A study on violation and flouting of conversational maxims in the series “ how i met your mother

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HA NOI PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY FOREIGN LANGUAGES FACULTY = = == = = LE THI PHUONG LINH A STUDY ON VIOLATION AND FLOUTING OF CONVERSATIONAL MAXIMS IN THE SERIES “HOW I MET YOUR MOTHER” (SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS IN ENGLISH) HANOI, 2019 HA NOI PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY FOREIGN LANGUAGES FACULTY = = == = = LE THI PHUONG LINH A STUDY ON VIOLATION AND FLOUTING OF CONVERSATIONAL MAXIMS IN THE SERIES “HOW I MET YOUR MOTHER” (SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS IN ENGLISH) SUPERVISOR: NGUYEN THI THU THAO, M.A HANOI, 2019 ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To accomplish this study, there was a great amount of contributions from my dear people around me First and foremost, I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the priceless opportunity to fulfill the study I want to thank Foreign Languages Faculty of Hanoi Pedagogical University for granting me permission to conduct the study Also, the teaching and guiding of lecturers in four years did provide me useful background knowledge of language and motivation to this research I want to give my special thank to my supervisor, Ms Nguyen Thi Thu Thao, whose support and advices did encourage me so much in all stages of doing this research Moreover, her helpful suggestions and straightly critic and careful comments played a vital role in completing of the study Last but not least, I am so appreciated my best friends, Kien, Giang, Hien, Phuong, Thuy and Nhan We have been together for almost four years, so we always support each other to learn and discover new things day by day To make the decision of doing the research, I owe them many encouragements and sharing Date submitted: 10th May, 2019 Student Le Thi Phuong Linh STATE OF AUTHORSHIP Title: An Study on Violation and Flouting of Conversational Maxims in the series “ How I Met Your Mother” I hereby certify that no part of this research has been copied from any other person’s work without acknowledgements and the study is originally written by me under the guidance of my supervisor Date submitted: 10th May, 2019 Student Le Thi Phuong Linh ABSTRACT This research aims to describe the types of maxims that are violated and flouted and explain the functions of the non-observation of the four maxims by the main characters in the sitcom “How I Met Your Mother” The violations of maxims occur when the speakers consciously manipulated the maxims so as to mislead the interlocutors While the flouting of maxims happens when individuals intentionally not observe the maxims since they want to derive the hidden meaning behind to the listeners, that is, the speakers employ implicature In obtaining the data, the researcher uses the non-participant observation to the utterances of main characters in the season of the series There are two results of this research The first result reveals that the participants mostly did the violation than flouting From the overall of non-observations they have done, the quality maxim violation is in the highest rank and the maxim of relation is flouted most The second result is that the maxim violation has four functions namely representatives, declaratives, expressives, directives and the functions of maxim flouting are representatives, directives, expressives Based on the analysis, it showed that there is a connection between the most dominant violated/flouted maxim with the mostly used function in the characters’ utterances For further research, it is suggested that the study will be conducted in a larger scope of population Keywords: Cooperative Principles, maxims, flouting, violation, functions, How I Met Your Mother (abbreviated to HIMYM) LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure The percentage of each violated maxim 16 Figure The percentage of each flouted maxim 18 Table 1: The frequency of maxim violation 15 Table 2: The frequency of maxim flouting 17 Table The functions of maxim violation 19 Table The functions of maxim flouting 20 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION .1 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 Significances of the study 1.3 Aims of the study 1.4 Research questions .3 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Organization of the study .4 1.7 The sitcom “How I Met Your Mother” 1.7.1 Population 1.7.2 Main Characters 1.7.3 A summary of season .6 CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Theoretical background 2.1.1 Conversational implicature .7 2.1.2 Grice’s theory of implicature 2.1.3 Observance and Non-observance of Grice’s maxims .8 2.1.4 The violation of Grice’s maxims 2.1.5 The flouting of Grice’s maxims 2.1.6 Speech acts 10 2.1.6.1 Declarations 11 2.1.6.2 Representatives 11 2.1.6.3 Expressives 11 2.1.6.5 Commissives 12 2.2 A review of related studies 12 CHAPTER 13 vii METHODOLOGY 13 3.1 The source of data 13 3.2 Data collection methods and procedures 13 3.3 Data analysis methods and procedures 13 CHAPTER 15 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 15 4.1 Findings 15 4.1.1 Research Question 1: Which conversational maxims are violated/flouted by the main characters? .15 4.1.1.1 Which conversational maxims are violated by the main characters? 15 4.1.1.2 Which conversational maxims are flouted by the main characters? 16 4.1.2 Research Question 2: What are the functions of maxim(s) violation/flouting conveyed by the main characters? 18 4.1.2.1 What are the functions of maxim violation? 18 4.1.2.2 What are the functions of maxim flouting? 19 4.2 Discussion 21 4.2.1 The types of maxim violation in the season of HIMYM series 21 4.2.1.1 The violation of quality maxim 21 4.2.1.2 The violation of manner maxim .22 4.2.1.3 The violation of multi-maxim 23 4.2.2 The types of maxim flouting in the season of HIMYM series 24 4.2.2.1 The flouting of quantity maxim 24 4.2.2.2 The flouting of quality maxim .24 4.2.2.3 The flouting of relation maxim 25 4.2.2.4 The flouting of manner maxim 26 4.3 The functions of maxim violation and flouting in the HIMYM series .27 4.3.1 Representatives .27 4.3.2 Expressives 29 4.3.3 Directives 30 4.3.4 Declarations 31 CHAPTER 34 CONCLUSIONS .34 5.1 Conclusions 34 5.2 Limitations of the study .35 5.3 Recommendations 35 5.3.1 To students 35 5.3.2 To English language teachers 35 5.3.3 To researchers 36 REFERENCE 37 APPENDIX .38 CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study In the past few decades, English has become the most commonly used language in the globalized world where people of different cultures use it to interact and communicate with each other Communication in society happens chiefly by means of language However, the users of language, as social beings, communicate and use language on society’s premises; society controls their access to the linguistic and communicative means (Mey, 2005) To conduct a good conversation, both interlocutors should be active in the interaction In other words, the speaker and listener have cooperative behaviors while they are communicating with each other Pragmatics studies the use of language in human communication as determined by the conditions of society Pragmatics is a field of knowledge that makes people know how to appropriately achieve the mutual comprehension, and politely face the challenges, which are caused by the miscommunication and misunderstanding in international situations (Kasper, 1997) In fact, people coming from different places attempt to accomplish the appropriateness in English as a foreign language Thus, in order to make an efficient and effective conversation with others from different areas, they (including both native and non-active English speakers) should be taught