Sử dụng hiệu quả khẩu phần nguồn thức ăn địa phương cho giống lợn bản địa moo lath, CHDCND lào tt

54 14 0
  • Loading ...
1/54 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 03/08/2019, 06:01

HUE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY BOUNLERTH SIVILAI THE UTILIZATION OF DIETARY LOCAL FEED RESOURCES FOR MOO LATH PIG IN LAOS Major: ANIMAL SCIENCE Code: 9620105 SUMMARY OF PHD THESIS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE HUE, 2019 The thesis is completed at University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University Supervised by: A/Prof Dr Nguyen Quang Linh (major) A/Prof Dr Du Thanh Hang (second) 1st Thesis Reviewer: 2nd Thesis Reviewer: 3rd Thesis Reviewer: This thesis will be defended at the Board of Examiners of Hue University, 04 Le Loi St Hue city, …… This thesis can be found at: - University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University - National Library - Online webpage: www.hueuni.edu.vn 1 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS This thesis consists of 101 pages comprising of chapters, 38 tables and 34 figures An introduction (3 pages), objective, hypothesis and innovation of thesis (5 pages); Chapter (literature reviews): 25 pages, Chapter (paper 1): pages, Chapter (paper 2): 11 pages, Chapter (paper 3): 11 pages, Chapter (paper 4): pages, and general discussion, conclusion, implication, further research and reference and list of published scientific paper: pages In the table of content: chapter 1: 11 tables and figures, chapter 2: tables and figures, chapter 3: tables and 10 figures, chapter 4: tables and 10 figures, chapter 5: tables and figures and list of abbreviation (1 page) INTRODUCTION Approximately 75% of production is produced in tradition by rural pig farmers (Souriyasack, 2011) The typical smallholder pig farm relies on a scavenging system for forages and left-over food with little or no supplementation The results are low productivity (Stür et al., 2010) with growth rates often less than 100 g/day (Phengsavanh et al., 2010) and low reproductive performance of sows is marked by depressed litter size, a high mortality of piglet and outbreaks of disease For these reasons the two feed resources chosen for this research were banana pseudo stem as source of energy and the Taro plant as the source of protein Banana pseudo stems (BPS) from the banana tree are distributed in Laos, farmers chopped it into small pieces and fed to pigs, ducks and chickens (Tien et al., 2013) The fibre is presented in BPS, a high content of water 94%, low level of protein 3-4% in DM (Floulkes et al.,1978) However, an unusual finding was reported presence of 3% of soluble sugars in the liquid fraction, it confirms that they are readily fermentable (Dao Thi My Tien et al., 2010) Taro leaves are rich in protein (about 20% in DM) with a balance of essential amino acid close to that in an “ideal” protein (Rodríguez et al., 2006) The petioles are rich in sugars which facilitate ensiling the combined leaves and petioles to give a feed with 14-15% CP in the DM (Malavanh et al., 2008; Giang et al., 2010; Hai et al., 2013) Many experiments have demonstrated that ensiled taro foliage can be fed as a source of protein for pigs (Toan and Preston, 2010; Chittavong et al., 2012; Kaensombath and Lindberg, 2012; Hang et al., 2015) The limitation to the use of taro foliage in diets for pigs is the presence of oxalates which form crystalline insoluble salts that cause irritation in the mouth of pigs when the foliage is consumed fresh However, this problem can be resolved by ensiling the taro before feeding (Hang et al., 2011) Brewers’ spent grains’ and rice distiller soluble fed at low levels in the diet (4 to 5% as DM) were shown to protect cattle (Phanthavong et al., 2016; Sengsouly and Preston 2016; Binh et al., 2017) and goats (Binh et al., 2018) from HCN toxicity caused by cyanogenic glucosides present in foliage of “bitter” varieties of cassava However, no any applied in pig with use these byproducts Its’ properties are acting probiotics/prebiotics to replace antibiotics with either beneficial microorganisms such as Lactobacilli and yeasts that enhance the normal microbial flora in the animals’ digestive system In the latter category are compounds such as β-glucan that are present in the walls of cereals such as barley and rice, and of yeasts These appear to be released in natural processes such as occur in the alcoholic fermentation with distillation to give beer and rice wine Biochar, the by-product from the carbonization of fibrous residues at high temperatures of 500-1000 °C was originally identified as an ameliorating agent in soils and as a vehicle for sequestering atmospheric carbon (Lehmann, 2007) with associated beneficial effects on crop and plant growth (Lehman and Joseph, 