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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION VO THI NHU UYEN TEACHING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN UNIVERSITY BY THE MODE OF LEARNING BY DOING Speciality: Teaching model and theory about Industrial Engineering Classification: 9.14.01.11 A SUMMARY OF EDUCATION DOCTORAL THESIS Hanoi – 2019 Thesis is done at Hanoi National University of Education Supervisors: Prof.Dr Nguyen Xuan Lac Assoc Prof Dr Nguyen Hoai Nam Reviewer 1: Assoc Prof Dr Thai The Hung Hanoi University of Science and Technology Reviewer 2: Assoc Prof Dr Mac Van Tien National Institute for Vocational Education and Training Reviewer 3: Assoc Prof Dr Nguyen Trong Khanh Hanoi National University of Education Thesis will be presented before the school-level Thesis Committee at Thesis presentation room, the 2nd floor, Library building, Hanoi National University of Education 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi in .date month Thesis can be found at: National Library, Hanoi Or the Library of Hanoi National University of Education INTRODUCTION The importance of the subject Resolution No 29-NQ/TW of the 8th Plenum of the 11th National Assembly has expressed the viewpoint of building an intensive and practical education; training in the way that enhances quality and capacity of the learners; encouraging self-study; vigorously renovating university education which attaches the importance to developing creative capacities and practical skills; assessing the results of the education in the direction of concentrating on analytical, creative ability, self-updating knowledge and practical capacity Mechanical engineering is the traditional and long-standing major of the engineering sector at the university From 2010 until now, the application of advanced training models (such as CDIO) in the development of engineering training programs has been quickly disseminated and widely applied at universities in Vietnam (including mechanical engineering major) However, the mechanical engineering teaching has still slowly innovated, not exposing students to practical technical issues to self-solve problems Learning by doing is a learner-centered approach, in which knowlegde is delivered through directly carrying out practical technical tasks., Thus, learners really become the "experimentalists" to explore different hypotheses in order to optimize the technical issues Based on the above problems, the implementation of the topic "Teaching mechanical engineering in university by the mode of learning by doing" is extremely necessary, in line with the trend of educational progress in the world The aim of the study The study aims at proposing process of learning by doing approach to university students with the appropriate technical content in order to improve the learning outcomes and active learning of students The object and subject of the study 3.1 The object of the study The study investigates the teaching of mechanical engineering to students in the following universities: Hanoi University of Industry, Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Nam Dinh University of Technology Education 3.2 The subject of the study The study identifies four research subjects to clarify, including: (1) Learning by doing model in teaching mechanical engineering at the universities (2) The nature, principles, characteristics and processes of mechanical engineering teaching at the universities based on learning by doing model (3) The situation of mechanical engineering teaching at the universities based on learning by doing model (4) The process of mechanical engineering teaching at the universities’ content based on learning by doing model Scientific hypothesis The hypothesis needs to be proved on the research object, including: (1) In the field of mechanical engineering teaching., the learning by doing model is the development of experiential learning model at the universities (2) Establishing technical tasks by lecturers – learning from experiments by students are the nature of teaching mechanical engineering according to learning by doing model (3) The learning by doing model is not focused on in reality of mechanical engineering teaching (4) Measures process of learning by doing in mechanical engineering teaching have a positive impact on the results and learning process of students The responsibility of the study - To study the scientific basis (theoretical and practical) of mechanical engineering teaching by learning by doing approach to students - To propose learning by doing models of teaching mechanical engineering to university students - To carry out pedagogical experiments and expert approach to evaluate research findings The scope and limitations of the study - In terms of theory: There are many different notions of "learning by doing" The thesis bases on the viewpoint of Kolb (1984), Bates (2015), in case of learning by doing is the process - In terms of situation: The research focuses on the current situation in these universities: Hanoi University of Industry, Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Nam Dinh University of Technology Education on August of 2018 - In terms of experiment: The study analyzes the mechanical engineering education program at Hanoi University of Industry to design lectures It also organize expert models and pedagogical experiment at Hanoi University of Industry in the first semester of the school year 2018-2019 Research modelology The theoretical research models, the practical research models and other supporting models The points to be presented - Teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing approach needs to build a model that clearly describes the students' learning activities This model needs to include the