The fate and the dignity of slaves in the work “uncle tom’s cabin” by harriet beecher stowe

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY No FACULTY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES ====== DINH QUYNH NHU THE FATE AND THE DIGNITY OF SLAVES IN THE WORK “UNCLE TOM’S CABIN” BY HARRIET BEECHER STOWE GRADUATION PAPER Hanoi, May 2019 i MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY No2 FACULTY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES ====== DINH QUYNH NHU THE FATE AND THE DIGNITY OF SLAVES IN THE WORK “UNCLE TOM’S CABIN” BY HARRIET BEECHER STOWE GRADUATION PAPER Supervisor: Pham Thi Tuan Hanoi, May 2019 ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Ms Pham Thi Tuan She is very enthusiastic to give me valuable suggestions for the problems that I had during the process of doing the research Besides, I am indebted to all the lecturers at Faculty of Foreign Languages for their help and support I also owe my special thanks to my family for their indispensable support and encouragement during my thesis writing Without their support, I wouldn’t have completed the research on time iii STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP Tittle: The fate and the dignity of slaves in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe I certify that no part in this study has not been copied by me from any other person‘s report without acknowledgment and this work is written by my best under the instruction from my supervisor Date of submission: May, 2019 Student Supervisor Dinh Quynh Nhu Pham Thi Tuan iv ABSTRACT “Uncle Tom's Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe has always been known as one of the world’s most anti-slavery literary works Published in 1852, this work had a considerable impact on stereotypes about Negroes This study is aimed to investigate the fate and the dignity of black slaves represented in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” To achieve the aims of the study, the two main research methods used are literary analysis and literary comment The results of the study revealed a dreadful life that black slaves had to suffer when they were ill-treated as working tools, trading goods or bad creatures Along with the analysis of the slaves’ tragic life, some of their valuable characteristics were also discussed v TABLE OF CONTENTS STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP iv ABSTRACT v TABLE OF CONTENTS vi PART 1: INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale of the study Significance of the study Research methods of the study Scope of the study .2 Aims of the study and Research questions Organization of the study PART DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW .4 An overview of novel 1.1 Definition of novel 1.2 Elements of novel 1.2.1 Plot 1.2.2 Character 1.2.3 Setting .5 1.2.4 Theme .5 American Literature in the first half of the nineteenth century 2.1 Historical background 2.2 Literature movement 2.3 Slavery in American Literature in the first half of the nineteenth century “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” 3.1 Harriet Beecher Stowe vi According to Tonkovic and Nicole (1997), life and career of Harriet Beecher Stowe were recorded clearly .9 3.1.1 Biography 10 3.1.2 Writing career 10 3.2 The work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” 11 3.2.1 General information 12 3.2.2 “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” Summary 13 3.2.3 Elements of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” 14 CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOG Y 18 Research methods of the study 18 Data analysis procedures 19 CHAPTER 3: DISCUSSION 21 The fate of slaves 21 1.1 Slaves as working tools 21 1.2 Slaves as goods for trading 23 1.3 Slaves as a creature 26 The dignity of slaves 29 2.1 Morality 29 2.2 Faithfulness and honesty 30 2.3 Courage 30 2.4 Leniency 31 2.5 Stance 32 PART 3: CONCLUSION 35 Major findings 35 Implications to language teaching and learning 35 Limitations 35 Suggestions for further study 36 REFERENCES 37 vii PART 1: INTRODUCTION Rationale of the study Human beings have the capability to express thoughts by words in both spoken and written form In terms of written form, literature is considered one of the most typical forms According to World English Dictionary, literature is “written material such as poetries, novels, essays, etc, especially works of imagination characterized by excellence of style and expression and by themes of general or enduring interest.” Although the above definition is framed lexically, literature itself is beyond that definition, for it plays such a significant role in human life Literature is said to be a life-view mirror reflecting almost every aspect of life in which the pen holders transfer those life materials to the so-greedy-to-know readers It also serves as a means which has been used for thousand years of the fact-based education to teach about human’s lives and moral values Getting exposed to literature, not only readers shorten years to fullfill knowledge by accessing to the storehouse of all knowledge and wisdom but they also live a thousand lifes It is the magic merit brought by literature that makes me fond of and take it as my graduation paper’s topic without hesitance The author of this thesis has been