A study of major sources of borrowings in english vocabulary = nghiên cứu những nguồn vay mượn chính trong từ vựng tiếng anh

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HANOI PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY FOREIGN LANGUAGE FACULTY HOÀNG THỊ MINH HẢO A STUDY OF MAJOR SOURCES OF BORROWINGS IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY (NGHIÊN CỨU NHỮNG NGUỒN VAY MƯỢN CHÍNH TRONG TỪ VỰNG TIẾNG ANH) Field: English Linguistics HA NOI, 2019 HANOI PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY FOREIGN LANGUAGE FACULTY HOÀNG THỊ MINH HẢO A STUDY OF MAJOR SOURCES OF BORROWINGS IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY (NGHIÊN CỨU NHỮNG NGUỒN VAY MƯỢN CHÍNH TRONG TỪ VỰNG TIẾNG ANH) Field: English Linguistics SUPERVISOR: ĐỖ TIẾN ĐỨC, MA HA NOI, 2019 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would love to show my huge and sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Do Tien Duc for his patience, guidance and support throughout the time I carried out my thesis, without whom this project would not have been completed I would also like to thank all both Vietnamese and foreign teachers of English at Hanoi Pedagogical University No.2 for their guidance and advice during the time I did the study I am also grateful to my family and friends who always stand by me in any situation to help me go over many troubles and difficulties through the course i ABSTRACT The study focuses on how some languages have affected English by specifically pointing out the major sources of borrowing of English vocabulary f rom each language In detail, it fully deals with how words in English has been borrowed from some other languages and paves the ways for readers to be able to recognize loan words or borrowings in newspapers The study is done with the process of collecting a lot of data, synthesizing and analysing the materials in specific method to bring about reliable findings which are the four major sources of borrowings in English vocabulary from identification of newspapers The Celtic, loan German, words Latin from and French, these research hopefully meets languages the needs along with the used in English of discovering English language by readers and makes contributions to the development of language study in general and learning English in particular ii DECLARATION I hereby certify that the thesis entitled: A study of major sources of borrowings in English vocabulary Is my own study in the fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Art at Hanoi Pedagogical University No.2 The study is the result of hard – working time by the enthusiastic guide of my supervisor and other people Student Supervisor Hoang Thi Minh Hao Do Tien Duc LIST OF TABLES AND DIAGRAMS Diagram 1: Germanic languages (Barber, C., 1993, p.34) Diagram 2: North Germanic languages (Barber, C., 1993, p.35) Diagram 3: West Germanic (Barber, c., 1993, p.35) Diagram 4: East Germanic (Barber, C., 1993, p.36) Table Abbreviations of borrowings) Table 2: Borrowings used in the extract) TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I: INTRODUCTION 1 Reasons for the study .1 Aims of the study Research questions Scope of the study .2 Methods of the study Organi zation of the study PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW .3 1.1 Native words and borrowed words 1.1.1 Native words 1.1.2 Borrowed words 1.2 Motivation of borrowings .4 1.2.1 Non-linguistic causes 1.2.2 Linguistic causes 1.3 Assimilation of borrowings 1.3.1 Definition .6 1.3.2 Types of assimilated words 1.4 Classification of borrowings in English vocabulary .7 1.4.1 In terms of the history of English borrowings 1.4.2 In terms of the manner of borrowings 1.5 Summary 10 PART II: DEVELOPMENT 11 CHAPTER 2: MAJOR SOURCES OF BORROWING IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY 11 2.1 Celtic borrowings 11 2.1.1 The Celtic language and its influence on the English vocabulary 11 2.1.2 Celtic borrowings- clues in place names 12 2.2 Germanic borrowings 13 2.2.1 A brief overview on the history of the German languages 13 2.2.2 Germanic borrowings 16 2.3 Latin borrowings 21 2.3.1 Historical contexts that lead to the borrowing of Latin word 21 2.3.2 Classification of Latin borrowings in English vocabulary 23 2.4 French borrowings 25 2.4.1 The Norman Conquest's influences on the English language 25 2.4.2 French borrowings 26 2.5 Summary 29 CHAPTER 3: EXAMPLES OF BOROWINGS USED IN ENGLISH NEWSPAPERS 30 3.1 Introduction 30 3.2 Signs of borrowed words in copy 30 3.2.1 Italics 30 3.2.2 Accent and other marks 30 3.2.3 Plurals 31 3.3 Abbreviations 31 3.4 Signs of borrowed words 32 3.5 Sample article: the extract of “Radicals in Retreat” – by Conant 33 3.6 Summary 36 PART 3: CONCLUSION 37 Review of the study 37 Suggestion for further studies 37 REFERENCE S APPENDIX Words recently taken in from French are usually