2015; Preston, 2015) In pigs and chickens, it has been shown to be effective as an agent to facilitate the degradation of phytotoxins and mycotoxins (Gallo et al., 2015; Prasai et al 2017), as well as providing habitat that enhances activities of microbial communities (Leng, 2017) OBJECTIVES OF THE THESIS 1) To determine the effect of replacing ensiled taro foliage with ensiled banana pseudo stem as foliage based die for Moo Lath pigs in Laos 2) To investigate the effect of a low concentration of rice distillers’ byproduct or brewers’ grains as additive feed in the foliage based diet for Moo Lath pigs 3) To evaluate the effect of rice distillers’ byproduct and biochar as additives on growing and feed conversion of native Moo Lath pigs in Laos HYPOTHESES OF THE RESEARCH 1) Ensiled taro foliage combined with ensiled banana pseudo stem will be contributed suitable inclusive level as foliage baseddiet supporting for digestibility and improving growing for Moo Lath pigs 2) Small amounts (4% of diet DM) of either brewers' grains or rice distillers' byproduct (Quilao) supplemented in foliage based diets would support increased growth rate and reproductive performance in Moo Lath pigs 3) Supplementation of biochar in a forage-based diet would be affected on growth performance and feed conversion of native Moo Lath pigs INNOVATION OF THE DISSERTATION The innovation of this dissertation is the use of low concentrations (4% of diet DM) of agro-industrial by-products such as brewers’ grains, rice distillers’ residues and addition of biochar (1% of diet DM) as additives feed that appear to act as “prebiotics”, enhancing the growth and feed conversion of indigenous Moo Lath pigs fed on local feed resource of ensiled foliage of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) and banana pseudo-stem (Musa spp) CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 The role of pig production Smallholder farms are practice accounted for 86.5% of total pig production in 2017 (MAF, 2017) Around 64% of pig rising is for home consumption especially in cultural events, accumulation capital and generated cash income (Stür et al., 2002) Souriyasack (2011) implied that approximately 75 % of pigs are produced in small-scale systems and 25% is derived from commercial farms There are total number of pigs of 3.7 million heads in whole country, with local pigs are accounted of 3.2 million pigs (DLF, 2017) Meat required to consume for Lao people is 57 kg/capita, with pork are 14.6 kg in 2017 1.2 Currently typical pig farming in Laos Pig rearing system in Laos can be clarified into three main categories such as smallholder pig production (small scale), semiintensive (medium scale) and commercial scale (large scale) farming Smallholder pig farms are approximated of 86.5% of pig production (MAF, 2017) In this system, pig farmers are poor addition feeds for pigs, with no protected from disease, with poor nutrients Semi-intensive pig farming is defined as small family business farming system by raise pig including indigenous pig and cross breed pig It can definite relatively high level of inputs The commercial pig farms in Laos are arisen as enterprise sectors under domestic investors and the typical commercial pig farms Mostly pigs used are exotic breeds such as crossed breed of Large White, Landrace, Duroc Jersey and some of hybrid (Wilson, 2007) 1.3 Feeds and feeding practical management Feeds derived from agricultural by-products mainly rice bran, broken rice, polished rice and also maize and cassava root are a source of energy diet for pigs The green plants are taro foliage, banana pseudo stem, thick head, paper mulberry and green amaranth, and vegetarians such as pumpkin tops and sweet potato leaves Feeds derived from leftover materials rice distillers’ waste and household scraps are traditional knowledge to use as feed for pigs 1.4 Utilization of forage-based diet for pigs 1.4.1 Taro as protein sources for pigs Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is traditionally forage that cultivated by farmers, it also arises naturally in Laos It is contained a high potential source of protein in pig diets Taro is sources of amino acid closed to ideal protein with similar contents compare to soybean meal (Rodríguez et al., 2006) Use of taro was increased in CP digestibility and N retention (Rodríguez et al., 2009) Ensiled taro leaves could be replaced up to 50 % of the soybean protein by improving growth performance and carcass traits of crossbred large white pig and native Moo Lath Lao pigs (Kaensombath and Erik Lindberg, 2012) 1.4.2 Banana pseudo stem in pig diets A mixture of ensiled banana pseudo stem and taro foliage has been contributed to improve intake for native Moo Lath pig (Manivanh and Preston, 2016) The researchers subjected to use banana pseudo stem combining to