paying special attention to study American Literature When approaching American Literature, the author was strongly impressed by Harriet Beecher Stowe who is a famous American writer In his works, she kept to the principles of Romanticism while her method of writing was also influenced by Realism because of historical background After reading several works written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author found “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” most interesting because of the way she described black slaves characters This inspires researcher to carry out the study “ The fate and the dignity of slaves in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe” This study is expected to introduce new views on slaves’ fate and images in Stowe’s writings Significance of the study American literature records that there are several works that pique researchers’ interest in doing research on the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” I just stood chances of getting exposed to a few research papers that dig deep in this work Almost all of them documented the American history of slavery, gender relation Those studies had powerful emotional, social and political impact on present For example, the study “The moral value of slavery as represented in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin” conducted by Paz (2014) investigated how the moral power of women, the morality of slavery and the conflict between this institution and Christianity are presented in the book The study named “Impact of religion on race and slavery in Uncle Tom’s Cabin” was to trace the emergence of new trends of slavery in the modern world, and to highlight the perspective of slavery in Uncle Tom’s Cabin in relation to attitudes of one race to another and influence of religion on both (Bhise, 2015) However, there are also other aspects of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” that remain unknown or unstudied, for example, the matter of the Whites’ treatment towards the black slaves the and good-natured traits of slaves Therefore, the researcher has decided to conduct on the topic of “The fate and the dignity of slaves in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe.” This research paper is likely to be a further step in the process of studying new facets of this work It gives a more profound insight of the work as regards its values In addition, in terms of the issue of education, this research can enable teachers to investigate the valuable collection of the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” ‘s angles and can give students a key to the door of literary world of this work Research methods of the study This research paper is essentially a literature research paper, therefore, it requires specialised methods in literary field For this thesis, the researcher has decided to use these following methods: literary analysis method and literacy comment method Scope of the study Within the scope of the topic, this study focuses only on the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe In addition, some references can be expected to take into consideration in order to serve the aims of the study Aims of the study and Research questions 5.1 Aims of the study The study is hoped to fulfill the shortcomings of former research studies and to contribute another dimensional perspective to the activities of teaching and learning the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” Firstly, the aim of the study is to give readers the valuable insight into the fate of niggers in American society in the first half of nineteenth century illustrated vividly in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” Secondly, it is good-natured traits of slaves that the researcher wants to investigate in order to take a new perspective towards this work 5.2 Research questions The study seeks to answer two following research questions: What is the fate of negroes in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe? What is the dignity of slaves in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe? Organization of the study This study consists of three main parts Part 1, Introduction, which includes the rationale, the significance, the scope, the aims, the methods used and the organization Part 2, Development, some following facets are going to be displayed in three chapters Chapter 1, Literature review, is to provide an overview of novel, an overview of the American literature in the first half of nineteenth century Chapter 2, Methodology, presents research instruments employed Chapter 3, Discussion, deals with slaves’ fate and dignity Part 3, Conclusion, gives the summary of the research outcomes, its limitations and suggestion for further study made to be as clean as possible under cover of civilization Following slaves’ footprints, we would have a better vision of that market Like every seasoned mass market, slaves were displayed in the state of being chained up with other items such as droves of ponies, packs of dogs, which meant the blacks were really nothing than lower animal What a heart-rending plight! With regard to the production of goods, the distribution of slaves was based on not only the phases of trade such as to be “sold, leased, mortgaged, exchanged for groceries or dry goods”(p.376) but also quality, durability or even the fancy of the purchaser The activity of classifying was carried out right in the market by traders or even by former slave owners who were also skilled in it They were sold “sold separately, or in lots to suit the convenience of the purchaser.”