The syntactic and semantic features of negative questions in english with reference to vietnamese based on the selection of bilingual plays an ideal husband and lady windermere’s fan

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY TRỊNH THỊ HỒNG NGỌC THE SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF NEGATIVE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH WITH REFERENCE TO VIETNAMESE BASED ON THE SELECTION OF BILINGUAL PLAYS “AN IDEAL HUSBAND” AND “LADY WINDERMERE‟S FAN” (NHỮNG ĐẶC ĐIỂM VỀ CÚ PHÁP VÀ NGỮ NGHĨA CỦA CÂU HỎI PHỦ ĐỊNH TRONG TIẾNG ANH LIÊN HỆ VỚI TIẾNG VIỆT DỰA TRÊN TUYỂN TẬP KỊCH “MỘT NGƢỜI CHỒNG LÝ TƢỞNG” VÀ “CÁI QUẠT CỦA PHU NHÂN UYNĐƠMIA”) M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Hanoi, 2018 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY TRỊNH THỊ HỒNG NGỌC THE SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF NEGATIVE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH WITH REFERENCE TO VIETNAMESE BASED ON THE SELECTION OF BILINGUAL PLAYS “AN IDEAL HUSBAND” AND “LADY WINDERMERE‟S FAN” (NHỮNG ĐẶC ĐIỂM VỀ CÚ PHÁP VÀ NGỮ NGHĨA CỦA CÂU HỎI PHỦ ĐỊNH TRONG TIẾNG ANH LIÊN HỆ VỚI TIẾNG VIỆT DỰA TRÊN TUYỂN TẬP KỊCH “MỘT NGƢỜI CHỒNG LÝ TƢỞNG” VÀ “CÁI QUẠT CỦA PHU NHÂN UYNĐƠMIA”) M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Supervisor: Assoc.Prof.Dr NGUYỄN ĐĂNG SỬU Hanoi, 2018 STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled THE SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF NEGATIVE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH WITH REFERENCE TO VIETNAMESE BASED ON THE SELECTION OF BILINGUAL PLAY “AN IDEAL HUSBAND” AND“LADY WINDERMERE‟S FAN” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except where the reference is indicated, no other person‟s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis Hanoi, 2019 TRỊNH THỊ HỒNG NGỌC Approved by SUPERVISOR Assoc.Prof.Dr.Nguyễn Đăng Sửu Date:…………………… ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to give my deepest thanks to my supervisor, Assoc.Prof Dr.Nguyễn Đăng Sửu from Ha Noi University of Business and Technology for his extremely helpful advice, enthusiastic supports and comments when I carry out my study I also give my sincere thanks to the leading board of Faculty of Graduate Study- Ha Noi Open University for their help and right directions and the whole staff of the Faculty of Graduate Study- Hanoi Open University for their support and advice Finally, I want to send my thanks to my father, my mother, my husband and my family for their long time support and encouragement during the completion of my study Hanoi, March, 2018 TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study .2 1.2 Aims and Objectives of the study .3 1.2.1 Aims of the research 1.2.2 Objectives of the research 1.3 Scope of the research 1.4 Research question .3 1.5 Significance of the study 1.6 The organization of the study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Review of previous studies .5 2.2 Questions in English and Vietnamese 2.2.1 Overview of Questions .7 2.2.2 Classification of questions in English and Vietnamese .8 2.2.2.1 Classification ofquestions inEnglish 2.2.3 Negation in English 18 2.2.3.1 Overview of negation 18 2.2.3.2 Scope of negation 18 2.2.4 Negation in Vietnamese 20 2.2.5 Negative question .20 2.2.5.1 What is a negative question? .20 2.2.5.2 The semantic approach to English negative questions 21 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 24 3.1 Research-governing orientations 24 3.1.1 Research approach 24 3.1.2 Research questions 24 3.1.3 Research setting 24 3.1.4 Principles/criteria for intended data collection and data analysis 24 3.2 Research Methods 24 3.2.1 Major methods and supporting methods 24 3.2.2 Data collection techniques 25 3.2.3 Data analysis techniques 25 Chapter 4: SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF NEGATIVE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISSH AND VIETNAMESE .26 4.1 The syntactic features of negative questions in English 26 4.1.1 Negative questions in English 26 4.1.2 The syntactic features of Negative Yes/No questions 26 4.1.2.1.Uncontracted form 27 4.1.2.2.Contracted form 27 4.1.2.3 Negative declarative Yes/No questions .28 4.1.2.4 Negative Yes/No questions in the selection of plays 28 4.1.3 The syntactic features of Negative Tag Questions 29 4.1.3.1 The syntactic features of negative tag-questions .29 4.1.3.2 Negative tag- questions in the selected plays 30 4.1.4 The Syntactic features of Negative Wh- questions 31 4.1.4.1.The syntactic features of negative WH- questions .31 4.1.4.2.Negative WH- questions in the selected plays 31 4.1.5 The Syntactic features of Negative alternative questions 32 4.1.5.1 The syntactic features of negative alternative questions 32 4.2 