taro leave and also replacing with rice bran in traditionally performance by farmers for crossbreed pig and Mong Cai sows (Hang et al., 2014; Duyet et al., 2013), duck diets (Dao Thi My Tien et al., 2013) and pig diet (Chhay Ty et al., 2014) However, high fiber content appeared to decreased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and N retention when ensiled banana pseudo-stem replaced taro foliage silage in crossbreed pig (Hang et al., 2014) 1.4.3 Brewers’ grain and distillers’ by-product Rice distillers’ by-product (RDB) are the residue derived mainly from yeast fermentation process of rice of polished rice to make rice wine Rural smallholder farmers have been successfully used RDB as a protein sources for pigs (Manh et al., 2009; Taysayavong and Preston, 2010; Manivanh et al., 2012; (Phiny et al., 2012) Brewers’ grains and rice distiller soluble fed at low levels in the diet (4 to 5% as DM) were shown to protect cattle (Phanthavong et al., 2016; Sengsouly and Preston 2016; Binh et al., 2017) and goats (Binh et al., 2018) from HCN toxicity caused by cyanogenic glucosides present in foliage of “bitter” varieties of cassava However, no any applied in pig with use these byproducts 1.4.4 Biochar as a feed additive in animals Primarily study with % of biochar is applied on the growth and feed conversion including reduction methan emission in cattle (Leng et al., 2014; Sengsouly and Preston, 2016) and goats (Silivong et al., 2016; Le Thi Thuy Hang et a., 2018) The benefit of biochar is possibility bind toxins or degraded some organisms in the gut of animal microbiome (Leng, 2017) Prasai et al (2016) that supplementation of biochar improved egg yield and feed conversion whilst, supplementation of % rice husk biochar in chicken diet reduced coliform bacteria and E-coli in faces, but had no impact on live weight gain (Hien et al., 2018) CHAPTER EFFECT OF REPLACING ENSILED TARO FOLIAGE WITH ENSILED BANANA PSEUDO STEM ON INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND NITROGEN RETENTION IN MOO LATH PIGS Introduction Banana pseudo stem is traditionally and commonly used by farmers as feed for pigs, and cattle in Laos This research aimed to test the effect of different proportion of ensiled banana pseudo-stem combined with ensiled taro foliage on intake, digestibility and nitrogen retention in growing Moo Lath pigs Materials and Methods Treatment, experimental design and feeding management Four native Moo Lath pigs (LW at 30 kg  2.63 kg) were used with arranged in a 4x4 LSD with pigs and levels of ensiled banana pseudo stem (0, 5, 10 and 15% in DM basis) replacing ensiled taro foliage Experimental periods lasted 10 days: days for adaptation and days for collection of urine and feces Sample collection and analysis Feeds offered and refused were weighed daily The urine and feces were collected All samples were analysed for DM, CP, CF and ash The data were analyzed (Minitab, 2016) 10 CHƯƠNG ẢNH HƯỞNG CỦA BẢ BIA VÀ HÈM RƯỢU NỒNG ĐỘ THẤP ĐỐI VỚI SỰ CHUYỂN HÓA THỨC ĂN VÀ NITO TÍCH LŨY Ở LỢN BẢN ĐỊA MOO LATH Giới thiệu Bả bia sử dụng rộng rãi chất bổ sung protein phần ăn lợn gia súc Tuy nhiên, nghiên cứu gần Binh CTV., (2017) bả bia có lợi ích khác nguồn “prebiotics” Giả thuyết bổ sung lượng nhỏ (4% VCK) bả bia hèm hỗ trợ tăng tỉ lệ sinh trưởng lợn Moo Lath Nguyên liệu Phương pháp 2.1 Xử lý liệu, thiết kế thí nghiệm quản lý quy trình cho ăn Có lợn nái hậu bị Moo Lath với cân nặng trung bình 29,3  2,3 kg cho ăn với 03 phần khác nhau: CTL, bổ sung 4% BG, 4%RDB bố trí theo vng 3x3 la tinh lặp lại Thí nghiệm 10 ngày: ngày đầu để thích ứng, ngày sau thu thập liệu 2.2 Phân tích thu thập liệu Thức ăn cho ăn thức ăn thừa, nước tiểu, phân theo dõi ngày Các mẫu phân tích với DM, N, CF Ash (AOAC, 1990) Dữ liệu phân tích (Minitab, 2014) Các kết 3.1 Lượng ăn Lượng ăn DM tăng tương ứng với cách bổ sung BG RDB vào phần ăn 11 Bảng 3.3 Giá trị trung bình lượng ăn DM % CP phần ăn tiêu thụ lợn Moo Lath Diets, as % DM basis SEM CTL BG4% RDB4% TĂ ăn vào, g/d DM CP CF OM DM, g/kg LW 703b 90,3b 127,2b 86,2a 21,5c 777a 101,2a 138,2a 84,3b 25,5b 805a 104,5a 143,0a 82,5c 27,8a 13,38 1,73 2,87 0,53 0,53 p
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Sử dụng hiệu quả khẩu phần nguồn thức ăn địa phương cho giống lợn bản địa moo lath, CHDCND lào tt , Sử dụng hiệu quả khẩu phần nguồn thức ăn địa phương cho giống lợn bản địa moo lath, CHDCND lào tt , TỔNG QUAN VỀ CÁC VẤN ĐỀ NGHIÊN CỨU, TÁC DỤNG CỦA VIỆC THAY THẾ THÂN LÁ CÂY KHOAI MÔN Ủ CHUA BẰNG THÂN LÁ CÂY CHUỐI Ủ CHUA TRONG LƯỢNG ĂN ĐỐI VỚI SỰ TIÊU HÓA VÀ NITƠ TÍCH LŨY Ở LỢN MOO LATH, Bảng 4.3 Trọng lượng hơi của nái Moo Lath, ẢNH HƯỞNG CỦA HỖN HỢP HÈM RƯỢU VÀ THAN SINH HỌC NHƯ CHẤT BỔ SUNG ĐỐI VỚI SINH TRƯỞNG VÀ CHUYỂN HÓA THỨC ĂN Ở LỢN MOO LATH

Mục lục

Xem thêm

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn