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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION – MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF TRANSPORT CHAU VAN BAO IMPROVING THE POWER QUALITY USING THE HYBRID ACTIVE POWER FILTER BY INTELLIGENT CONTROL TECHNIQUE Major: Control Engineering and Automation Code : 9520216 SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION Science supervisor: Assoc., Dr Vo Cong Phuong Dr Chau Minh Thuyen HCM CITY - 2019 The works have completed in: Ho Chi Minh City Scientific supervisor: Assoc., Dr Vo Cong Phuong Dr Chau Minh Thuyen Reviewer 1: ……………………………………………… Reviewer 2: ……………………………………………… Reviewer 3: ……………………………………………… The dissertation will be defended at the school-level thesis reviewing council at: Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport ………… at ……… hr, on………………………………………… The thesis can be found at the library: - Library of Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport INTRODUCTION Reasons for choosing the topic Along with the development of industry, the loads are increasing and the majority of nonlinear loads are the cause of harmonics Harmonics cause a lot of harmful problems for electrical systems and electrical devices, this is the cause of poor power quality Today, power quality issues are very much concerned by many countries in the world One of the methods to eliminate harmonics, reactive power compensation Q in the electrical system is using an active filter circuit (APF) APF has the advantage of working online with electrical systems, no resonance occurs, regardless of the feature of the load However, its capacity is limited, its working efficiency is not high and it is not used in medium and high voltage electrical grids Currently, in our country often use the static compensation capacitor to improve power quality However, the method of using capacitor is ineffective, because only compensating Q without canceling harmonics is the nonlinear load In order to solve these problems, the hybrid active power filter (HAPF) model is a necessity, it can compensate for the integration of different harmonic sources and solve disadvantages of the capacitor Therefore, research on design, calculation and control for HAPF has an important meaning contributing to improving the working efficiency of filter circuit and improving power quality Therefore, the topic: "Improving the power quality using the hybrid active power filter by intelligent control technique" is necessary Research purposes − Theoretically: Find out the method of determining harmonic currents more accurately; Determine HAPF parameters by multi-objective optimization algorithms in considering the stability of the system; Find out the new control method for HAPF so that it minimizes errors, reduces transient time; Find out the new DC bus voltage stabilization method − Application: The results of the thesis can be applied to construction of hybrid active power filter models to compensate reactive power Q and eliminate the harmonics in the electrical system Object and scope of the research − Research object: The study was conducted on HAPF model and applied to low voltage grid − Scope of research: Only research to improve the power quality in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD) and compensating reactive power Q Research tasks Using the methods, calculation, data and results of previous studies as a basis for research and evaluation Since then: Improve the p-q harmonic detection method; Determine multi-objective optimization of HAPF parameters; Control methods for HAPF; DC bus voltage stabilization method Application of Matlab software to simulate the above problems Research Method − Analysis of harmonic detection methods, thereby improving its shortcomings by improved harmonic detection method with more accuracy and wider application scope Analyse methods of determining HAPF parameters From there, propose a multi-objective optimization method to determine HAPF parameters Analysis of DC bus voltage control methods, from which draw defects and give a method to stabilize DC bus voltage in the direction of adaptive control Provide control strategies and control methods to solve problems such as wide application range, flexibility, efficiency in filtering harmonic and reactive power compensation − Use Matlab to simulate for methods The scientific and practical significance of the thesis − Scientific significance: The thesis is a scientific work of theoretical and practical significance, contributing to systematizing and clarifying problems of harmonic filtering From that, proposes the method of determining harmonics, the method of determining parameters of HAPF, DC bus voltage stabilization method and HAPF control methods to improve power quality − Practical significance: The thesis has evaluated the situation, demonstrated out the advantages and disadvantages of the harmonic filters The