(p.376) As in a vegetable or meat market, there was also the rule of caveat emptor One of the subjects to the caveat emptor principle is the sale A number of questions was araised to discuss in the market such as “How much did a slave cost?” or “How much was a slave worth?” before the auction got started It was time for all sorts of traders revealed their true colors Some were rich while some were richer Some people wanted to buy a housekeeper, others needed a cook In the eyes of Uncle Tom, no future-wish-to-be master of Tom appeared except for those who were “great, burly, gruff men; little, chirping, dried men; long-favored, lank, hard men; and every variety of stubbedlooking, commonplace men, who pick up their fellow-men as one picks up chips, putting them into the fire or a basket with equal unconcern.”(p.384) No matter how purchasers looked like or what they wanted, the most concerned thing of dealers was their gain In the sakes of their significant amount of profit, they would “bring in about the finest droves of niggers that is brought in,—at least —all in good case,— fat and likely”(p.11) in order to “ lose as few as any man in the business”(p.11) Another example was that traders “drives them to some convenient, healthy place,— often a watering place,—to be fattened Here they are fed full daily; and, because some incline to pine, a fiddle is kept commonly going among them, and they are made to dance daily; and he who refuses to be merry—in whose soul thoughts of wife, or child, or home, are too strong for him to be gay—is marked as sullen and dangerous, and subjected to all the evils which the ill will of an utterly irresponsible and 25 hardened man can inflict upon him”(p.377) The better the goods were( in both appearance and working capacity, the more money slave dealers could earn This means all goods that traders introduced into a market were assured, by all means, to be the best products that not only were worthy working tools for buyers but could bring a great deal of cash for them, as well In terms of spectators who whether had an intention to purchase or not, they derived pleasure from “examining, and commenting on their various points and faces with the same freedom that a set of jockeys discuss the merits of a horse.”(p.383) They gave slaves judgments as they said about animals in circus such as “she was, too, and quite considerable smart”(p.76) or without any hesitation, purchasers checked slaves’ health,“pulled his mouth open and looked in, felt of his teeth, made him stand a nd straighten himself, bend his back, and perform various evolutions to show his muscles”(p.137) Wherease buyers and sellers were likely to be busy with their own jobs, slavers might have some hope of being chosen by kind-hearted masters “Briskness, alertness, and cheerfulness of appearance, especially before observers, are constantly enforced upon them, both by the hope of thereby getting a good master.”(p377) Some cried, some smiled Where the fate led them to remain unknown A bit of better luck would lead them to good slave owners; otherwise, slavery life filled with unfairness and misery opened Similar to unanimated things, the blacks had no rights to determine their fate 1.3 Slaves as a creature On the one hand, most whites hold a bone-deep belief about black inferiority that justified slavery of Negroes Robbing, whipping were essential things in almost every single conversation between white owners and black servants because they helped colored figures bear in mind who they really were The whites had a tendency to consider the blacks inferior and dirty kind, even more inferior than a dog as they “keep dogs for trackin’ out niggers.” (p.67) In addition, insulting remarks and names for slaves were frequently taken out of owners’ mouth such as “ye nigger, ye’r ready”(p.113), “impudent dog”(p.305),” little lazy dog”,” you rascal”.(p.304) The honour and human dignity of the blacks were trampled on by those dirty words of the 26 whites who had always been taking pride in themselves as high-class, but in fact what they were doing made ashamed of the human race Living life under slavery, without permission, blacks had no right to raise the voice If the masters commanded to “come”, “get in!”(p.114), the servants had to complete their duty without any rejection If the masters blamed that “you little lazy dog! you haven’t rubbed my horse down, this morning”(p.304), the servants had to accept with no attitude Despite of blacks’ both hard work, obedience and innocent, they were still thought to be “so bad”, “ought not to live” (p268) Due to the skin color, people with fair complexion thought of the blacks as “a regular spirit”(p.306) Slave owners also discouraged literacy and education among blacks When George invented “a machine for the cleaning of the hemp”(p.17), his later owner, instead of praising his intellect, put him to “just the hardest, meanest and dirtiest work, on purpose!”(p.22) He was so indignant that he questioned himself “who made him my master?”