Semantic features of negative questions in English .33 4.2.1 negative question used to express disappointment 33 4.2.2 Negative questions used to confirm the truth: 33 4.2.3 Negative questions used to express suggestions: .33 4.2.4 Negative questions used to express advice: .33 4.2.5 Negative questions used to express offer: 34 4.2.6 Negative questions used to invite the negative response from the hearer: 34 4.3 Negative questions in Vietnamese 34 4.3.1 Negative Yes/No questions 34 4.3.2 Negative WH–questions 35 4.3.3.Negative alternative questions 36 4.4 Similarities and differences of negative questions between English and Vietnamese 37 4.4.1 Similarities of English and Vietnamese negative questions .37 4.4.1.1 Yes/No questions .37 4.4.1.2 Negative Wh- questions .40 4.4.1.3 Negative alternative questions 41 4.4.2 Differences of English and Vietnamese negative questions 41 4.4.2.1 Negative Yes/No questions 41 4.4.2.2 Negative Wh- questions .42 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 45 REFERENCE 47 APPENDIX .49 ABSTRACT In English, especially in grammar, many aspects have been focused on including questions Hence, in this research, the author would like to concentrate on questions which specifically are negative questions The research will make clear the syntactic and semantic features of negative questions with reference to Vietnamese based on grammar books, reliable materials and the selection of bilingual plays “An Ideal Husband” and “Lady Windermere‟s fan” From that research, readers, learners will be able to understand and use negative question in English and Vietnamese effectively Each topic consists certain content to besolved In this study, the main issue is how to clarify the syntactic and semantic features of negative questions in English and in Vietnamese especially,how the negative questionsare used in bilingual plays “An Ideal Husband”and “Lady Windermere‟s fan” We hope the result of the study will be applied to improve the students‟ ability of understanding negative questions and use them fluently after graduating from university They will be able to deal with common mistakes made by students in English in general and in using negative questions in particular CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study In English, especially English grammar, every student also hear about the questions in English, the main purpose of giving question is to get needed information, besides, question also functions to express the emotion, attitude or command of interviewer Based on the context, question is given in a suitable structure for a certain purpose In many kinds of questions, negative questions seem more popular in daily conversation and in the literature User can use negative questions with variety of aims, for example:when someone has a negative question, they can reply “No” in response to the agreeing answer, but “yes” to negative answer Hence, negative question is difficult to use and understand in both their meaning and structure As the result, in the hope of helping both teachers and students to use negative question effectively, this study is concerned about the new aspect of negative question: the syntactic and semantic features The full title is: the syntactic and semantic features of negative question in English with reference to Vietnamese based on the selection of plays “An Ideal Husband”and “Lady Windermere‟s Fan” In this study, English user can know more deeply about the meaning and structure of negative question, besides, researcher also points out some mistakes made by learners, especially, by students in the Faculty of English at Hanoi Open University and some solutions to the problems Many teachers and students have confessed that they have made confusion in different situations when they use negative questions Sometimes, they not know what their partners talk about, the partners agree or disagree even they can‟t understand their partners‟ emotion That‟s why, they always ask for further information and in some cases, they require the answer again and again but with unclear and equivocal questions The problem is: “how to understand clearly when to use and give negative question? How to make a negative question in the proper situation? For all the abovementioned reasons, the researcher would like to introduce to English users the new respect of negative question: “the syntactic and semantic features of English negative questions with reference to Vietnamese(based on the selection of bilingual plays “An Ideal Husband” and “Lady Windermere‟sfan” Although, this aspect has beenstudied in different areas,this study deals with syntactic and semantic features of negative questions based on the selection of bilingual play,which helps learners make correct negativequestions Moreover, this study also helpsstudentseasily understand when negative questions are used in different contexts 1.2 Aims and Objectives of the study 1.2.1 Aims of the research The study is mainly aimed at providing the syntactic and semantic features of English negative questions with reference to Vietnamese equivalents based on the selection of plays “An Ideal Husband” and “Lady Windermere‟s fan”, thus proposing some implications for teaching English negative questions to Vietnamese learners of English 1.2.2.Objectives of the research The objectives of the research include: - describing the syntactic and semantic features of English and Vietnamese negative questions -pointing out the similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese negative questions 1.3 Scope of the research The study “English negative questions in English and Vietnamese focuses on English negative questions and Vietnamese equivalents within the frame of negative structures The three main types of questions will be focused: Yes-No question, Wh-question, Alternative question Especially, only negative questions that use negator “not” will be discussed, others will be suggested for further study 1.4 Research question The research questions of the study are: - What are the syntactic and semantic features of negative questions in English and in Vietnamese? - What are the similarities and differences of negative questions between English and Vietnamese? - What are the use of negative questions in the selection of plays “An Ideal Husband” and “ Lady Windermere‟s fan”? 1.5 Significanceof the study - In term of theories: this study provide foundation theories for semantic and syntactic features of negative question, and also provide information to help students and teachers of English - In term of realities: the study will help both teachers and students use negative questions correctly in their communication, teaching and learning of English In Vietnamese: Có phải/có + Subject + không/chưa/chả/ chẳng + Verb +không? E.g.11: Did he not attend the meeting? Có phải anh khơng họp khơng? E.g.12: Is she not happy? Có làchị ấykhông vui không? In this situation, the speaker hopes that the hearer decides to give the answer “no” However, the hearer‟s answer depends on the fact If he attended the meeting and she was happy, the answer must be “Yes”: Yes, he did(he attended the meeting); Yes, she is (she is happy) As the examples illustrate below, English and Vietnamese both have negative indirect speeches with rising tone to form negative Yes/ No questions English: Subject + Aux/Modal verb/Be + n‟t + Verb ….↑ ? Vietnamese: Subject + không /chẳng/chưa hề…+ Verb ……↑? E.g.13: My dear Acthur, you are not↑going? (p.86) E.g.14: Ơng Actơ thân mến, ơng khơng định↑ đi? English and Vietnamese have the same form of Tag- questions An affirmative tag questions is formed by a negative statement which is often followed by an affirmative tag question In English, the speaker wants to ask for confirmation of the negative statement, or in order to ask for more information On the contrary, negative tag questions are formed by an affirmative statement which is often followed by a negative tag question, in order to ask for confirmation of the affirmative statement In the following examples, the tag questions are underlined Contractions are usually used in In Vietnamese, tag questions are used to confirm speaker‟s belief, sometimes, the fixed expression can be substituted by “(có) khơng”, “(có) phải không”, “không phải”, “không đúng” combining with particles like à/ à/ hả/ nhỉ/ hả/ nhỉ/ chứ/ ư/ InEnglish: Subj + Aux/ Modal/ Be+ Not/ n‟t+ Verb, Aux/ Modal/ Be+ Subj? In Vietnamese: Subj+không/chẳng/chưa/chả + Verb…., có phải/đúng / + khơng? E.g.15: Robert, it is not true, is it?Anh Rơbớt, khơng đúng, có phải không? E.g.16: But it is worth while my wiring to Vienna, is it not?Nhưng điên thoại sang Viên việc nên làm, có phải khơng? E.g.17: And she looks like a woman with a past, doesn‟t she? Và hình nhƣ bà ta trƣớc có chuyện, có phải khơng? 39 English and Vietnamese tag-questions have the same form: descriptive clause does not involve the subject, the auxiliary in English interrogative clause of future form; Vietnamese interrogative clause expressed by “được khơng?/ có khơng? E.g.18: Close the door, won‟t you? Đóng vào, đƣợc khơng? E.g.19: Don‟t make a noise, will you? Đừng làm ồn nữa, có đƣợc khơng? E.g.20: Let‟s go to the cinema, shan‟t we? Chúng xem phim, đƣợc khơng? 4.4.1.2 Negative Wh- questions Q- / Wh-words often stands at the beginning of the sentence in both English and Vietnamese They have forms and the meanings in common in these examples Wh- questions usually begin with Wh- word As Quirk, R et al (1973:196) pointed out: “Wh- questions are formed with the aid of one of the following interrogative words (or Q-words): who/ whom, whose, what, which, when, where, how and why.” The speaker hopes to have the answer according to the kind of questions In Vietnamese, this type of questions is formed with interrogative pronouns such as:ai (who/ whom), (whose), (what), (which), (when), đâu, đâu (where), nào, cách (how), sao, sao, (why), (how much, how many), (how long)… E.g.1: Who didn‟t attend the conference? E.g.2: Why didn‟t join our party? Ai không dự hội thảo? Sao không dự tiệc với bọn mình? E.g.3: When shouldn‟t I be present? Khi khơng nên xuất hiện? E.g.5: Who knows? Ai mà biết đƣợc? E.g.6: How should I know? Làm biết được? The question with Why don‟t you and the contracted form Why not expressed with different meanings: invitation, suggestion, surprise, advice, complaint, criticism … both in English and Vietnamese E.g.7: Why don‟t we go to the cinema? Sao không xem phim nhỉ? gợi ý E.g.8:Why don‟t you come early? Sao cậu không đến sớm nhỉ?  trách móc E.g.9:Why not go by car? (Sao khơng ô tô?)  khuyên bảo 40 E.g.10: What wouldn‟t he give now Bây khơng đánh đổi for a message from Hogwarts? để có đƣợc thƣ gởi từ Hogwarts? E.g.11:Why couldn‟t you have told us all this yesterday when we were awake? Tại anh khơng nói với tụi em tất chuyện vào ngày hơm qua, lúc tụi em tỉnh táo?  trách móc E.g.12: Why haven‟t you been answering my letters? -Tại bồ không trả lời thƣ mình? 4.4.1.3 Negative alternative questions These alternative choices in the list which are separated by conjunction “or” in English and there are also these kinds of questions in Vietnamese Instead of using “or”, the Vietnamese use conjunctions like: hay, hay là, In English: Which +N+ aux/modal verb+n‟t+ Subj+verb+ N1 +or+N2 ? InVietnamese:N+nào+ Subj +không/ chẳng/chưa…+ verb1, N1+or+N2…? E.g.1: Which book don‟t you like, the English or Vietnamese one? Quyển sách cậukhơng thích, tiếng Anh hay (quyển) tiếng Việt? E.g.2:Which ice-cream don‟t you Cậu khơng thích loại kem nào, sô cô like, chocolate, vanilla or la, va ni hay dâu tây? strawberry? Loại kem nào cậu không thích, sơcơ la, va ni hay dâu tây? 4.4.2 Differences of English and Vietnamese negative questions 4.4.2.1 Negative Yes/No questions The order of words in negative Yes/No questions in some ways is not similar to the order of word in statements in Vietnamese In English, as mentioned above we can also state Yes/No questions in the negative by using subject operator “not” And they have two forms: negative full form or negative short form In order to form a negative question, the auxiliary is placed before the subject, and the word not is placed after the subject However, when contractions are used, the contracted form of not follows immediately after the auxiliary Questions in Vietnamese are usually formed by adding the negators: “không”, “chưa”, “chẳng” or “chả” which 41 are normally placed after the subject and before the predicate in combination with “ à/ ư/ sao/ hả/ hử/ chứ/ gì/ hay sao/chớ/ gì/ sao/ ư/ phải khơng/ chứ” which occur in final position Sometimes “chẳng phải/ không phải/ chả phải/phải chăng/ / / chả phải là” in presubject position is used in combination with “à/ sao/ hay sao/ gì/ sao” in final position “Chẳng lẽ (nào)/(có) lẽ nào”/có in pre-subject position can be used in combination with negator “không/ chẳng/ chưa/ chả” before the predicate E.g.1: Can‟t you drive straight? (Anh lái thẳng đƣợc sao?).This question means that I think you are able to drive straight But obviously you don‟t want to E.g.2: Aren‟t you ashamed of yourself? (Anh không thấy xấu hổ sao?) This question implies you should have been ashamed of yourself, but you don‟t seemingly know how to be ashamed E.g.3: Have I not asked you again and again to be here on time? Chả phải nhiều lần đề nghị anh đến hay sao? E.g.4:Doesn‟t that sound rather like tempting Providence? (p.198) Nói khơng sợ quyến rũ Thƣợng Đế à? E.g.5:Aren‟t you coming in, Robert? (p.274) Anh không vào ăn hay sao, Rôbớt? Negative tag questions are formed by an affirmative statement and a negative tag question, the choice and tense of the operator are determined by the verb phrase in the subordinate clause aux/modal verb+ (n‟t)+ Subj Negative tag questions are used in order to ask for confirmation of the affirmative statement In general, contractions are used in negative tag questions Tag questions in Vietnamese are used to confirm speaker‟s belief Some fixed expressions can be used after the affirmative statement such as “(có) khơng”, “(có) phải khơng” Or “khơng phải”, “không đúng” are used in combination with particles like “à/ à/ hả/ nhỉ/ hả/ nhỉ/ chứ/ ư/ sao” E.g.6: He came home late, didn‟t he? E.g.7: You haven‟t seen Ron or Hermione, have you? Said Ha E.g.8: You will wait and have some tea, won‟t you? Ơng đợi lát uống trà với chúng tơi nhé? E.g.9: I‟ll see you soon again, Arthur, shan‟t I? (p.122) Ơng Actơ, tơi gặp lại ơng sau nhé? 4.4.2.2 Negative Wh- questions 42 In English questions, WH – word usually comes first However, in Vietnamese, it is not necessary to invert interrogative words to the beginning of the questions In Vietnamese questions, interrogative pronouns are located in the place of the word they replace They can come first, jump in the middle or come at the end of the questions In some cases, the interrogative pronouns are inverted to the beginning of the sentence for emphasis E.g.1:Why haven‟t you finished your homework yet? - Sao mà chƣa làm xong tập? - Vì mà chƣa làm xong tập? - Thế mà chƣa làm xong tập vậy? - Con chƣa làm xong tập sao? Auxiliaries are obligatory in English questions, but they are not in Vietnamese In addition, there is subject- verb agreement in English questions whereas it is not necessary in Vietnamese because Vietnamese verbs have no inflection In other words, verbs in Vietnamese not change their forms according to person or tense like in English Normally, tenses in Vietnamese are distinguished by an adverb of time, time – markers or by the context Some Vietnamese words, for instance “sẽ/ (future), đã/ vừa/ mới/ vừa (past), (progressive)”, are time – markers in the verb phrase and placed before verb In Vietnamese questions, modal particles “ạ, hả, nhỉ, ấy, đó, thế, etc.” are often used in the final positions of the sentence in order to express the familiarity and different attitudes between the speaker and the addressee However, in English, intonation and stress can be used to express attitudes As discussed above, negative wh- questions are rare exception for Whyquestions, “who”, “what”, “which”….etc are only used for requesting information, such kind of question is formed by adding “n‟t” after auxiliary verb, all come after wh-words However, negator “not” can be put in a post - subject position in its full form or pre- subject position in its short form (wh- words can operate in various functions, however, within the scope of this study, the author only focuses on whquestions that play as objects in sentences) In English: Wh-word +aux/modal verb+n‟t+Verb+…? In Vietnamese: Subject+ khơng/chưa/chẳng…+ Verb + ai/cái gì…? E.g.2:Who don‟t you want to work with? Anh không muốn làm việc với ai? E.g.3:What haven‟t you realized around here? Anh chƣa nhận đƣợc xung quanh đây? 43 4.4.2.3 Negative alternative questions These alternative choices in the list which are separated by conjunction “or” in English and there are also these kinds of questions in Vietnamese Instead of using “or”, the Vietnamese use conjunctions like: hay, hay là, In English, Aux/ modal verb + n‟t are put at the beginning of the interrogative form Whereas, In Vietnamese, the subject appears at the beginning of the sentence and the negator “không/ chẳng/ chưa‟ and other particles stands after the subject In English: Aux/modal verb+n‟t +Sub+Verb+ N1 or N2…? In Vietnamese: Sub + không/ chẳng/ chưa…+ Verb1+or+ Verb2…? E.g.4: Don‟t you like coffeeor beer? Cậu khơng thích cà phê hay (khơng thích) bia? In English, Which always comes first and stands before „negative part‟ However, in Vietnamese, the negative part works as the object in the sentence and the subject appears at the beginning of the sentence The Vietnamese usually use one of the connections like: hay, hay là, hoặc, before the last alternative in this kind of sentence, which usually refers to all the need of the speaker, which is expected to reply by the addressee In English: Which +N+ aux/modal verb+ n‟t+ verb, N1 or N2? In Vietnamese: Subject+không/chưa/chẳng+verb+N+nào, N1 hay/hay là+ N2? E.g.5: Which car don‟t you like, the red or the black one?Anh khơngthích xe ô tô nào, màu đỏ hay màu đen? Eg.6: Which ice-cream don‟t you like, chocolate, vanilla or strawberry?Cậu khơng thích loại kem nào, sơ la, va ni hay dâu tây? In conclusion, we can see that the construction of English and Vietnamese negative interrogative sentences have both differences and similarities, in which differences play a larger part The main reason making this difference is while English has the inversion of auxiliary verbs in most kinds of negative interrogative sentences ; Vietnamese just adds question words into the statement and keep the word order the same There is no in version in Vietnamese negative interrogative sentences 44 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION The study has analyzed and discussed the semantic and syntactic feattures of negative questions in English and Vietnamese The main contents of the topic are presented in five chapters The structures of English negative questions ( negative Yes/No-question, negative Wh-questions, negative