good at translating these idioms as the health and medical. .. in translating health and medical idioms 1.2 Aims of the study The study aims at studying the translation of English health and medical idioms made by nursing students at a university of nursing. .. componential analysis 2.1.3.8 Through -translation The term through -translation refers to loan translation that is usually applied to the translation of the names of international organizations
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