(p.22) It is said that we were made perfectly to be imperfect and as dedicated human beings that we are, we are all equally free Why were they not set high valuation of their ability? How could complexion be the thing that denied human rights of a group of people? How could the lack of education of blacks led to race discrimination and made people become either slaves or slaveholders? The way of Marie’s thinking in this work represented almost all the whites’ concepts of slaves She believed that “keep a negro under the care of a master, and he does well enough, and is respectable; but set them free, and they get lazy, and won’t work, and take to drinking, and go all down to be mean, worthless fellows”(p.373) This meant being slaves were the greatest favor that slaves could be bestowed On the other hand, there also existed high-mindedness among whites These owners believed in “the first verse of a republican’s catechism, ‘All men are born free and equal!”(p.307) As a result, the way they behaved towards slaves appeared to be another story Slaves were regarded as beloved family members Mr Shelby’s house was described “ there had never been a lack of anything which might contribute to the physical comfort of the negroes on his estate.”(p.14) Being given specific tasks based on each individual’s ability, Mrs Chloe hold the responsibility of working in the kitchen, which brought out cooking capability in her “A cook she certainly was, 27 in the very bone and centre of her soul”(p.28) She derived pleasure from cooking and nothing could stop her from making good meals for her family Here, one of the things we can figure out that slaves who had all levels of emotion, their own interests and talents were naturally not different from the whites What is more, that Mr.Shelby was in debt forced him to avoid finance ruin by selling Uncle Tom and Harry, who was Eliza’s son Knowing this bad news, Mrs Shelby, who was an intellectual and moral woman, angrily stated that “I would as soon have one of my own children sold”(p.15) It was obvious that no slave owners would take care of their slaves “as a petted and indulged favorite”(p.17), “care for them, instructed them, watched over them, and know all their little cares and joys, for years, teach them the duties of the family, of parent and child, and husband and wife”(p.42) if their heart was not filled with love and sympathy Besides, slaves received education from good masters That George Harris taught Uncle Tom from the alphabet, the Shelby showed their slaves love and moral value, Eva and Ms Ophelia taught Topsy the power of honesty gave blacks a fulfilled life with love, trust and education After being sold, Uncle Tom had a luck to be a servant of new owner, Eva, whose father, Augustine St Clare, proposed slavery “comes from the devil”(p.256) had a sensitive heart to others’ misery She once asked her mother for the diamond necklace so that she could have money to “teach them to read their own Bible, and write their own letters, and read letters that are written to them”(p.303) Unlike those took other people’s pain for their convenience, Eva looked blacks in the eyes of a naive child witnessing the misery of neighbors It was the sincere care of kind masters such as Eva, her father, Ms.Ophelia that won over slaves and turned them who was perpetually uneducable and had enmity against the whites into educable and sensible ones More than that, in the hope of setting blacks in general and their own slaves in particular free, several people among the whites also assisted slaves’ escape and promised to save them from racial discrimination in the territory of America “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” gives our imaginations the truthful picture with many shades of life of slaves among the white in America in the first half of the nineteenth century Except for some lucky slaves who had affable masters, the rest of slaves 28 were believed to deserved to have a life of a working tool, a profitable commodity and an inferior, nothing more The dignity of slaves Ever since we were born, freedom and dignity are two things that are entitled with all of us With regard to niggers, they came to terms with the fact that freedom was never one of their privileges Although enjoying no liberty and being considered working machines, goods, slaves still kept their dignity intact after long-suffering period of slavery 2.1 Morality The gratitude was one of the qualities involved in the book up to that point Slaves were clearly aware of their conditions as servants brought up by masters, so instead of taking it for granted, they expressed their deep gratitude to their masters In a private conversation, George reminded his wife, Eliza of how kind her masters were “they have brought you up like a child, fed you, clothed you, indulged you, and taught you, so that you have a good education”(p.23), and Eliza understood that “I always thought that I must obey my master and mistress”(p.23) For a long time, the whites had always been thinking of slaves as ungreatful sort of person, which made them never create trust for slaves However, those didn’t understand that the attitudes of slaves towards them was resulted from theirs It was a two-way process Eliza was treated so well under the roof of the Shelby that she could not forget to leave some words for her beloved masters prior her escape “O, Missis! dear Missis! God bless and reward you for all your kindness!”