written with accent mar if they were so written in French Newspapers not use accent marks except in some departments like the editorial, art, music, and fashion pages After they have been used for a time in English, the ascent marks are usually dropped unless they are necessary to indicate pronunciation For example, matinee, melee, and role not need marks, but café, fiancé Similarly, cañon is now usually spelled canyon, but piñon still keeps its original spelling form In German all nouns are capitalized and recent or infrequent borrowings from German are capitalized in English, usually if they are still printed in italics – for example, Anschluss, Realpolitic, Weltanschauung but hinterland, kindergarten, blitzkrieg 3.2.3 Plurals English is jokingly referred to as the thief of languages because it borrows so many words from other languages But because other languages have their own grammar rules, which are often wildly different from English grammar rules, the conjugation and use of these foreign words aren't always clear When it comes to foreign plurals they usually follow the rules of their origin language For example, the Latin plural of aquarium is aquaria, the Greek plural of criterion is criteria, and so forth The more thing to note about is that "the Latin and Greek -a plural has shown a tendency to be reinterpreted as a non-co unt form, or as a singular with its own - s plural This tendency has progressed furthest in agenda and has met with varying degrees of acceptance in candelabra, criteria, data, media, and phenomena." (Sylvia Chalker and Edmund Weiner, Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar Oxford University Press, 1994) 3.3 Abbreviations Many abbreviations used in English newspapers are from Latin, sometimes French They are usually used in formal writings Consider the list of abbreviations below Abbreviation Source Full word Meaning AD Latin Anno Domini Afterthe Christain era Am Latin Ante meridiem In the morning Cf Latin Confer Compare e.g Latin Exempli gratia For example etc Latin Et cetera And so on i.e Latin Id est That is to say v.s Latin Versus Against Viz Latin Videlicet Namely NB Latin Nota bene Please note RSVP French Répondez sỵl vous dt Please reply Table 2: Abbreviations of borrowings 3.4 Examples words of borrowed As has been mentioned, many borrowings are familiar - looking words This raises a question that these words are really English native words or if they are borrowed from certain foreign languages For those who are also interested in borrowed words, it is not easy for them to know the origin of these words However, the identification of borrowings can be conducted through some clues in their structural features when reading English newspapers As has been shown, a good many words with [sk] are of Scan origin, for early Old English [sk], written sc, came to be pronounced [š] Such words as scathe, scorch, score, scrape, scrub, skill, skin, skirt, and sky thus show by their initial consonant sequence that they entered the language after this change had ceased to be operative All have been taken from Scandinavian In addition, words of Latin and French origin can also be recognized by certain suffixes, prefixes or endings For examples, Latin noun can be realize by some suffixes -ion (opinion), -tion (conversation); Latin verbs usually end with –ate (create), -ute (contribute), -ct (connect), -d(e)(include) or start with dis- (disagree); Latin adjectives are easily recognized by these suffixes –able (reliable), - ate (accurate), - ant (instant), -ent (absent), -or (senior), - al (Cordial), -ar (Lunar) By these suffixes and prefixes, the readers can know which word is originated from French: -ance (hindrance), -ence (patience), -ment (environment), -age (advantage), -ess (lioness), -ous (anxious), en- (endanger)… Besides, however, we not have to bother much about Celtic borrowings because they remain in an extremely little quantity in English vocabulary Therefore, in newspapers we can hardly find a Celtic borrowing except for some place names such as London, Thames, Cornwall, Lincoln, and some others On the whole, it is not easy to recognize a great bulk of English borrowings in English vocabulary in general, and in English newspapers in particular, because they account for as much as approximately 70 % of the total Also, many of them are so similar with the native words that we can hardly distinguish among them Therefore, it might be a good advice for students to consult dictionaries for uncertain borrowings when they read newspapers 3.5 Sample article: the extract of “Radicals in Retreat” – by Conant Newspapers, nowadays, are the most common publication means and will be more powerful in the future In general, newspapers reflect up-to-date issues; accordingly, this article's extract is chosen with a view to discovering how borrowed words have been used in English