thesis is quite comprehensive and systematic, with practical significance to the issue of improving power quality Structure of the thesis The thesis consists of 143 pages and the order of parts is as follows: Introduction; content (including chapters); conclusions and suggestions; list of published scientific works related to the thesis (including 10 papers and 01 applied scientific research); there are 119 references and appendices Chapter 1: OVERVIEW OF FILTER 1.1 Issues of power quality Non-linear loads are the cause of harmonics, which reduces power quality Harmonics cause many different problems in both the grid and the load such as: overheating equipment, overheating transformers, deviation control devices, power factor of the load decreases, causing losses in the electrical system, increasing the cost of the customer and affecting the stability of the grid Therefore, power quality has become an increasingly important issue for Electricity and electricity consumers 1.2 Power quality Power quality is a problem related to voltage, current, frequency, causing electrical equipment to operate abnormally or damaged Total harmonic distortion (THD): 𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇 = �∑∞ 𝐻𝐻≠1 𝐼𝐼ℎ 𝐼𝐼1 100% (1.1) 1.3 Effect of harmonics on power quality Although the sinusoidal source voltage is not distorted, but the nonlinear load causes harmonics and undesirable effects on power quality such as increased line losses, changing the voltage on the grid and grid frequency 1.4 Methods for harmonic filtering 1.4.1 Passive Power Filter (PPF) This is a common solution to remove harmonics in electrical systems PPF is the simplest solution to minimize harmonics [27], [32], [36], [40] PPF has a simple structure consisting of the three elements R, L, C It is low cost, easy to implement However, it has disadvantages such as easy resonance, instability, low reliability 1.4.2 Active Power Filter (APF) From the disadvantages of PPF, the APF was born to overcome the disadvantages of PPF, it is very effective in improving power quality, it has advantages such as flexible compensation, no dependent on property of load, high efficiency, no occurs resonance with grid impedance APF is widely used to compensate Q and harmonic filtering [7], [25], [91], [96] The basic principle of APF is based on harmonic currents of the load to create a harmonic signal to compensate on the grid However, the disadvantage of APF is its high cost, low capacity, and difficult to apply to high-voltage grids 1.4.3 Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF) To improve the efficiency of APF, the HAPF model was born and developed [16], [26], [42], [62], [79] HAPF's structure is a combination of PPF and APF Therefore, it has the advantages of both APF and PPF The most outstanding advantage of HAPF is its ability to work at high voltage and high power grids with a relatively small capacity of APF Chapter 2: HARMONIC CURRENT DETECTION METHOD 2.1 Introduction There are many methods of determining harmonic currents of nonlinear loads such as: using low-pass, high-pass filter circuits [13], it has the disadvantage of slow response and just a small change in frequency will make these filters ineffective The most common method is the p-q harmonic detection method [17], [89], [104] It has the advantage of being simple and easy to implement However, it also has the disadvantage of slow response to fast changing loads and large amplitudes [29-30] In this chapter, we propose an improved method of the p-q harmonic detection method using the fuzzy controller integrated into the pq method to automatically adjust the DC components of P and Q to close to the desired value, keeping the amplitude of the source current is not overshot when the load changes large and the transient time is reduced 2.2 p-q and i p -i q harmonic current detection method 2.2.1 The transformation from a-b-c coordinate system to α-β coordinate system The transformation from a-b-c coordinate system to α-β coordinate system is implemented by Clarke [97] 2.2.2 p-q harmonic detection method p-q harmonic detection method is proposed by Akagi [7], in Figure 2.2 ua ub uc iLa iL b iLc C32 uα uβ iα C32 iβ p C pq q LPF LPF p q −1 C pq iαf iβ f iLaf i +∑ C23 iLbf Lcf - ∑ + - ∑ + iLha iLhb iLhc Figure 2.2 Principle diagram of p-q method The harmonic components determinated are: iaf    −1  p  C23C pq ibf  = q  U   i   cf  (2.13) = i La − i Laf i Lah  = i Lb − i Lbf i  Lbh i = i − i  Lch Lc Lcf (2.14) 2.2.3 i p -i q harmonic detection method e ia ib ic sinωt − cosωt PLL iα C 32 iβ ip LPF ip iαf C iq LPF C 23 iq i βf iaf ibf icf - + + iah ibh ich + Figure 2.3 i p -i q harmonic detection method The fundamental components are: iaf  uα   C23  ibf  = ∞ uβ i  3∑ U n2  cf  uβ   p   − uα   q  (2.24) n =1 Fuzzy adjustor Fuzzy adjustor 2.3 Improved p-q harmonic detection method To improve p ∆p p + + ∑ LPF overshoot and reduce + ∑ d the