(p.45) To some good whites, their kind behaviour was only the essence of fellow-creature, but it appeared to be the act of redeeming to the blacks under Fugitive slave laws From being enslaved to being free, slaves still called their slave owners as “master” or “Mr” as a mark of respect and gratefulness George was an epitome, he always kept in his mind a big help he received “Mr Wilson, you treated me well; you encouraged me to well, and to learn to read and write, and to try to make something of myself; and God knows how grateful I am for it.”(p.130) In another case, when Dodo was advocated by Eva from 29 the sense of Henrique’s outrage, he “looked up in amazement into the sweet young face; the blood rushed to his cheeks, and the tears to his eyes.”(p.306) The sensitiveness of this black boy was clearly expressed by tear-drop, which showed us his self-pity as well as a deep respect and appreciation It was not by some florid words, slaves with their sincere step-by-step proved their dignity through real acts under all circumstances 2.2 Faithfulness and honesty The more slaves were moved and fired by the solicitous care of masters, the more loyal and honest they were Uncle Tom had taken care of Mr.Shelby and his family with all his heart since his master just was a little boy As he was in charge of taking care of house, horses and even money of Mr Shelby, he ran the plantation all by himself that made him a very good hard worker and “true and square in everything.”(p.7) When knowing the trade between his master and the slave trader, he insisted on being sold in order to avoid his master’s dept Even though he was heavy-hearted, he said explicitly “I never have broke trust, I s’pose I can bar it as well as any on ‘em”(p.48) Or the African “powerful and gigantic fellow”(p 268) who was saved by Augustine turned into “a braver, better fellow,—trusty and true as steel”(p.269) decided to stand by Mr.Clare’s side until he died Their souls were born natural beyond the superiority complex of race and the prejudice, which really affected the hearts of readers 2.3 Courage The book goes on to describe the fact that niggers were so courageous Being lived is a present from God, but more importantly, it raises the question of how to live just be ourselves with our own values, which is the motto we follow, so niggers They were consciously aware of a meaningful life in which both the physical body and soul, matter and spirit share in perfect harmony No longer could Geo rge, who was Eliza’s husband, stand his masters inhumane treatment, he gave upon the life of an inferior by escaping Whereas other slaves accepted to bet their lives on the cotton and tobacco fields so just as to be lived day by day, George found a way out 30 because he realized that temporary life brought in nothing but pain and an encounter with tragedy Being hunted and got back into a corner, he didn’t still surrender “we stand here as free, under God’s sky, as you are; and, by the great God that made us, we’ll fight for our liberty till we die.”(p.226) He provenly erred on the side of courage when dealing with the hunger of living So did his wife To protect her son from being sold, Eliza determined to run away with her child A mother’s love created magic helped lift Eliza’s feet across floating pieces of ice on her way to flee slave hunters It was the mother defense instinct that brought out the courage in her Besides, Uncle Tom was also a typical example of braveness There was definitely more of Simon Legree’s mistake when he forced Uncle Tom to beat a woman, which was an action of betraying Uncle Tom’s principles He firmly responded “the poor crittur’s sick and feeble; ‘t would be downright cruel, and it’s what I never will do, nor begin to Mas’r, if you mean to kill me, kill me; but, as to my ising my hand agin any one here, I never shall,—I’ll die first!”(p.411) The reason why Uncle Tom chose non-violence didn’t come from fear or cowardice, but from his deeply held Christian faith and his belief that he would rather suffer the inconvenience than raise a hand to another That he compromised his inner compass was called not only consistence but also courage What was braver than the struggle for existence and what braveness can be compared to the protection for individual’s moral value to death? 2.4 Leniency Another good quality of the blacks that makes readers obsessed with and admire most is the leniency To gentle masters, obedience and honesty were two significant dignity of a reliable slave However, the blacks had lots of surprise in store for the white In Uncle Tom’s opinion, he knew Augustine trusted him, “trusted to an unlimited extent by a careless master, who handed him a bill without looking at it, and pocketed the change without counting it”(p.233); therefore, he served his master so heartily that he “founded many prayers” for him This act of Uncle Tom really made Mr.Clare moved to tears It was that heartfelt care of slaves that set no boundary between qualities of slaves and masters Not only kind masters but also wicked ones 31 felt the lenience of slaves It must be a big mistake if violent Tom Loker was not mentioned A single bullet in the side of Tom Loker’s chest stopped him from hunting George and other slaves Neither of his companies gave him a hand except for the blacks who overcame the enmity and decided to “take him up and carry him on”(p.230) The ridiculous thing here is that those people who always considered themselves well-educated abandoned their fellow in pain without pity and “that infernal Quaker”, as they said, were ready to save their lives That noble manner of the blacks was so worth respecting and taught a lesson about morals and personality 2.5 Stance One more thing that makes readers and the whites think of niggers in awe is the profound living conception The images of negoes are carried all author’s concepts of happiness, the purpose of life and death Uncle Tom didn’t accept the idea of hitting a woman because in his opinion, “‘t would be downright cruel”(p.411) and he would rather be killed than break his rules It was so laughter-provoking when Tom’s inhuman master, Legree told Tom about the bible, which literally showed his illiteracy More importantly, this scene of conversation between Tom and Legree has a significant meaning “ Here, you rascal, you make believe to be so pious,—didn’t you never hear, out of yer Bible, ‘Servants, obey yer masters’? An’t I yer master? Didn’t I pay down twelve hundred dollars, cash, for all there is inside yer old cussed black shell? An’t yer mine, now, body and soul?” “ No! no! no! my soul an’t yours, Mas’r! You haven’t bought it,—ye can’t buy it! It’s been bought and paid for, by one that is able to keep it;—no matter, no matter, you can’t harm me!”(p.411) That Legree simply thought he did Tom a favor by buying him from being displayed at the auction, but how Tom lived was not his matter of concern The discorrelation between the behaviour and perspective of life can lead to an unfulfilled life The character understood it so clearly that there could not exist a refined soul in a sinful body, which was beyond the line of such moral slave 32 Uncle Tom and George in particular and the blacks in general had a strong belief in the victory over the bad, which was so inspiring that niggers couln’t capitulate to the fate The death of Uncle Tom and the freedom of other slaves were obvious evidence for the state “as ye bought me, I’ll be a true and faithful servant to ye I’ll give ye all the work of my hands, all my time, all my strength; but my soul I won’t give up to mortal man”(p.438) Whether or not the fate of niggers was in good hands, their dignity would forever stay complete as it The more struggle for existence slaves had to encounter, the more appreciation we show for them Though being treated as “the Lowly” and often encountering hardship, these slaves still kept their mind and their dignity out of the bad In order to create the image of slaves, the author Harriet Beecher Stowe built a long and bitter conflict between a strong desire to live in freedom every day and the adversity enslaved blacks suffered The conflict step-by-step reached to climax through several minor ones: servants and masters, slaves and traders, spirit and body At the same time, all of conflicts developed and peaked, which forced slaves to make the last-but-not-least decision The struggling inmost feelings turned into the conflict between the spirit and body From the very deep soul, slaves all wanted to be ordinary people who had liberties, got respect, had rights to enjoy education without race discrimination This led to the conflicting surroundings in which the blacks tried to escape from plantation, from being sold, being separated, in other words, from being dominated by slavery system Thanks to those conflicts, the dignity of slaves was come out Moreover, the author successfully depicted diverse psychology of characters via words When communicating with kind masters, slaves used honorific such as “Mr/master to show their respect When talking about their life, they couldn’t conceal their anger and drastic attitude “what country have I, but the grave,—and I wish to God that I was laid there!” or “if you mean to kill me, kill me” These inner voices were spoken out by people who deeply understood their worth The language usage somehow contributed to the reputation of the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” It can be said that the words in the characters’ speech were both kinds of dialogue and 33 monologue Just by simple words, readers are likely to be engrossed in the position of slaves and raise questions of equality and freedom 34 PART 3: CONCLUSION Major findings This study, as discussed above, revealed the miserable fate and the dignity of niggers Niggers who were of all ages and at all condition of health could not break out of the fate in which they lived a life of an inferior as labour tool, a cost effective product or rubbish creature in the disgusting eyes of the whites At the same time, despite the unpleasant fate, slaves would never surrender but overcame and affirmed their own dignity of faithfulness, honesty, courage, and lenience Implications to language teaching and learning By conducting this thesis paper, the author hopes that it will serve as a reference for any intended purposes In term of teaching and learning activity, to students studying the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” in the subject American Literature, students can take new perspectives of its values of content from this thesis in order to understand more about the work Also, when it comes to the subject British - American Culture, this paper will probably be one of the useful sources for students to search about one of the main periods of American history which is slavery To teachers, this study can be taken into consideration to have a further reading about slavery when they teach subject American Literature or British - American Culture With regard to research field, the study is hoped to be a useful example as regard literature research in the subject Research and graduate study methodology in general and in literary research in particular Limitations This is the first time the literature study which does not focus on linguistics has been conducted in the context of the Faculty of Foreign Languages Due to the time constraints and researcher’s limited experience in carrying out research, mistakes in this thesis is inevitable Moreover, the study was a literature study which researched into niggers in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”; therefore, the study appeared to be more of subjective one based on the researcher’s view 35 Suggestions for further study There are some suggestions for further research papers on the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” from the results of this research The researcher can carry out a research in comparison with other works which share the topic of slavery or a study about the field of linguistics such as the violation of conversational maxims in this work, which means the research will be more objective and reliable 36 REFERENCES American Realism December, 2006 International information programs Retrieved from http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/lit5.htm 2019, April 4th Stowe, H B (1852) Túp lều bác Tôm Hanoi Literature Publisher Stowe, H B (1852) Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/203 2018, December 18 th Biography.com Editors (2014) Harriet Beecher Stowe Biography A&E Televis ion Networks Retrieved from https://www.biography.com/activist/harriet-beecherstowe 2019, January 21 st Bhise, D M (2015) Impact of religion on race and slavery in Uncle Tom’s Cabin Journal of Newman Publication, 2(10), 0-15 Retrieved from http://www.newmanpublication.com/oct15.php 2018, December 25 th Doody, M A (1996) The True Story of the Novel NJ: Rutgers University Press Forster, E M (1927) Aspects of the Novel Cambridge: Trinity College Goodrich, Lloyd, Baur, John I H (1961) American Art of Our Century New York Hedrick, J D (1994) Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Life Oxford: Oxford University Press 37 Hirsch, S A (2015) Uncle Tomitudes: The Popular Reaction to Uncle Tom’s Cabin Studies in the American Renaissance, 1(15), 303-330 Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/30227451?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Howe, D.W (2007) What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of Amrica Oxford: Oxford University Press James, H (1884) The art of fiction Nabu Press James R Giles, Blair.W (2018) American literature Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/art/American-literature/The-naturalists 2019, April th Luebering, J.E (2008) American literature Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/list/periods-of-american-literature 2019, April th McNamara, R (2018) Slavery in 19th Century America ThoughtCo Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/slavery-in-19th-century-america-1773977 2019, April 6th McFarland, P (2017) Loves of Harriet Beecher Stowe New York: Grove Press O'Leary, J (2012) Critical Annotation of "Minstrel Shackles and Nineteenth Century 'Liberality' in Huckleberry Finn" University of Iowa Patton, M Q (2002) Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods Sage Publications Rand, Ayn (1995) Letters of Ayn Rand New York: Dutton 38 Shmoop Editorial Team (2008) Uncle Tom's Cabin Summary Retrieved, from https://www.shmoop.com/uncle-toms-cabin/summary.html 2019, April th Uncle Toms Cabin And American Romanticism (2017) Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/english-literature/uncle-toms-cabin-andamerican-romanticism-english-literature-essay.php 2019, April 3rd Wehner, P (2011) Impact of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” Retrieved from https://www.commentarymagazine.com/culturecivilization/literature/new-bookanalyzes-impact-of-uncle-toms-cabin/ 2019, April 7th Wheatcroft, G (2011) The Cousins' War: review of Amanda Foreman, 'A World on Fire' New York Times Book Review 39 ... analyze the fate of slaves and their dignity in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe 20 CHAPTER 3: DISCUSSION The fate of slaves When talking about slavery, Harriet Beecher Stowe. .. conduct on the topic of The fate and the dignity of slaves in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe. ” This research paper is likely to be a further step in the process of studying new... Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe? What is the dignity of slaves in the work “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe? Organization of the study This study consists of three main parts
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