with pragmatics Also, Crystal (1997) emphasizes the close relation between pragmatics competence and English proficiency in his study:” Pragmatics is the study of language form and the point of view of users, especially of the choices they make, the constraints they encounter in using language in social interaction, and the effects their use of language has on other participants in the act of communication” It can be said that pragmatics is a socio-cultural context study in intercultural communication, which is contributed not only from the speakers in saying utterances but also from the hearers in understanding the utterances from their opinions Also the contributions of interlocutors, contexts of utterances such as physical, social, linguistic contexts and the meaning of potential utterances are taken into account in producing meaning In this case, the study will only focus on researching the meaning of potential utterances in conversations weird that you don't remember 285 00:12:02,566 > 00:12:04,732 No, I just didn't know how to answer 286 00:12:04,745 > 00:12:07,692 because we did butlered hors d'oeuvres in the atrium, 287 00:12:07,705 > 00:12:10,730 but the actual dinner was a buffet in the Food Court 288 00:12:10,746 > 00:12:14,133 featuring a filet mignon or a roasted potato-crusted salmon 289 00:12:14,145 > 00:12:16,872 with a lobster scallion beurre blanc 290 00:12:20,197 > 00:12:21,351 Band or DJ? 291 00:12:21,366 > 00:12:23,532 A string quartet played at the ceremony, 292 00:12:23,545 > 00:12:26,541 but for the actual reception, we had a seven-piece band 293 00:12:26,558 > 00:12:28,300 We paid extra for the sax 294 00:12:28,315 > 00:12:31,850 'cause I just love that smooth alto sound 295 00:12:31,866 > 00:12:33,541 - How many bridesmaids? - Seven 296 00:12:33,556 > 00:12:34,861 - Flowers? - Azaleas 297 00:12:34,878 > 00:12:37,162 - Color scheme? - Dusty rose and sienna 298 00:12:37,176 > 00:12:38,963 Husband's name Example 4: The flouting of quantity 139 00:05:38,378 > 00:05:40,211 (scoffs) Barney, what are you doing here? 140 00:05:40,212 > 00:05:41,646 Uh I'm here to meet your parents 141 00:05:41,713 > 00:05:43,584 They must be dying to meet me after all 142 00:05:43,585 > 00:05:45,460 the legendary Barney stories you've told them 143 00:05:45,461 > 00:05:47,448 I haven't told them any legendary Barney stories Example 5: The flouting of quality maxim 22 00:00:51,436 > 00:00:53,450 Here she comes Here she comes 23 00:00:53,908 > 00:00:57,303 Welcome to Big Wave Luau May I tiki your drink order? 24 00:00:57,317 > 00:00:58,802 Aw, crap 25 00:00:58,818 > 00:01:00,131 I'm sorry 26 00:01:00,145 > 00:01:02,223 Oh, hi, Lily We were just in the neighborhood, 27 00:01:02,237 > 00:01:04,941 thought we'd get some lunch We didn't even know you'd be here 28 00:01:08,117 > 00:01:09,352 What you want? 29 00:01:09,368 > 00:01:11,302 Oh, I don't think that's how you're supposed to greet 30 00:01:11,335 > 00:01:14,320 a customer at Big Wave Luau 31 00:01:17,026 > 00:01:19,791 Aloha, island visitors 32 00:01:19,827 > 00:01:23,390 The big wave brought you to our humble luau 33 00:01:23,416 > 00:01:27,390 For that, we thank you Or in my native tongue, mahalo 34 00:01:28,777 > 00:01:31,373 I didn't catch your name Did you guys catch her name? 35 00:01:31,385 > 00:01:32,793 No 36 00:01:32,808 > 00:01:34,830 My name is Anuhea 37 00:01:34,847 > 00:01:36,850 It means cool and fragrant, 38 00:01:36,866 > 00:01:39,902 much like any of our12 specialty drinks 39 00:01:40,605 > 00:01:42,272 Robin, nothing to add? 40 00:01:42,288 > 00:01:45,092 No Lily is my friend and I'm not going to make fun of her 41 00:01:45,105 > 00:01:46,620 for trying to follow her dreams 42 00:01:46,637 > 00:01:48,232 Thank you 43 00:01:48,346 > 00:01:50,762 Although, you might want to bring out the big Hawaiian drum 44 00:01:50,776 > 00:01:53,301 because I'm pretty sure today's my birthday 45 00:01:53,316 > 00:01:54,852 