newspapers so far Radicals in Retreat is an article by Eve Conant for Newsweek, September 15, 2002 (see the Appendix) All the borrowings used in the extract are listed in the following table: Borrowings Period Origin language Origin word Instruct Latin Latin Instruere Avow French French Avouer Jihad Arab Arab Jihad Member Latin Member Membrum Movement Latin Latin Movementum Group Italian Italian Gruppo Province Latin Latin Provincia Pone tableLatin Latin Ponere Plane Latin Latin Planum 10 Attack French French Attacquer 11 Convoy French French Convoyer 12 Resist French French Resister 13 Force French French Force 14 Aide (aide-de-camp) French French Aide-de-camp 15 Order French French Ordre 16 Funeral Latin Latin Funeraille 17 Blanket French French Blancquet 18 Virtual Latin Latin Virtus 19 Recognize French French Reconnaistre 20 Particular Latin Latin Particularis 21 Mention Latin Latin Mentio 22 Suppose French French Supposer 23 Pious Latin Latin Pius 24 Symbol ME Greek Symbolon 25 Establish ME French Estanlir 26 Military Latin Latin Militaris 34 27 Insurgent Latin Latin Insurgere 28 Guerrilla Spanish Spanish guerrilla 29 Terrorist French French Terroriste 30 Camp Mod.E Italian Campo 31 Dictator ME Latin Dictator 32 Regime Mod.E French Regime 33 Incursion ME Latin Incursion 34 Bomb Mod.E Greek Bom bos 35 Disperse ME Latin Dipergere 36 Organize ME Latin Organize 37 Region ME Latin Region 38 Structure ME Latin Structura Table 3: Borrowings used in the extract In the extract above, there is a considerable number of borrowings, most of which are ME borrowings, 22 out of 38 New military notions have resulted in military, group, camp, aid terrorist, guerrilla, and jihad What is more, words are borrowed from various sources, not only French and Latin but also Spanish (guerrilla), Arab (jihad), Among these illustrates borrowings, Italian (group), Latin accounts the heavy influence for and Greek (symbol) 19, French 13, which of the two contributors of words on present- day English Last but not least, in terms of linguistic feature, there are also non-semantically assimilated words such as jihad and aide (aide-decamp) Obviously, through the small extract above, it can be said that borrowings play a critical role in English vocabulary newspapers in particular 35 in general, and in English 3.6 Summary So far, some ways of identifying borrowings in English newspapers have been suggested This is helpful for students to improve their vocabulary through reading English newspapers 36 PART CONCLUSION Review of the study Many purists have opposed to borrowed words, and their slogan is: "Avoid Latin datives: use brief, terse Anglo-Saxon monosyllables "(Xugekelb C.C., 1969, P41) Obviously, borrowings are an indispensable part of English vocabulary because they denote objects and phenomena, which are obviously various day after day while English native words only are not able to In studying English, Vietnamese students may have to cope with difficulties in distinguishing borrowed words and native identifying the sources and origins of the words, or in borrowings Meanwhile, borrowing in English vocabulary is rarely mentioned in a textbook So, I generalize the borrowings in English vocabulary here in this graduation paper I also mention the four major sources of borrowings, namely Celtic, Germanic, Latin, and French which have the most influence on English vocabulary What is more, the (suggested) identification of borrowings in English newspapers is also included Anyway, the researcher hope that this paper will become a useful reference for students at Hanoi Pedagogical University No.2 Although the study has accomplished the aims set at the beginning, it avoids some limitations due to the shortage of time, experience and knowledge as well So the researcher would be very grateful to receive any remarks and comments on study Suggestion for further studies The etymology English vocabulary of English in particular, words in general, is a difficult the borrowings in but interesting matter of English However, the matter has not been much touched upon yet Therefore, this paper is designated as a reference for major English students at Hanoi Pedagogical University No.2 to carry out further studies on the etymology of 37 English words Due to the limitation of time as well as experience, the researcher cannot cover all the aspects of such a matter So, any contribution for further study on the matter would be highly appreciated 38 REFERENCES Algeo, J (2010) Foreign Elements in the English Word Stock In J Algeo, The Origins and Development of the English Language (pp 247-261) Boston: Michael Rosenberg Algeo, J., & Butcher, C A (2013) Germanic Loanwords In C A John Algeo, The Origins and Development of the English Language (p 289) Antrushina, G (1985) English Lexicology Vyshaja Skola, Russia Barber, C., Beal, J C., & Shaw, P (2009) The English