actual technical tasks of mechanical engineers - Teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing approach emphasizes “establishing technical tasks – learning from experiments”, in which lecturers set up technical tasks associated with real situations, students must work hard to find out, solve problems with practical actions such as brainstorming, prototype design, testing, improvement - To effectively teach mechanical engineering by learning by doing approach, it is necessary to: 1/ Designing technical tasks based on learning by doing model; 2/ Using strategies of teaching based on learning by doing model; 3/ Evaluating learning results based on learning by doing model Contributions of the study - To build a teaching model of mechanical engineering by learning by doing approach - To point out the nature, principles, features and process of mechanical engineering teaching by learning by doing model - To examine the prevailing impact of mechanical engineering teaching to the learning process and outcomes of students in the current context of Vietnam - To propose process of mechanical engineering teaching by learning by doing models including: 1/ Designing mechanical engineering problems by learning by doing approach; 2/ Using forms of teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing models; 3/ Evaluating the outcomes based on students’ progress and results CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 Overview 1.1.1 The previous studies on learning by doing approach a) Around the world The views of philosophers and educators in the world all agree that learning by doing is an available learning model in human development; it happens naturally People learn from everything when they Bates’ research (2015) shows that learning by doing is a type of experiential learning that occurs when learners directly approach to real contexts, Kolb’s experiential learning model (1984) is an effective approach to understand and adopt learning by doing model The role of the instructor is " benchmarker and evaluator” Studies by other authors also notice that in order to learn well, students need to be facilitated to work more like reading, writing, discussing, or problem solving rather than just listening passively b) In Vietnam The studies of Dang Thanh Hung (2002), Nguyen Xuan Lac (2016), Nguyen The Loc (2010) and other authors all agree that learning by doing model is a fundamental base that improves “discovering seeking” skills of learners, letting them acquire knowledge and skills by themselves 1.1.2 The studies on mechanical engineering teaching by learning by doing model a) Around the world The studies of Mills & Treagust (2003), Wurdinger (2005), Clark, Threeton, & Ewing (2010), Savage, Birch & Noussi (2011), Efstratia (2014) and technical educators in the world all agree that to think and practice as an engineer, students must take part in addressing practical issues by their creative ideas, technical parameters and the uncertainty factors Technical tasks in the real context must be compulsory in technical practice courses of students b) In Vietnam The studies of Nguyen Van Bay (2015), Nguyen Trong Khanh (2011), Vu Thi Lan (2014), Tran Tuyen (2014), Tran Cong Sang (2016), Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen (2018) and many other researchers all emphasize the role of technical problems, projects and case studies in technical practice teaching for students However, there has been no specific study on mechanical engineering teaching based on learning by doing approach 1.2 Definitions 1.2.1 Learning by doing Learning by doing is a type of experiential learning where learners are engaged in a direct action in a real environment (or virtual environment) in which learners acquire knowledge or/and skills through direct experience of taking on a specific task 1.2.2 Teaching mechanical engineering Teaching is the work of teachers to purposefully influence learners and their learning behaviors and process; creating the environment and necessary conditions for learners to maintain and improve learning efficiency control the process and learning outcomes Mechanical engineering is the discipline related to the design, production, installation and operation of engines, machinery and production processes Mechanics include the application of the principles of dynamics, cybernetics, thermodynamics and heat transfer, fluid mechanics, material strength, material science, electronics and mathematics Mechanical engineering teaching is the task of mechanical engineering instructors in the university, in which they teach students the theoretical knowledge and practical skills to design, assemble and operate the machinery and mechanical systems through the learning process of mechanical engineering modules 1.2.3 Teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model Teaching mechanical engineering in a learning by doing mode is a kind of student-centered learning, in which the instructor process mechanical engineering content into specific action tasks with real events, issues in order to organize them in terms of learning by doing model 1.3 Building a learning by doing teaching model of mechanical engineering 1.3.1 Learning by doing approach There are many different views about "learning by doing", but this study is based on Bates's (2015) view, in which learners directly engage in actions in particular context The learning by doing model is the experiential learning model (especially the model of Kolb (1984)) but emphasizes the direct work of learners 1.3.2 Learning by doing model in teaching mechanical engineering at the university The learning by doing model in teaching mechanical engineering in university needs to fully reflect the works/tasks that mechanical engineers do, including: (1) Analyze practical issues to perceive how mechanical devices can solve problems (2) Brainstorm solutions, designing or redesigning devices, machines, mechanical systems with computer support such as CAD, CAM (3) Assemble and test of prototypes (4) Operate and monitor the process of manufacturing mechanical equipment and products The study applied Kolb’s experiential learning model (1984) to develop the learning by doingmodel in mechanical engineering teaching (Figure 1.1) Hình 1.1: Learning by doing model in teaching mechanical engineering at the university Mechanical engineering students engage in this model in stages: - Stage 1: Technical Experience Students directly experience with equipment, machinery and mechanical systems to observe their operation frequency in real environments; - Stage 2: Technical Exploring Students use computer simulations or study technical documents (books, design drawings, 12 - The learning content in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model - The characteristics in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model (2) Research model Questionnaire (3) Sample size Survey: 300 for students, 100 for lecturers Interview: 30 people (including 10 lecturers, 20 students) by directly calling 2.2.3 Data collection and data analysis model (1) Data collection and duration: Directly sending or emailing the questionnaire, starting from August 2018 (2) Data analysis tools: SPSS 22.0 software with Mann-Whitney tests, Kruskall-Wallis, Cronbach Alpha, EFA, Friedman tests; Descriptive statistics; chart statistics (3) Data evaluation techniques: Calculating the average score and choose the minimum of "3.4" or above to assess the success of teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model 2.3 Findings and discussion A total of 400 questionnaires were sent out, and 350 of them are valid 95 responses are from mechanical engineering lecturers (27%), and 255 responses from mechanical engineering students (73%) 2.3.1 The application frequency of learning by doing model in teaching mechanical engineering Lecturers rarely use this model in mechanical engineering teaching 2.3.2 The role of lecturers in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model 13 The role of "benchmarker and evaluator" has not been emphasized by lecturers in teaching mechanical engineering 2.3.3 The frequency of learning activities that the students actively participant in based on learning by doing model Learning by doing activities are mainly available illustrative examples, which are stereotypical, rigid and fail to encourage students to solve real technical problems 2.3.4 The course content in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model Technical tasks have not allowed students to directly connect with reality in order to discover the technical problems and explain phenomena by their own 2.3.5 The characteristics in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model Technical tasks have not been associated with actual contexts; teaching models have not focused on the experimental research; teaching strategies have not promoted discovery of students in real context Conclusion of chapter Lecturers have not shaped a clear learning type in mechanical engineering teaching The role of "benchmarker and evaluator" in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model is quite vague Activities mainly emphasize the role of the lecturers, while students rarely actually work Technical tasks have not allowed students to directly connect with reality The course contents have not been fully associated with actual events and promoted students 'creativity; teaching models have not focused on the experimental research; teaching strategies have not encouraged students' exploration 14 CHAPTER 3: PROCESS OF DESIGN TEACHING MECHANIC ENGINEERING AT UNIVERSITIES BY LEARNING BY DOING 3.1 Task 1: Analyzing the university education programs in mechanical engineering (at Hanoi University of Industry) 3.1.1 Curriculum The objectives and contents of technical design, fabrication, processing, operation of machinery and mechanical engineering systems are appropriate for teaching by learning by doing model 3.1.2 Định hướng lựa chọn nội dung kỹ thuật khí thích hợp với học làm 3.1.2 Selecting appropriate mechanical engineering modules based on learning by doing model (1) Focusing on the modules of design, manufacturing, processing or operating machinery and actual mechanical systems (2) Containing technical tasks and challenges from complex real events (3) Developing mechanical engineering skills 3.2 Task 2: Designing mechanical engineering tasks in teaching by learning by doing model 3.2.1 General criteria of designing mechanical engineering tasks (1) Being an open mechanical engineering problem (2) Focusing on the problem of mechanical engineering in the real context (3) Orienting towards practice (4) Focusing on the individual's work over teamwork 3.2.2 Designing the tasks of manufacturing and operating as a case study in mechanical engineering 3.2.2.1 The meaning of case studies in teaching mechanical engineering 15 by learning by doing model The case is built based on facts and complex issues They are developed to excite students Using case studies in teaching manufacturing and mechanical operation is the application using actual technical situations that mechanical engineers face 3.2.2.2 The process of designing case studies in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model Step 1: Determine lesson objectives Step 2: Select case studies Step 3: Prepare case studies 3.2.2.3 Illustrate the design of technical tasks in "Lesson 5: Tiện trụ bậc” - module "Cutting practice 1" 3.2.3 Design mechanical engineering design tasks in the form of experiential learning projects 3.2.3.1 The meaning of experiential learning project in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model The experiential learning project is an effective teaching task in technical design teaching for real technical issues 3.2.3.2 The process of designing experiential learning project in teaching mechanical engineering Step 1: Select the topic and establish the initial goal Step 2: Develop project-oriented questions Step 3: Prepare the learning tools and materials 3.2.3.3 Illustrating the design of experiential learning project in the "Machine manufacturing technology project" module 3.3 Task 3: Designing strategies of teaching mechanical engineering by Learning by doing model 3.3.1 Job 3.1: Using case studies for design teaching mechanical engineering fabrication and operation 3.3.1.1 Teaching approach 16 The empirical case study in the laboratory – workshop is conformable to teaching the content of mechanical engineering production and operation 3.3.1.2 Using case studies for design teaching Teaching mechanical production and operation based on case studies is usually conducted in two phases: 1/ Orientation; 2/ Researching for solving problems 3.3.1.3 Illustrate design teaching "Lesson 5: Tiện trụ bậc” – module Cutting practice 3.3.2 Job 3.2: Using experiential learning projects in teaching mechanical engineering design 3.3.2.1 Teaching approach Experiential learning project in teaching mechanical engineering design is experimental and time-intensive 3.3.2.2 Teaching process using experiential learning projects The process of teaching based on experiential learning projects usually consists of the following three phases: Phase 1: Orientation; Phase 2: Implementation; Phase 3: Completion 3.3.2.3 Illustrate the teaching process "Machine manufacturing technology project" 3.4 Task 4: Design evaluating the learning results in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model 3.4.2 Identifying evaluation criteria - Relevance: Is the solution appropriate to the issue? - Feasibility: Is the solutions possible to be implemented in terms of financial resources, time, human resources in the real context? - Efficiency: Can the solutions solve the problem? - Novelty: Are these solutions new or they are only in set standards and procedures? 17 Besides that, there are criteria for evaluating product, reports, presentations… 3.4.2 The process of establishing evaluation techniques Step 1: Defining learning objectives/results Step 2: Selecting the evaluation techniques Step 3: Developing evaluation criteria Step 4: Organizing evaluation activities 3.4.3 Illustrating the setting up of evaluation techniques 3.4.3.1 Illustrating the settiing up of evaluation techniques for "Lesson 5: Tiện trụ bậc” – module Cutting practice 3.4.3.2 Illustrating the settiing up of evaluation techniques for "Machine manufacturing technology project" Conclusion of chapter The modules of technical design, fabrication and operation of machinery and mechanical engineering systems are consistent with teaching by learning by doing model There are two types of mechanical engineering tasks suitable for the model: (1) manufacturing and operating mechanical engineering tasks in the form of case studies; (2) designing mechanical engineering tasks in the form of experiential learning projects The mechanical engineering tasks should be carried out based on appropriate teaching strategies including: (1) teaching mechanical engineering production and operation based on case studies, (2) teaching mechanical engineering design based on experience learning project Evaluating learning outcomes in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing approach must cover the learning process and the students' products In particular, process evaluation is a core element of learning outcomes Based on the measures of teaching mechanical engineering in the 18 university by learning by doing doing, the thesis has illustrated the designing of teaching two subjects: (1) "Lesson 5: Tiện trụ bậc" - module Practice cutting 1; (2) Machine manufacturing technology project CHAPTER 4: EXAMINATION AND EVALUATION 4.1 4.1 Evaluating research results by the expert model 4.1.1 The aim The research is to evaluate the necessity and feasibility of mechanical engineering teaching measures in the universities based on learning by doing approach 4.1.2 Research design There were 30 experts in two areas to be selected, including: Mechanical Engineering (15 experts), Pedagogy (15 experts) A questionnaire comprising assessment criteria for the necessity and feasibility of of mechanical engineering teaching measures in the universities based on learning by doing approach was designed to collect data 4.1.3 Research results 100% of the experts have doctoral or higher degrees The educational level of the experts in both fields is similar and there is likely no significant difference between them 4.1.4 Discussion (1) The necessity of mechanical engineering teaching measures based on learning by doing model The analysis of Friedman in SPSS showed that the measures of teaching mechanical engineering based on learning by doing model are necessary (mean > 3.4 in all cases) (2) The feasibility of mechanical engineering teaching measures based on learning by doing model The analysis of Friedman in SPSS showed that the measures of 19 teaching mechanical engineering based on learning by doing model are feasible (mean > 3.4 in all cases) (3) The quality of the design lessons illustrated in the mechanical engineering based on learning by doing model The interview results indicated that the experts evaluated the designed illustrations to be of good quality, thereby confirming the quality of lectures to conduct pedagogical experiment 4.2 Experimental pedagogy 4.2.1 The aim The research is to evaluate the impacts of mechanical engineering teaching measures on the learning process and outcomes of students in the appropriate modules of mechanical engineering based on learning by doing approach 4.2.2 Research design 4.2.2.1 The experimental subjects and the experiment’s scope - The experiment’s area: Hanoi University of Industry The experimental time is from August 2018 - The experimental subjects: 40 students of 2303101 class batch th 12 who are studying the module "Cutting practice 1" were divided into experimental groups (20 students) and control groups (20 students) for experiments of mechanical engineering production and operation And 40 students of class 0103132 in batch 10th who are studying the module "Machine manufacturing technology project" were divided into experimental groups (20 students) and control group (20 students) for experiment of mechanical engineering design 4.2.2.2.Content, materials, teachers participate experimental measurement tools and experimental results a) The experiment of mechanical engineering production and 20 operation The experiment content: Teaching "Lesson 5: Tiện trụ bậc" in the module "Cutting practice 1" with the total time of 12 hours in September 5th and 12th, 2018, which is 1st year semester of school year 2018-2019 Tài liệu thực nghiệm: (1) Nhiệm vụ Tiện bán trục động xe máy Vespa 150 thiết kế, (2) Áp dụng chiến lược dạy học dựa vào nghiên cứu trường hợp, (3) Công cụ đánh giá kết học tập Materials: (1) The tasks of Tiện bán trục động xe máy Vespa 150 which has been designed, (2) Application of teaching strategies based on case studies, (3) Tools for evaluating experimental results Lecturers participating in the experiment: Lecturer who teaches in both experimental group and control group Outcomes measurement tools: Writing exam (5 points), Practical exam (5 points) b) The experiment of mechanical engineering design The experiment content: The experiment of module "Machine manufacturing technology project" (2 credits), which were conducted from August 14 to November 21, 2018 Materials: (1) Technical design tasks for the module "Machine manufacturing technology project", (2) Application of teaching strategies based on experiential learning projects, (3) Tools for evaluating learning outcomes Lecturers participating in the experiment: Lecturer who teach in both experimental group and control group Outcome measurement tools: oral exam (3 points), writen report (3 points), product (4 points) 4.2.2.3 Evaluating the learning process of students Professional knowledge Professional skills 21 Attitudes (Personal and social values) 4.2.3 Experimental pedagogical process 4.2.4 Research results and discussion 4.2.4.1 Mechanical engineering production and operation teaching The simultaneous use of three measures, including (1) tasks of mechanical engineering production and operation in the form of case studies, (2) teaching mechanical engineering production and operation based on case studies and, (3) assessing learning outcomes in teaching by learning by doing approach, positively affected student learning outcomes of “mechanical production and operation” 4.2.4.2 Mechanical engineering design teaching The simultaneous use of three measures, including (1) mechanical engineering design tasks in the form of experiential learning projects, (2) teaching mechanical engineering design based on experiential learning projects and (3) assessing learning outcomes in teaching by learning by doing approach, positively impacted student learning outcomes of “technical design” 4.2.4.3 The influence of mechanical engineering teaching measures on the learning process of students based on learning by doing approach The mechanical engineering teaching measures based on learning by doing approach have had a positive impact on the learning process of students Conclusion of chapter Evaluating research results by expert models confirmed that the mechanical engineering teaching measures in the universities by learning by doing approach are very necessary and feasible Experimental pedagogical results in two typical illustrative examples showed that (1) technical tasks in the form of case studies have 22 a substantial impact on the modules of mechanical engineering production and operation; (2) technical tasks in the form of experiential learning projects have a considerable influence on the modules of mechanical engineering design CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions This study summarized and developed the theoretical basis of mechanical engineering teaching by learning by doing model In particular, the concept of learning by doing in terms of theory was approached The model is a type of experiential learning that the learners directly participate in the lecture in a specific context The learning by doing model is the experiential learning model (especially the model of Kolb), but emphasizes the direct work of students The study built basic concepts such as (1) learning by doing, (2) mechanical engineering teaching, (3) mechanical engineering teaching by learning by doing model It also constructed a model of learning by doing in teaching mechanical engineering in the universities based on applying the experiential learning model of Kolb (1984) Since then, the nature, principles, characteristics of teaching and the factors that motivate students' motivation were clarified The study also affirmed that teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing approach is probably appropriate for the technical design, production and operation The real situation showed that, the lecturers rarely apply the model in mechanical engineering teaching although they are aware of its importance, because they lack the ideas and measures The lecturers have not yet clearly demonstrated the role of "benchmarker and evaluator" in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing approach Also, students hardly ever engage in the activities such as case studies, 23 experiential learning projects, real problems Technical tasks have not allowed students to directly and fully experience actual equipment, machinery and mechanical systems to detect the problems, brainstorm the solutions and verify by experiments Meanwhile, the teaching content has not encouraged creativity, teaching models have not aimed at the discovery of students and teaching strategies have not yet enhanced the students' experimentation Analyzing university training programs in mechanical engineering at Hanoi University of Industry showed that teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing approach is consistent with the objectives and content of technical design, production and operation of machinery and mechanical engineering systems Based on the theoretical and practical basis of the teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing to university students, this study developes three teaching measures, including: (1) Designing mechanical engineering tasks in teaching learning by doing approach In particular, the study clarified the meaning and process of designing two basic types of tasks: 1/ the task of mechanical engineering production and operation in the form of case studies; 2/ the tasks of mechanical engineering design in the form of experiential learning projects (2) Applying mechanical engineering teaching strategies by learning by doing model In particular, the study clarified the approach, the process of teaching organization in two teaching strategies: 1/ teaching mechanical engineering production and operation based on case studies; 2/ teaching mechanical engineering design based on experience learning project (3) Evaluating learning outcomes in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing approach In particular, the study clarified 24 the evaluation criteria, the process of developing assessment tools to help teachers easily apply them The opinion of 30 experts showed that the measures of teaching mechanical engineering in the universities based on learning by doing model are necessary and feasible The results of pedagogical experiment in "Lesson 5: Tiện trụ bậc" - module of Cutting practice and " Machine manufacturing technology project" at Hanoi University of Industry affirmed that the measures of teaching mechanical engineering in the universities based on learning by doing approach have a positive impact on results and learning process of students Recommendations 2.1 Universities providing mechanical engineering program The universities which are providing mechanical engineering programs may consider to redesign the specialized knowledge modules in the mechanical engineering training program towards integrating theory with practice, concepts with the real situation of engineering job (such as approaching CDIO) in order to facilitate the application of learning- by-doing model It is likely that the universities organize schedules and classes in a complex way which combines between theoretical lectures and working in laboratory/workshop, so that lecturers might apply experimental training model (laboratory training) in mechanical engineering teaching by learning by doing The universities probably enhance the relationships with companies to allow students to study by working at sites 2.2 Mechanical engineering lecturers It is necessary to actively research on teaching by learning by doing model, innovating the design of technical tasks, improving pedagogical skills by the applying mechanical engineering teaching 25 strategies by learning by doing model The lecturers also should perceive that they have a role of " benchmarker and evaluator" in teaching mechanical engineering by learning by doing model 2.3 Mechanical engineering students Students should be aware of the importance of practice and developing skills in technical design, machinery and mechanical system fabrication and operation in order to meet the job requirements They also should have responsibility for the technical tasks they are performing Besides that, it is crucial to actively seek information in order to solve technical tasks and gain experience 26 REFERENCES Vo Thi Nhu Uyen (2015), “The stragecy of learning by doing in technical teaching”, Journal of Science- Hanoi National University of Education, Vol.60, No.8D, pp.238-243 Vo Thi Nhu Uyen (2018), “Learning by doing: actual situation of mechanical engineering teaching for college students at vietnam”, Science Journal of Vocational Training Education, No.60 September 2018, pp.43-50 Vo Thi Nhu Uyen (2018), “Learning by doing: teaching mechanical engineering for college students”, Educational Equipment Magazine, No.179, Issue – October 2018, pp.41-43 Vo Thi Nhu Uyen, Nguyen Hoai Nam (2019), “Learning by Doing: An Empirical Study of Teaching Mechanical Engineering”, Proceedings of The First International Conference on Teacher Education Renovation - ICTER 2018, Thai Nguyen University Publishing House, pp.338-348 ... the setting up of evaluation techniques 3.4.3.1 Illustrating the settiing up of evaluation techniques for "Lesson 5: Tiện trụ bậc” – module Cutting practice 3.4.3.2 Illustrating the settiing... The studies of Nguyen Van Bay (2015), Nguyen Trong Khanh (2011), Vu Thi Lan (2014), Tran Tuyen (2014), Tran Cong Sang (2016), Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen (2018) and many other researchers all emphasize... Training Reviewer 3: Assoc Prof Dr Nguyen Trong Khanh Hanoi National University of Education Thesis will be presented before the school-level Thesis Committee at Thesis presentation room, the 2nd floor,
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