dynamic response Kp dt time of p-q method −1 C pq q + q ∆q The improved p-q + ∑ LPF + ∑ d harmonic detection Kq dt method is proposed in Figure 2.16 Figure 2.16 Improved p-q harmonic detection method iLaf   p + Kp   −1 C23C pq   iLbf  = U  q + K q    iLcf  The formula (2.13) is rewritten:  iαf iβ f (2.27) 2.4 Simulation results Table 2.4 and Table 2.5 compare the response of p and q in the p-q method and the improved p-q method Table 2.4 Response of p During the period (0÷0.2s) During the period (0.2s÷0.4s) Transient time Overshoot Transient time Overshoot p-q method 0.05s 2.17% 0.05s 3.4% Improved 0.016s 0.3% 0.025 0.5% p-q method Table 2.5 Response of q During the period During the period (0÷0.2s) (0.2s÷0.4s) Transient Overshoot Transie Overshoot time nt time p-q method 0.025s 20.2% 0.04s 21.13% Improved p-q method 0.02s 0.42% 0.02s 2% From the above results, we find that: The improved p-q harmonic detection method has a shorter transient time, reducing the overshoot is smaller than the p-q method This has great implications for the stability of the system Chapter 3: MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION DESIGN FOR HYBRID ACTIVE POWER FILTER 3.1 Introduction Currently, the parameters of HAPF are mostly determined based on basic formulas such as studies [24], [70], [98] Therefore, the achieved results may not satisfy the system stability condition Multi-objective studies such as Gen algorithm application for PPF design [20], [43]; using the PSO algorithm [18], [95] for PPF design In summary, previous multiobjective studies mainly computed for PPF, and APF parameters had little research and multi-objective optimization studies without considering the stability of the system To overcome this drawback, in this chapter, we perform a stable analysis for HAPF to find the stability of the system Then, use the SSA multi-objective optimization algorithm to determine the best set of parameters for HAPF 3.2 Stable analysis for hybrid active power filter Control block diagram of HAPF is shown as Figure 3.3 I Lh −1 + X Gc ( s) Ginv (s ) Uinv + Gout (s ) − + X I sh I Fh Figure 3.3 Control block diagram of HAPF Transfer function of the load harmonic current I Lh according to the supply harmonic current signal I sh : I G (s ) = = I + G ( s ).G ( s ).G ( s ) (3.4) sh Lh c inv out From (3.4), the characteristic equation of the control transfer function: D( s ) = a0 s + a1s + a2 s + a3 s + a4 s + a5 s1 + a6 s + a7 (3.5) In order for the system to be stable, the formula (3.6) must be satisfied 3.3 Multi-objective optimization design a1a2 − a0 a3 > b a − a b > for HAPF  (3.6) − System stability constraints: b1b2 − b0b3 > The HAPF system is stable when the  c b −b c > 0 conditions in Equation (3.6) are satisfied c1c2 − c0 c3 > − Constraints on resonance conditions in PPF: L and C values in a branch must resonate at a certain frequency ωn L = ωn C − Constraints of R, L, C: Values of R, L, C must be positive and satisfy the condition (3.8) and resonance condition Begin Enter upper and lower limits: CF , C1 , L1 , R1 , L0 , C0 , Udc , Kp , Ki No Yes Estimates fitness Create vibrations Move location No (3.7) < Li ≤ Lmax < Ci ≤ Cmax (3.8) The values of R max , L max and C max are determined according to the formula (3.6) − Maximum capacity compensated by PPF but not over-maximized Qb ≤ Qbi ≤ Qb max Initialization Spider size and position Stability test < Ri ≤ Rmax THDis ≤ ε1 Q b ≤ Q bi ≤ Q b max Error ≤ ε2 Yes End Figure 3.4 SSA algorithm flowchart 3.4 Simulation results (3.9) − Constraint on the value of DC bus voltage: U AC < U DC < U DC-max (3.10) where: U AC is the AC voltage at the output of the inverter − Constraint of controller parameters: Parameters of controller must be positive and satisfy the system stability condition (3.6) < K p < K pmax < K i < K imax (3.11) Objective function: min THDis max Qbi min Error (3.14) 3.4.1 Traditional design According to the article [24], [46] we have the parameters given in Table 3.2 Figure 3.6 shows the waveforms in the traditional design The THD of i s decreases from 27.65% to 1.897%, while Q decreases from 4820VAr to 1490VAr, which means Q compensated is 3330VAr Compensation error in steady-state decreases to ± 8A Figure 3.6 The waveforms in steady-state of the traditional method Table 3.2 HAPF parameters with traditional design methods CF C1 L1 R1 L0 C U DC THDi s Q bΣ Error (µF) (µF) (mH) (Ω) (mH) (µF) (V) (%) (Var) (A) 116.8 349.2 29.77 0.01 0.2 80 535 1.963 3330 ±8 3.4.2 Multi-objective optimization method using SSA The multi-objective optimization method will find all HAPF parameters including power circuit parameters and control circuit parameters Table 3.4 HAPF parameters with SSA method CF (µF) 158,8 C1 (µF) 412,3 L1 (mH) 24,89 R1 (Ω) 0,017 From Figure 3.8, THD of i s decreases from 27.65% to 0.83%, while capacity Q decreases from 4820VAr to 790VAr, ie the compensation capacity is 4030VAr, the compensation