Language Cambridge University Press Bolinger, D (1984) Aspects of Language Harcount Brace Jovanovich Bryson (1995) The Holt Guide to English Cambridge University Press C Daiber (1993) The English Cambridge Language A Historical Introduction University Press Crowther, J University (1995) Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary Oxford Press Crystal, D Language Cambridge Press (1994) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of The English University Culpeper, J (1997) Borrowing Words In J Culpeper, History of English (pp 3439) Devon Culpeper, J Routledge (1997) History of English Culpeper, J (1997) New Words from Old In J Culpeper, History of English (pp 40-45) Devon Encyclopædia Encyclopædia Britannica, inc Britannica: language https://www britan nica.com/topic /Ge rman- Eve, C., Newsweek: C (2002, (2017, September 10 6) 15) Retrieved Retrieved from from https://www ne wsweek.com/radicals-retreat144543 Heinle, T Language University Geargia (1993) of The Origins and Development of The English Jirtle, J (2003) Rice Unconventional Wisdom Retrieved from Words in English Website: https://www.r uf.rice e du/~ ke m mer/Words04 /structure /borrowe d.html Lovis, C (2001) Computing in the Humanities and Social Sciences Retrieved from The Influence of Celtic on English: http://homes.chass.utoronto.ca/~cpercy/course s/6361 Lovis.htm McCarthy, M (1995) English Vocabulary in Use Cambridge University Press McMahon, A (1995) Understanding Language Change Cambridge University Press O'driscoll, J (1995) Britain - The Country and Its People Oxford University Press Porter, C (1995) Word Word Word - An English Vocabulary Builder and Anthology Cambridge University Press Ractopryeva, T (1969) History of English Language Moicow S.Quirk (1979) A Grammar of Contemporary English Oxford University Press Singleton, D (2000) Language and Lexicons: An Introduction Amold London Spolsky, B (1998) Sociolinguistics Oxford University Press Thomas, B (1997) Advanced Vocabulary and Idioms HCM City Press Truong Hoang Tat (1993) Basic English Vocabulary Hanoi National University Press Vugekelb, C C (1969) Reading in Modern English Lexicology Vyshaja Skols Russia Студопедия Doublets: (2015, 4) Retrieved from Etymological https://studopedia.info/6-89149.html (n.d.) MegaEssays.com: Retrieved from https://www meg ae ssays.com/ vie wpaper/44261.html (n.d.) Retrieved from Studfiles: https://studfiles.net/preview/51862 24/page:3/ APPENDIX Radicals in Retreat By Eve Conant Sharaly Akbotoev received summons in Kabul last November An Uzbek religious instructor and avowed jihadist, Akbotoev was a member of the Islamic movement of Uzbekistan, a hard-line group with ties to Al Quaeda and Osama bin Laden "Come to Logar province" in Northern Afghanistan, his superiors told him by pone "Something has happened” Us fighter planes had attacked a convoy of IMU lighters fleeing Konduz, where some 300 of them had been helping Taliban resist the US baked forces of the Northern Alliance A top IMU aide, Akbotoev was being ordered to the soldier's funeral The bodies, wrapped in blankets, were virtually unrecognizable One in particular, he says "was just meat There wasn't much left" But he knew who it was because the dead man's name had just been mentioned in the farewell prayer: Juma Namangani, a former Soviet paratrooper and leader of the IMU A mysterious and supposedly pious man, Namangani's name had symbolized the lingering Islamist dream of establishing a Taliban-style state in the former Soviet republic o central Asia Until Namangani's death, the IMU had made its own name through militarystyle insurgency At its peak, the group claimed about 1,200 hard-core fighters, along with thousands more family members and followers In the late 1990s, the guerrillas were concentrated in terrorist training camps in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, from where they launched military-style attacks against the secular, dictatorial regime in Uzbekistan They say a disorganized, weakened IMU could become more Quaeda- like in its structure and thereby harder to defend against in an inherently unstable region Newsweek (15/9/2002) ...HANOI PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY FOREIGN LANGUAGE FACULTY HOÀNG THỊ MINH HẢO A STUDY OF MAJOR SOURCES OF BORROWINGS IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY (NGHIÊN CỨU NHỮNG NGUỒN VAY MƯỢN CHÍNH TRONG TỪ VỰNG TIẾNG... Norman Conquest in 1066 exercised a major influence on the English language because French was an invading language or the official language of law and administration As the language of the aristocracy... Scandinavian language 1.5 Summary In this chapter, I have generalized the borrowings in English vocabulary It includes certain aspects of borrowings such as definition, assimilation, and classification
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