tag question,and negative alternative-questions) have been described and compared with Vietnamese equivalents to find out the similarities and differences to help learners fully understand them in both languages Moreover, the information status and some semantic aspects have been investigated to certain extent to lay the foundation for the work of contrastive analysis And another more important part in my study is to find how to use “not” in English negative questions and “không”, “chƣa”, “chẳng”, “chả” in Vietnamese equivalents The position of “not” and “không” in English and Vietnamese negative sentence is often similar, they are both placed before the verbs However, in negative questions, “không” in Vietnamese is not placed before the subject meanwhile “not” can be place before or after subject (negative full form and negative short form) The differences in position of “not” and “không” in two languages sometimes lead students to commit mistakes To help learners to avoid these mistakes, some solutions are suggested for both teachers and learners The author has also drawn out some forms of exercises for practice I hope that my study on the contrastive analysis of English and Vietnamese equivalents can help other learners know how to use English negative questions correctly and profoundly Moreover, this study also helps us to improve the language competence in order to avoid mistakes and have a deep understanding of negative questions as well In this study the author has presented many remarks which are on the syntactic and semantic features of negative questions and the similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese negative questions (based on selection of bilingual plays “ An Ideal Husband” and “ Lady Windermere‟s fan” Hence, students and English users can find out how to use negative questions correctly because negative questions are of varieties in structures and types If students not put negative question in right form at right time, they will fall into many difficult situations, for example, they will get bad results in important exams or seriously offend the foreigners especially English speakers in their conversations, or you may face grammar problems in four skills (writing, reading, speaking and listening), etc… 45 Hence, based on the selection of famous plays “An Ideal Husband” and “ Lady Windermere‟s fan” that are translated into Vietnamese by translator: Hoàng Nguyên from Thế Giới Publishers, students can understand clearly how to use negative question correctly and why the author of plays put that questions in the concrete situations They also understand deeply the syntactic and semantic features of negative questions in English and Vietnamese and know how to use them in particular situations In addition, based on the translation, students and users of English can distinguish the similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese negative question Although this is a new topic, however, negative questions have many issues which are not covered in this paper For this reason, a contrastive analysis of negative question in English and Vietnamese will be carried out in further study Because of limited time and experience, I am not able to give more details for my subject, the mistakes and shortcomings are unavoidable All the constructive and valuable comments are highly appreciated 46 REFERENCE English Alexander, L.G (1990) Longman English Intermediate Students Essex:Longman Grammar Practice for Anne Seaton (2007) Basic English Grammer book 1, United State: Saddleback Educational Publishing Annette Capel, Lorna Heaslip and Douglas Williamson, (2001), English Usage, Great Britain:Harper Collins Publishers Azar, B S (2000) Understanding and Using English Grammar New York: Longman Chalker and Weiner (1996) Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar Oxford: Oxford University Press Della Summers (1994) Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Essex:Longman Eastwood, J (1994) Oxford Guide to English Grammar Oxford: Oxford University Press Feigenbaum (1985) The Grammar Hand Book New York: Oxford University Express Hewings, M (1999) Advanced Grammar in Use Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Huddleston, R & Pullum,G.K, (2012) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, Vol.1,UK: CUP Oscar Wilder, (1998), An Ideal Husband, Selection of Plays, Methuan Drama Otto Jespersen (1917), Negation in English and Other Language,Kgl.Danske Videnskabernes Quirk, R (1973) A university Grammar of English England: Longman Quirk, R, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik (1985).A 10 11 12 13 14 Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language New York: Longman 15 Quirk, R (1985) A university Grammar of English England: Longman 16 Swan, M (2004) Practical English Usage Oxford: Oxford University Press Vietnamese 17 Cao Xuân Hạo (2003), Tiếng Việt- Sơ thảo ngữ pháp chức năng, NXB Giáo dục 18 Diệp Quang Ban (2002), Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Việt (tập 2), NXB Giáo dục 47 19 Diệp Quang Ban (2004), Ngữ Pháp Việt Nam- phần câu, NXB Đại học Sƣ phạm HàNội 20 Nguyễn Đăng Sửu (2010), Đặc Điểm Của Câu Hỏi Tiếng Anh Đối Chiếu Với tiếng Việt, NXB Khoa học Xã hội, Hà Nội 21 Nguyễn Tài Cẩn (1999), Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Việt, NXB DHQG Hà Nội 48 APPENDIX Negative questions used in the selection of plays „Lady Windermire‟s Fan‟ and „An Ideal Husband‟ Negative Yes/No question 1- You think science cannot grapple with the problem of women? (p.38) 2-You are not going to plunge us into a European war, I hope? (p.44) 3- Aren‟t you coming to the music - room? (p.48) 4- Mrs Cheveley, you cannot be serious in making me such a proposition? (p.66) 5- Don‟t you think you might have a card? 6- My dear Arthur, you are not going? (p.80) (p.86) 7- You are not going to lend your support to this Argentine speculation? 8-And never bonnet? 9- You are not going, Robert? 10- Don‟t you agree with me? 11- Won‟t you sit down, Mrs Cheveley? (p.86) (p.122) (p.124) (p.124) (p.138) 12- Isn‟t that Miss Chiltern? 13- Then life has taught you nothing? (p.138) (p.154) 14- You don‟t, Phipps? 15- You have heard nothing from Vienna yet, in answer to your wire? 16-Has she never in her life done some folly- some indiscretion- that she should not forgive your sin? 17- Robert, you don‟t mind my sending you away? 18-Do you give me your word that there is no one there? 19-Doesn‟t that sound rather like tempting Providence? 20-Won‟t you shake hands? 21-Won‟t you wear it? (p.168) (p.188) 22-Lady Chiltern not down yet? 23-I hope you are not going to leave me alone with Lord Goring? 24-The second today? 25-Can‟t you love me a little in return? 26-Do you mean to say you didn‟t come here expressly to proposeto me? 27-You want me to tell Robert that the woman you expected was not Mrs Cheveley, but myself? (p.222) (p.234) (p.236) (p.236) (p.240) 49 (p.190) (p.194) (p.194) (p.198) (p.210) (p.212) (p.244) 28-You would have no regrets? (p.252) 29- You don‟t mean to say that this charming, clever young lady has been so foolish as to accept you? (p.272) 30- Aren‟t you coming in, Robert? (p.274) 31- Aren‟t they lovely? (p.282) 32- Won‟t you come over, Lord Darlington? (p.284) 33- Don‟t you want the world to take you seriously then, Lord Darlington? (p.288) 34- Don‟t what? (p.288) 35- Isn‟t he dreadful? (p.296) 36- Don‟t you really know? (p.304) 37- You are not going to cry? (p.310) 38- Won‟t you help a women who is trying to get back? (p.320) 39- Wasn‟t it made the same time as the other, Duchess? (p.322) 40- Isn‟t it that your aunt,Lady Jedburgh? (p.344) 41- she is going to lunch on Thursday, won‟t you come too? (p.364) 42- Should it not, Windermere? (p.366) 43- Won‟t tomorrow as well? (p.366) 44- Windermere, Don‟t you think the word an intensely amusing place? (p.368) 45- May I not have an answer to my request? (p.372) 46- Don‟t you hear voices? (p.390) 47- But haven‟t you got one of yourself with your little boy? (p.426) 48- Won‟t you see me to my carriage? (p.446) 49- Won‟t you carry the fan, Lord Angustus? (p.446) Negative tag question 50- Horribly tedious parties they give, don‟t they? (P.22) 51- It puts one almost on a level with the commercial classes, doesn‟t it? (p.22) 52- You don‟t call that leading an idle life, you? (p.26) 53- Ah, nowadays people marry as often as they can, don‟t they? (p.28) 54- Well, that is only to be expected, is it not? (p.30) 55- There is nothing like race, is there? (p.30) 56- At any rate we our best to waste the public time, don‟t we? (p.32) 57- Wonderful man, wasn‟t he ? (p.42) 58- The men are all dowdies and the women are all dandies, aren‟t they? (p.54) 59- You were Lord Radley‟s secretary, weren‟t you, when the Government bought the Suez Canal shares? (p.62) 50 60- Corots seem to go with music, don‟t they? (p.64) 61- But one can‟t have everything, can one? (p.78) 62- Quite beautiful, isn‟t it? (p.82) 636465- Robert, it is not true, is it? But it‟s worthwhile my wiring to Vienna, is it not? She looks like a woman with a past, doesn‟t she? (p.86) (p.118) (p.120) 666768- You will wait and have some tea, won‟t you? I‟ll see you soon again, Arthur, shan‟t I? You have nothing to conceal, have you? (p.120) (p.122) (p.126) 6970- It is too late now, I suppose? You will remember what I said to you, won‟t you? (p.130) (p.132) 7172737475- Geniuses talk so much, don‟t they? You remember, we are having tableaux, don‟t you? That is not far, it is? He won‟t take any interest in politics then, will he? Yellow is a greyer colour, is it not? (p.136) (p.136) (p.144) (p.146) (148) 7677- One wouldn‟t say so from the sort of hats they wear, would one? That is a great comfort, is it not? (p.148) (p.152) 7879- (p.154) 81828384- Wonderful woman, Lady Markby, isn‟t she? In married life affection comes when people thoroughly dislike each other, father, doesn‟t it? But women who have common sense are so curiously plain, father, aren‟they? And we men are so self-sacrificing that we never use it, we, father? I can trust you absolutely, can‟t I? You love your wife, don‟t you? And a woman‟s first duty in life is to her dressmaker, isn‟t it? 85868788899091- You have come here to sell me Robert Chiltern‟s letter, haven‟t you? You mean that you amused yourself immensely, don‟t you? You admit it was romantic, don‟t you? This is the brooch, isn‟t it? But it looks very well on me as a bracelet, doesn‟t it? Wasting your time as usual, I suppose? You didn‟t accept him, I hope? (p.200) (p.204) (p.208) (p.212) (p.212) (p.224) (p.236) 80- 51 (p.184) (p.184) (p.186) (p.188) (p.190) (p.200) 92- But you never have been refused yet by anybody, have you, Arthur? (p.238) 93- Who is with him today? Mr Traffort, isn‟t it? (p.246) 94- He could recognize it without reading it, couldn‟t he ? (p.246) 959697- You will go and write your letter to the Prime Minister now, won‟t you? You‟ll stop to luncheon, Lord Caversham, won‟t you? Pretty, isn‟t it ? (p.256) (p.272) (p.284) 98- Quite an important day in my life, isn‟t it? 99- You don‟t think it will rain, Lord Darlington, you? 100- You remember Agatha, don‟t you? (p.284) (p.290) (p.296) 101- I may come to night, mayn‟t I? 102- Show such refinement of feeling, doesn‟t you? (p.300) (p.304) 103104105106107- My dear nieces- you know the Savillegirl, don‟t you? You think it wrong that you are found out, don‟t you? Rather curious, isn‟t it? It‟s been a delightful season, hasn‟t it? It has been a very dull season, hasn‟t it? 108- It is a very young country, isn‟t it? 109- A useful thing a fan, isn‟t it? 110111112113114115116117118- (p.304) (p.314) (p.316) (p.330) (p.330) (p.332) (p.340) But you will make me a handsome settlement, Windermere, won‟t you?(p.366) It would be an additional attraction, wouldn‟t it? (p.368) But it‟s my wife hand-writing,isn‟t it? (p.372) You‟ll take a cigar, won‟t you? (p.392) Mirs Erlynne looked very handsome tonight, didn‟t she? (p.394) We‟d treat you with more respect, wouldn‟t we, Tuppy? (p.398) You‟ll play,Authur, won‟t you? (p.400) Here is her fan.Amusing, isn‟t it? (p.410) He knocked at my door this morning, didn‟t he? (p.414) 119- If I said to you that I cared for her, perhaps love her even, you would sneer at me, wouldn‟t you? Negative alternative question 120- Gertrude, is it love you feel for me, or is it pity merely? 121- It is a boy or a girl? 122- Have you been twice married and one divorced, or twice divorced and one married? 52 (p.438) (p.274) (p.308) (p.338) 123- Do you count that to his credit Lord Windermere- or to mine? (p.430) Negative Wh- question 124- Why you not answer it ? (p.90) 125- Why can‟t you women love us, faults and all? 126- Why don‟t you imitate him, sir? 127- Why don‟t you take him for your model? (p.162) (p.174) (p.174) 128- Why should she not forgive? 129- If there is no one there, why should I not look in that room? 130- Why don‟t you call me Laura? (p.192) (p.194) (p.200) 131- Why don‟t you try to something useful in life? 132- Why don‟t you propose to that pretty Miss Chiltern? (p.228) (p.228) 133134135136137- (p.242) (p.244) (p.248) (p.266) (p.312) Why should she not have it? Oh! Why don‟t you tell me what to do? Why did you not add you loved me? Why should they not be married? But why should I not look? 138- Why hasn‟t she got any dammed relation? 139- Why didn‟t you tell me that before? 140141142143144- Why don‟t you ask me how I am? Why didn‟t you tell me right now? Why doesn‟t he come? Why is he not here, to wake by passionate words some fire me? A woman who didn‟t love me? 53 (p.334) (p.336) (p.336) (p.350) (p.376) (p.376) (p.404) ... entitled THE SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF NEGATIVE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH WITH REFERENCE TO VIETNAMESE BASED ON THE SELECTION OF BILINGUAL PLAY AN IDEAL HUSBAND AND LADY WINDERMERE‟S FAN submitted... clear the syntactic and semantic features of negative questions with reference to Vietnamese based on grammar books, reliable materials and the selection of bilingual plays An Ideal Husband and. .. and semantic features of negative question in English with reference to Vietnamese based on the selection of plays An Ideal Husband and Lady Windermere‟s Fan In this study, English user can
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