error decreases from ± 100A to ± 3A L0 (mH) 1,2 C0 (µF) 61,6 U DC (V) 785,3 Kp Ki 30,6 0,15 THDi s (%) 0,83 Error (A) ±3 Figure 3.8 The waveforms in steady-state of the SSA method 24 quality using Hybrid Active Power Filter is: improved p-q harmonic detection method, DC bus voltage stabilization, Multi-objective optimization algorithm, overview analysis of control strategies for HAPF and using intelligent control methods such as Fuzzy, Neural networks for HAPF Recommendations From the research that has been achieved for HAPF, the author proposes the research tasks as follows: − Determining harmonic currents using the improved p-q method in the thesis gives quite good results However, in steady-state, there is still a harmonic component in the fundamental component To overcome this problem, we can use Adaline Neural network in combination with Fuzzy to identify the harmonics more accurately − The control methods used in the thesis still have shortcomings is the error in the steady-state Therefore, it is possible to use the resonance control method according to the frequency of the load in combination with the adaptive Fuzzy-Neural network to control based on the changing of the load, at which time the compensation error in steady-state will go to zero − Apply multi-level inverter to reduce the amount of high harmonics into the grid − Study the identification and control of harmonics in smart grids, to improve the power quality of smart electrical systems LIST OF PUBLISHED SCIENCE WORKS Scientific articles, proceeding: MinhThuyen Chau, An Luo, and VanBao Chau (2011), “PIDFuzzy Control Method with Time Delay Compensation for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 36– No.7, December 2011, pp.15-21 MinhThuyen Chau, An Luo, VanBao Chau, TrungNhan Nguyen (2012), “A Novel Online Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit”, Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, March, 2012 MinhThuyen Chau, An Luo, Zhikang Shuai, Fujun Ma, Ning Xie, and VanBao Chau (2012), “Novel Control Method for a Hybrid Active Power Filter with Injection Circuit Using a Hybrid Fuzzy Controller”, Journal of Power Electronics, Vol 12, No 5, September 2012, pp.800-812 (SCIE) Chau Van Bao, Vo Cong Phuong (2015), “Build active control power filter using PI-Fuzzy technique to reduce the influence of non-linear load to the grid”, Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, Vol 15, May 2015, pp.18-22 VanBao Chau, CongPhuong Vo, MinhThuyen Chau (2015), “Comparison on Two Harmonic Current Determinate Methods of p-q and i p -i q ”, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, Volume No.4 Issue No5, pp: 302-305, 01 May, 2015 VanBao Chau, CongPhuong Vo, MinhThuyen Chau (2016) “Analysis of control strategy for hybrid active power filter”, International Conference on Electrical, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (ICEMIE2016), pp 58-62 Chau Van Bao, Vo Cong Phuong, Chau Minh Thuyen (2017), “Integrated Mathematical Model and Control Design for Hybrid Active Power Filter”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Volume 12, Number 12 (2017) pp 3015-3022 (Scopus) Chau Van Bao, Vo Cong Phuong and Chau Minh Thuyen (2017), “Improvement of P-Q harmonic detection method for shunt active power filter”, ICIC International, Volume 11, Number 11, November 2017, pp 1585–1592 (Scopus) Chau Van Bao, Vo Cong Phuong Chau Minh Thuyen (2018), “Multi-objective optimization design for hybrid active power filter using PSO algorithm”, Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, Vol 27+28, May 2018 10 Chau Van Bao and Chau Minh Thuyen (2019), “DC-Bus voltage stabilization of hybrid active power filter”, ICIC International, Volume 13, Number 1, January 2019 (Scopus) Applied research: Chau Van Bao (2018), "Implementation of reactive power compensation and harmonic filter model using active power filter (APF)" Scientific Research Subject of Ly Tu Trong college REFERENCES Bộ Công Thương (2015), “Quy định hệ thống điện phân phối”, Tiêu chuẩn Việt Nam theo thông tư 39/2015/TT-BCT, Hà Nội, ngày 18/11/2015 Abdelmadjid, Chaoui Jean, Paul Gaubert, Fateh Krim, Gérard Champenois (2007), "PI Controlled Three-phase Shunt Active Power Filter for 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Trong college REFERENCES Bộ Công Thương (2015), “Quy định hệ thống điện phân phối”, Tiêu chuẩn Việt Nam theo thông tư 39/2015 /TT- BCT, Hà Nội, ngày 18/11/2015 Abdelmadjid, Chaoui Jean, Paul Gaubert,... thesis reviewing council at: Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport ………… at ……… hr, on………………………………………… The thesis can be found at the library: - Library of Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport...The works have completed in: Ho Chi Minh City Scientific supervisor: Assoc., Dr Vo Cong Phuong Dr Chau Minh Thuyen Reviewer 1: ……………………………………………… Reviewer 2: ………………………………………………
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