Birthday girl! Example 6: The flouting of relation maxim 403 00:18:35,375 > 00:18:36,720 Hey 404 00:18:36,978 > 00:18:39,691 - What are you doing here? - I brought donuts 405 00:18:39,706 > 00:18:42,483 And I don't want to brag, but they're filled with jelly 406 00:18:43,095 > 00:18:44,451 Thanks 407 00:18:46,898 > 00:18:49,770 So, uh how was your night? Example 7:The flouting of manner maxim 131 00:06:15,468 > 00:06:18,383 Oh, hey, Marshall Have a seat 132 00:06:18,798 > 00:06:21,820 I know how much you love stools 133 00:06:22,198 > 00:06:25,143 Thanks Yeah, stools are better for your posture 134 00:06:25,346 > 00:06:29,782 And, uh I got you a rose 135 00:06:29,867 > 00:06:31,890 Thank you That's so sweet 136 00:06:31,907 > 00:06:34,831 You guys are being so sweet 137 00:06:34,845 > 00:06:38,173 Hey, guys Guess what I got A new dart 138 00:06:38,188 > 00:06:39,910 Oh, wow, a new dart 139 00:06:39,926 > 00:06:41,692 Hey, that new dart is great 140 00:06:41,706 > 00:06:44,012 I did not know you were such a fan of new dart, Barney 141 00:06:44,106 > 00:06:46,733 Oh, yes, Robin, I just love new dart 142 00:06:46,746 > 00:06:48,560 Nude art 143 00:06:48,665 > 00:06:50,530 - Nude art - Nude art 144 00:06:50,583 > 00:06:53,798 Okay, all right, so what, you guys found the painting, huh? 145 00:06:54,205 > 00:06:56,212 I knew this day would come 146 00:06:56,224 > 00:06:57,452 How did you know that? 147 00:06:57,469 > 00:06:59,451 Because I didn't hide it very well Example 8: The representative function of maxim violation 188 00:07:49,988 > 00:07:50,990 Are you sure? 189 00:07:51,096 > 00:07:53,111 I'm marrying Marshall today 190 00:07:53,215 > 00:07:56,120 So it doesn't even matter that I'm gonna walk down the aisle 191 00:07:56,226 > 00:07:59,591 without a veil in a room that has no flowers 192 00:07:59,698 > 00:08:03,241 to the music of half a harp played by a woman who's crowning, 193 00:08:03,345 > 00:08:06,683 as my high school boyfriend reads Guns N' Roses lyrics 194 00:08:06,787 > 00:08:07,853 But that's okay, 195 00:08:07,955 > 00:08:11,411 because there's no photographer there to take any pictures of it anyway Example 9: The representative function of maxim flouting 116 00:05:44,500 > 00:05:48,800 You know, Katie, I have wanted to come to the Empire State Building for so long, 117 00:05:48,800 > 00:05:51,500 but I waited to come here with someone special 118 00:05:51,500 > 00:05:53,100 Oh, here we go 119 00:05:53,200 > 00:05:56,700 Marshall and I have never been to the Empire State Building either 120 00:05:56,700 > 00:06:01,400 But I'm so glad I waited to something so important with my fiancé 121 00:06:01,600 > 00:06:04,800 Speaking of waiting, I signed an abstinence pledge in high school 122 00:06:04,800 > 00:06:06,500 It's totally cool to wait 123 00:06:06,600 > 00:06:09,600 And stay away from drugs other than pot 124 00:06:10,600 > 00:06:12,900 - You told them? - Oh, okay, yes, I told them Example 10: the expressive function of maxim violation 516 00:19:55,068 > 00:19:58,301 Marshall, what are you doing? 517 00:19:58,368 > 00:19:59,502 It's Sunday 518 00:19:59,568 > 00:20:01,667 It's pancakes day 519 00:20:06,258 > 00:20:07,504 It took him 67 days 520 00:20:07,554 > 00:20:09,850 and one really disgusting batch of pancakes 521 00:20:14,987 > 00:20:16,154 So good 522 00:20:16,221 > 00:20:18,887 Mmm So good Example 11: The expressive function of maxim flouting 169 00:06:38,022 > 00:06:38,989 this is my girlfriend, Robin 170 00:06:39,055 > 00:06:40,222 Hello ROBIN: Hello 171 00:06:40,289 > 00:06:41,189 MRS MOSBY: Oh, it's wonderful 172 00:06:41,256 > 00:06:42,289 to meet you, Robin 173 00:06:42,356 > 00:06:43,788 Oh, you are so pretty 174 00:06:43,855 > 00:06:44,888 Isn't she pretty, Al? 175 00:06:44,955 > 00:06:46,591 A real looker 176 00:06:46,592 > 00:06:48,793 That's funny, I didn't even "look" in the mirror today 177 00:06:52,021 > 00:06:54,488 That's not anything, is it? Example 12: The directive function of maxim violation 275 00:12:11,866 > 00:12:14,573 - Uh, hi Uncle Ben, right? - Yes 276 00:12:14,676 > 00:12:17,673 Yes, we're, we're having a little bit of a problem back there 277 00:12:17,775 > 00:12:19,732 Um, and I was wondering if you could help us out 278 00:12:19,757 > 00:12:20,690 Yeah 279 00:12:21,555 > 00:12:25,951 Marshall accidentally shaved part of his head 280 00:12:26,058 > 00:12:27,680 - Oh, no! - Yeah 281 00:12:27,785 > 00:12:29,660 Yeah, so here's what I was thinking 282 00:12:29,765 > 00:12:35,211 What if I found something to cover up the bald area? 283 00:12:35,315 > 00:12:37,820 Yeah, that would probably work, 284 00:12:37,927 > 00:12:39,291 but with what? 285 00:12:40,898 > 00:12:42,421 That's a tough one 286 00:12:43,758 > 00:12:46,932 Maybe a wig of some sort or a, um 287 00:12:47,035 > 00:12:48,150 toupee 288 00:12:48,257 > 00:12:50,162 Something that matches his hair color, 289 00:12:50,266 > 00:12:54,913 which is, which is kind of the same color as the top of your hair 290 00:12:55,408 > 00:12:57,940 Mm, yeah 291 00:12:58,658 > 00:13:00,733 Does anyone here wear a toupee? 292 00:13:01,147 > 00:13:02,551 Shouldn't be hard to find out 293 00:13:02,657 > 00:13:04,083 Most of them are pretty bad 294 00:13:04,186 > 00:13:06,631 That is true That is true 295 00:13:06,737 > 00:13:09,232 We just need to find someone who wears a toupee 296 00:13:09,335 > 00:13:11,181 that is the same color 297 00:13:11,285 > 00:13:15,391 as Marshall's and your hair 298 00:13:16,558 > 00:13:18,743 Boy, that's a pretty tall order 299 00:13:18,846 > 00:13:20,111 Really? 300 00:13:20,275 > 00:13:23,240 You can't think of any place in the general area 301 00:13:23,347 > 00:13:25,572 where there might be a toupee of the kind I'm describing to you? 302 00:13:25,606 > 00:13:27,812 No, not off the top of my 303 00:13:29,726 > 00:13:32,281 No Can't Example 13: The directive function of maxim flouting 347 00:15:35,825 > 00:15:37,922 Sorry, I forgot my binocs for Foxy Boxing 348 00:15:37,936 > 00:15:41,170 Whoo, looks like things just got a little foxier right here 349 00:15:41,187 > 00:15:42,840 Yes, they did And you're just in time 350 00:15:42,858 > 00:15:46,842 Girls, I got to go, but I'm leaving you in very good, if slightly sullied hands 351 00:15:46,858 > 00:15:49,843 Don't go We don't even know your name to look out for your buildings 352 00:15:49,857 > 00:15:51,921 Yeah, stay Example 14: The declaration function of maxim violation 425 00:19:52,697 > 00:19:55,180 Marshall, you take Lily to be your wife to have and to hold from this day forward? 426 00:19:55,215 > 00:19:56,030 - Slow down - I can't 427 00:19:56,066 > 00:19:58,073 From this day forward so as long as you both shall live? 428 00:19:58,107 > 00:19:59,072 I 429 00:19:59,178 > 00:20:02,673 Lily, you promise to take Marshall to be your husband to have and to hold live? 430 00:20:02,776 > 00:20:03,432 I 431 00:20:03,535 > 00:20:04,760 Okay, then, 432 00:20:04,907 > 00:20:08,823 by the power invested in me by the very bitter old Pakistani man 433 00:20:08,928 > 00:20:11,423 who works down at the courthouse on Lafayette Street, 434 00:20:11,585 > 00:20:14,830 I now pronounce you man and wife 435 00:20:15,197 > 00:20:16,792 You may kiss the bride 55 ... conversational implications are generated by these violations Therefore, this current study is to find the violation and flouting of the maxims and identify the functions of maxim violation and flouting. .. conveyed by the character in the season of the HIMYM series which contains the violation and flouting of maxims and it is used as the data of this study 1.6 Organization of the study The writer... by the characters in the series The writer selected utterances that contain the maxim violation and flouting and omitted the utterances which not contain the violation and flouting of maxims The
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